AP World History, Classical Civilizations

Classical Civilizations
Civilizations that has enduring influence over vast numbers of people.
Main Accomplishment of Zhou China
Expanded Chinese territory to include the Yangtse River valley, adding fertile rice growing area.
Main Accomplishments of Qin China
Chinese territory expanded as far as Northern Vietnam, construction of a defensive wall (not the Great Wall,) standardized coins, and common written language.
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Main Accomplishments of Han China
Strong governmental bureaucracy, Chinese territory in Indochina, Chinese civil service exams, Silk Road trade, paper and water mills.
Alexander the Great
From Macedonia and reached into India’s subcontinent as far as the Indus River where he set up a border state named Bactria.
Chandragupta
An autocratic ruler who founded the Mauryan dynasty in India.
Ashoka
Grandson of Chandragupta known for brutality of his conquests. Later relaxed his behavios and connected with the Silk Roads, sharing Buddhism.
Gupta India
Ruled by Hindus and enforced the caste system upon India, developing a less centralized government than the Mauryans and tolerating Buddhism.
Sati
Hindu practice of a widow throwing herself on her husband’s funeral pyre.
What did the practice of sati mean?
The custom was alleged to bestow honor and purity upon the widow
Main Accomplishments of Gupta India
Sterilization in surgery, knowledge of plastic surgery, and advances in astronomy.
Persia
A culture that lies relatively close to the Mediterranean that influences the region later in history.
Zoroastrianism
A Persian religion that held to a belief in a system of rewards and punishments in the afterlife.
Greece
A classical civilization whose origin traces to Indo-European peoples who migrated to the southern Greek Peninsula at 1700 BCE.
Phoenician Mariners
Seafaring people who migrated to the Aegean Sea and recorded a 22 letter alphabet representing consonants. This alphabet became the basis of the Greek alphabet.
Polis/City-State
Greek political organizations consisting of a city and surrounding countryside, both under the influence of one government.
Democracy
A form of government that originated in Athens in which the people rule.
Aristotle
A Greek philosopher who wrote on a variety of subjects in politics, arts, and the sciences. His major philosophies became a model of Greek thought.
Hellenistic Age
A period in Greek history during the rule of Alexander the Great.
Stoicism
Hellenistic philosophy that taught that men and women should use their powers of reason to lead virtuous lives.
Mystery Religions
A belief shared among many religions in which believers who truly follow their practices will be rewarded with a blissful life in the afterlife.
Pax Romana
Roman Peace.
Twelve Tables
Roman law.
These formed the basis of classical India
Vedic and Epic ages (cultural and social structures)
During Gupta rule, because of the strict divisions of the caste system, this practice was not widespread
Slavery
High-towered temples in honor of the Hindu gods; lavish wall paintings in caves dedicated to gods
Two accomplishments of the Gupta dynasty
Caves of Ajanta
Gupta-era paintings are found on the walls here
This period came to an end with the weakening and fall of Rome, Han China, and Gupta India to invaders
The classical period
T/F: The fall of the three great classical empires (Rome, Han China, and Gupta India) showed a number of similarities
True
Constantine converted to what religion?
Christianity
During Constantine’s time, the (western) (eastern) portion of the empire declined, while the (western) (eastern) thrived.
western, eastern
T/F: The eastern portion of the Roman empire did not fall at the same time as the western empire
True
T/F: The eastern portion of the Roman empire saw much more pressure from invaders than the western portion
False
By 476, the last Roman emperor was replaced by a Germanic ruler from the tribe of (fill in)
Visigoths
This Byzantine Emperor from 527 to 565 tried to capture portions of Rome’s lost territory, but it was in vain
Justinian
Heavy taxes on peasants;
Decline of interest in Confucian goals
Poor harvests
Population decline from disease
Some causes of the decline of the Han dynasty
Later emperors wanted a life of pleasure instead of ruling wisely
The influence of army generals
The recruitment of outsiders into the army
The vastness of the empire/hard to rule
Some causes of the decline of the Roman empire
Local princes became more powerful
Nomads drove into the central part of the country
The country fragmented into regional states
Some causes of the decline of Gupta India
Indus
River in India
Yellow
River in China
Sacred texts of Hinduism
Vedas and Upanishads

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