AP World History Chpt. 22 Vocab

Ibn Battuta
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Melaka
The first major center of Islam in Southeast Asia, a port kingdom on the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula.
Marco Polo
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
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Pope Innocent IV
a pope who suspected heretics and even tortured them to make them confess their beliefs.
qadi
an Islamic judge.
Ghazan
High of culture. 7th ruler of the Mongol Ilkanate
sharia
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed.
sufi missionaries
from 1000-1500, they ventured to recently conquered or converted lands and sought to win a popular following for the faith in India, SE Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa.
Christian missionaries
People sent by the Christians to convert people to Christianity. They also spread the idea of Christianity through schools.
John of Montecorvino
Catholic missionary in China. Translated New Testament into Turkish and built churches in China. No success in conversion.
compass
navigational instrument for finding directions.
sugarcane
tall tropical southeast Asian grass having stout fibrous jointed stalks.
gunpowder
The formula, brought to China in the 400s or 500s, was first used to make fumigators to keep away insect pests and evil spirits. In later centuries it was used to make explosives and grenades and to propel cannonballs, shot, and bullets.
bubonic plague
Also called the Black Death was a deadly disease that spread through Europe and killed one out of every three people.
“little ice age”
A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.
Caffa
A trade colony controlled by Italian merchants. Was the starting point of the back death in Europe: Attacking Mongols hurled their plague victims into the city, fleeing merchants brought the disease to the Rest of Europe.
Emperor Hongwu
founder of the ming dynasty
led rebellion against the yuan dynasty
demongolication campaign
Ming dynasty
A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia
Mandarins
members of the elite class of civil servents in Chinese government.
Yongle Encyclopedia
second Ming emperor tried to preserve chinese history and culture (his name, type of book)
Hundread years’ war
A war that lasted 100 years.
Fernando and Isabel
after marriage, become a very successful political and economic alliance for Spain. Complete reconquista, expand beyond the Iberian peninsula to Italy. Also funded Christopher Columbus’ trip to “China”
Louis XI
king of France who put down an alliance of unruly nobles and unified France except for Brittany (1423-1483)
Renaissance
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
Masaccio
The ranaissance artist who led the way in establishing a new style of employing deep space, modeling , and anatomical correctness.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa.
Donatello
Florentine sculptor famous for his lifelike sculptures (1386-1466)
Michelangelo
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Brunelleschi
Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance (1377-1446)
humanist
a classical scholar or student of the liberal arts.
Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe.
Petrarch
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Oration of the dignity of man
Pico della Mirandola’s book that portrays Plato’s opinion on the limits of our senses.
Zheng He’s Expedition
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
Prince Henry
Portuguese prince who started a school for sailors and sponsored early voyages of exploration.
Portuguese exploration
The explorations of Atlantic islands for fish, seals, whales, timber, and lands to plant wheat. The start of the sugar plantations in the Atlantic.
slave trade
The business of capturing, transporting, and selling people as slaves
B. Diaz
In 1485 became the first person to reach the cape of good hope at the southern tip of Africa.
V. da Gama
Went around the Cape of Good Hope and cut across the Indian ocean to get spices from India
Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)

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