AP World History Enlightenment

AP World History Enlightenment

95 Theses
Issued by Martin Luther A German Priest, in which 95 debate points on the abuse of the church were written on a document and Luther bailed the document to the door of the church in Wittenberg
Indulgences
Believed to remove a sins penalties
Huguenots
Protestant Minority. French Society was torn between then and the Catholics.
Thirty Years War
1618-1648 very destructive began in the Holy Roman Empire grew to include the whole of Europe, it was a Catholic and Protestant was ended by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
Jesuits
Known for being highly educated, these men had the secular knowledge of Europe such as technology, science, geography, mapmaking, these missionaries went to China to initially convert the Chinese but eventually learned and got familiar with the Chinese culture.
Sufis
Muslim mystical order, known for putting on the wool holy garment of Islam and devoting themselves to pure Islam. They practiced the mystical belief and practice of seeking the truth of divine knowledge and love by having personal experiences with God.
Abd al-Wahhab
Known for his movement to eliminate deviations of the Islamic religion and to bring back the purer version of Islamic Scholar from 1703-1792.
Wang Yangming
1472-1529 an influential thinker that argued that intuitive moral knowledge exists in all people.
Bhakti
Known as a form of devotion in Hinduism, this was through prayers, dance, songs, poetry and rituals The purpose is to achieve union with Hindu deities.
Sikhism
Blend of Islam and Hinduism became a new religious tradition in north region of India known as Punjab. It was based on the elements of both religious combined creating a brotherhood for all humans along with the equality of women and men.
Madrassas
Formal collages in Islam with advanced teachings of the Quran , Muhammad’s saying at times some philosophy medicine, rhetoric, theology, mathematics and mostly love.
Copernicus
Known as polish mathematician/ astronomer from 1473-1543. Known for his theory on the heliocentric cosmos, sun as the center of the solar system earth and planets revolve around sun.
Newton
English natural scientist from 1643-1727 , known for the laws of motion, calculus, inertia concepts and for culminating the Scientific Revolution.
European Enlightenment
Belief in power of knowledge to transform society it was a movement of intellectual, philosophy , and social. Come forth with new ideas and attacks on traditional beliefs.
Voltaire
Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) 1694-1778 and was a French philosopher and writer he questioned religious and traditional values and attitudes in his treatise of toleration. Believed in Deism which was belief in a abstract remote deity that he compared to clockwork maker of the world not a personal God. Well known for many of his plays, philosophical works and poetry. Believer of Deism the religion that belief in God Was a basis of nature and reason, Oedipus a dramatic series of tragedy was one of Voltaire’s greatest plays. His witty and satirical attack on the catholic church and its religious intolerance was written in his Treatise on toleration. (Farmed enlightenment)
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer, intellectual and women rights activist. In her work The vindication of the rights of women, she voiced that men and women should be educated equally. Wollstonecraft was a great political thinker who started a feminist movement, encouraging women to get educated. In addition, along with her sister Eliza Mary opened up school in 1784 for girls in Newington Green.
Montesquieu
French lawyer and political philosopher. Known as prominent enlightenment thinker for his political and philosopical works. Persian letters(viewpoint of French lives through Persian visitors eyes. The spirit of laws. Voiced the importance of seperation of powers and how a gov. should worl. Believed in democracy
John Locke
English philosopher. Contributed to the education, medicine, theology physics and economics. Versed in metaphyics and epistemology. Essay concerning Human understanding . Father of liberalism. Pursuit of life, libetry, estate as the theory of gov. His political philsophy even helped to shape the American constitution
Thomas Hobbes
English scientist, historian, philosopher known for political philosophy. Leviathan a political work stated his vuews that humans were selfish creatires while arguing absolutism. Social contract theory voiced his belief that mens nature should not require a governing state. Human psyche and nature were values in his writing
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Swiss writer, political theroist . Book- Emilie voiced his thoughts on edicatipn. 3 stages of childs character and moral were important. Also known for compossing music and his operas. The philosophical writers autobiograohy confessionals helped to start modern autubiograhies