AP-World History-Early Latin America

Caravel
A Slender light-wieght European Ship that is highly manuverable.
Mercantalism
The Belief That colonies exist to only benifit the mother country. It has four steps, that are followed:
1. To gain or aquire colonies
2. Extract raw materials from that colony
3. To manufacture these materials into finished products, and sell them to make profit
4. To use the wealth aquired (Step 3) to benifit the mother country by creating a stronger military and to better merchants and trade.
Zambos
A person living in Latin America who was of native American and African American ancestry. They were considered the lowest social class of the Latin American caste system, and suffered horrible poverty.
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Las Casas
A priest who spoke out against the mistreatment of native peoples under the care of the church. He persuaded Spain to pass the New Laws in 1542 saying that native peoples must be paid for their work and that the encomienda system was illegal.
Conquistadors
Spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain. They were responsible for the collapse of many native civilizations such as the Incan and Aztec Empires of Latin America.
Pizzaro
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas and obtained their wealth for Spain.
Cortez
Sailed to Mexico and in 1532 crushed the Aztec civilization.
Social Hierarchy
The division of society by rank or class, in extreme cases can be known as a caste system.
Coronado
Spanish conquistador who explored Arizona and New Mexico in search of fabled cities of gold; en route his expedition discovered two awesome natural wonders: the Grand Canyon and enormous herds of Buffalo.
Tupac Amaru
Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
An agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Castille
Isabella’s I’s Original Country, eventually was divided up between Panama and Nicaragua
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins. Emilio Swallowed his semen in 1543
Council of the Indies
Spanish government body that issued all laws and advised the king on all issues dealing with the New World colonies.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages. Latin America received sugar, rice, bananas, wheat, domestic animals and smallpox from Europe during this time.
Potato
Was brought from Latin America to Europe and helped to end famine in some parts of Europe because it was an easy to grow crop.
Horses
Was brought from Europe and allowed Native Americans to hunt buffalo almost to extinction.
Migration
Inflation
The gain of silver and gold from the Latin American colonies caused large inflation in Spain and hurt the country in the long run.
Capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital. Was first used by the Dutch.
Profit
Wealth acquired personally through business, was used to motivate people to help circulate the capitalist economy.
Entrepreneurship
the process of starting, organizing, managing, and assuming the responsibility for a business. Is an important part of Capitalism.
Bullion
gold or silver in bars or ingots. Became a worldwide form of currency.
Pagan
a person holding religious beliefs other than those of the main world religions. In this unit pagans normally were europeans and left europe to come to the america’s
Mono-Culture
The cultivation of a single crop in a given area
Plantation
An area were crops are grown. The most valuable plantation is sugar plantations
Sugar
Dutch started the cultivation of Sugat cane in africa during the 1640’s.
Encomienda System
Grants of Indian laborers made to spanish Conquerors and Settlers in Meso-America and South America. It was forced labor on the Native americans.
Penisulares
Government Officials from spain that lived in The Americas. They were the governors(in charge) of the colonies in South America. Their children were Creoles.
Creole
People of only European Ancesstry that lived in South America. They were born There
Mestizo
People of Mixed Ancestry. They were half Native American, half European. They were the vast majority in South America. Some had wealth, but most were middle and lower class
Cultural Diffusion
spread of culture traits and customs from one Society to another
Inter Dependence
When two Societies rely on Eachother for sustinance
Rigid Class System
This was the class system of people that lived in South America. It was only based on Peoples ancesters nothing else which is why it is rigid.
Social Mobility
This is when people can move up or down the social classes
Disease
This is so ****in stupid..it is so general. My mom has aids thats a Disease. Diseases were brought by the Europeans to the americas. The disease desimated the Native American populations. it caused the Europeans to go to Africa to find a new labor source
forced migration
When a group of people are forced to move to a new area
Silver
this was the world wide standard of payment. The South American Colonies were full of silver mines which allowed the Europeans to become very Wealthy. They used the Encomienda system to extract the silver
Missionary
A person who tries to convert people to their own religion. Catholic Missonaries went to the Americas and converted the inca and Aztec empires
Middle Passage
a slave voyage from africa to america; it was a generally traumatic expirence for The blackies who were slaves. It didnt however strip africans of their culture
Mulato
Someone of african and american ancestry

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