AP world history Chpt 8

Confucianism
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
Junzi
a term created by Confucius to describe his ideal human. Often translated as “gentleman” or “superior person” the junzi literally means “ruler’s son”. Despite its literal meaning, any righteous man willing to improve himself can become a junzi.
Ren
The Confucian virtue of ____ (“benevolence” or “humaneness”) means that a person will always do what is right, regardless of the consequences.
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Li
A sense of propriety, something Confucius believed government officials should have.
Xiao
filial piety, the virtue of reverence and respect for family (CONFUCIANISM)
Dao
The proper way Chinese kings were expected to rule under the mandate of heaven.
Admonitions for Women
emphasized humility, obedience, subservience, and devotion to their husbands as well as the virtues most appropriate for women.
Daoism
Chinese School of Thought: Daoists believe that the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao, or ‘path’ of nature.
Legalism
strict conformity to the letter of the law rather than its spirit. Focused on harsh punishments for disobeying the law.
Wuwei
Non-action, the preferred Daoist path of least resistance, allowing things to run their natural course
Classic of Filial Piety
composed probably in the early Han dynasty, taught that children should obey and honor their parents as well as other superiors and political authorities.
Xiongnu
nomads who terrorized the border and were defeated by Wudi. Lived in the steppes or grasslands north of China. Were the biggest threat to security.
Sericulture
silk farming
Kong Fuzi
“Master Philosopher Kong” or Confucius; Came from aristocratic family in Lu in China, served as educator and political advisor, did not address philosophical questions because he thought they would not help solve current problems, tried to create junzi (suprerior individuals who took a broad view of public affairs and did not allow personal interest to cloud their judgment, need strong learning and sense of moral integrity to become a government official), emphasized ren (kindness), li (propriety), and xiao (filial piety)
Mencius
(371?-289 BCE), Chinese philosopher, who studied Confucianism. He later refined many of the ideas and spread them across China. Also known as Mengzi, or Meng-tzu.
Xunzi
Believed humans selfishly pursued their own interests, no matter what effects their actions had on others, resisted making any contribution voluntarily to the larger society. Legalist and confucian ideas.
Laozi
The “Old Master” who encouraged people to give up worldly desires in favor of nature; he founded Taoism (Daoism).
Zhuangzi
ca. 369-286 BCE. great teacher of Daoism after Laozi one of the main contributors in Daoism; used stories and humour to promote a philosophy of freedom from social constraints and conditioning that could lead one back to an original undistorted state of being
Shang Yang
one of the founders of Legalism; minister to the Duke of Qin
Ban Zhou
wrote “admonitions for women”
Han Feizi
A student of the Confucian scholar Xunzi, a systematic Legalist theorist. Served as an advisor at the Qin court, but fell to ambitious men who made him take poison.
Qin Shihuangdi
Ruler of China who united China for the first time. He built road and canals and began the Great Wall of China. He also imposed a standard system of laws, money, weights, and writing.
Liu Bang
helped overthrow Qin dynasty, 1st emperor of the Han dynasty, was born a peasant and worked way up to emperor
Han Wudi
The most important Han Emperor. Expanded the Empire in all directions. Created the Civil Service System. Established Public Schools.
Maodun
The most successful leader of the Xiongnu. He brought strict military discipline.
Wang Mang
interrupted Han rule for around 15 years to rule China; tried helping the poor by establishing granaries and land reform.

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