AP World History Final Exam Study Guide

AP World History Final Exam Study Guide

Dates
Tang Dynasty
618-690 & 705-907
Han Dynasty
202 B.C.E.- 400 years later
Qin Dynasty
221 B.C.E. – 207 B.C.E.
Ming Dynasty
1368-1644
Mongol Conquest of China
Japanese Conquest of Manchuria
August 8th 1931-February 27th 1932
Olmec Civilization
1400- 400 B.C.E.
Aztec Civilization
Norman Invasion
1066
War of Roses
1455-1485
Battle of Britain
July 10th 1940 – Octobe 31 1940
Fall of Constantinople
April 6th 1453 – May 29th 1453
Battle of Tours
October 10 732 AD
30 years war
1618-1648
Magna Carta
June 15th 1215
King Louis XIV`
Birth/Death: September 5th 1638 – September 1 1715
Rule: 1643 – 1715
Charlemagne
Birth/Death: April 2 747 – January 28th 814
Rule: King of Franks 768-814, King of Lombards 774-814, First Emperor of Romans 800-814
King Henry VIII
Birth/Death: June 28 1491 – January 28th 1547
Rule: April 21 1509 – January 28th 1547
Napoleonic Code
March 21st 1804
Justinian Code
529-565 A.D.
Treaty of Versailles
June 28 1919
Russian Revolution
March 8 1917
(Don’t know if this is accurate)
French Revolution
1789-1799
Chinese Revolution
October 10th 1911 – February 12th 1912
Vocabulary
Neolithic Revolution
The succession of technological innovations and changes in human organization that led to the development of agriculture 8500- 3500 B.C.
Daoism
A chinese philosophy based on the writings of Lao-tzu advocating humility and religious piety.
Confucianism
a system of philosophical and ethical teachings founded by Confucius and developed by Mencius
Hinduism
a major religious and cultural tradition of South Asia developed from Verdic religion
Buddhism
a religion of Eastern and Central Asia growing out of teachings of Gautama Buddha that suffering in life and that one can be liberated from it by mental and moral self purification
12 Tables
earliest code of Roman civil, criminal, and religious law 451-450 B.C
Justinian Code
the body of Roman law that was codified and promulgated under Justinian
Islam 5 Pillars of Faith
Framework of Muslim life, testimony of faith, prayer, support of the needy, fasting during the month of Ramadan and pilgrimage to Makkah once in lifetime for those who are able.
Bedouins
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
Seljuk Turks
nomadic invaders from central asia via persia; staunch sunnis ruled in name of abbasid caliphs from mid 11th century
Ottoman Empire
A dynasty established beginning in the 13th century by Turkish peoples from central asia. though most of their empire’s early territory was in Asia minor, the Ottomans eventually captured Constantinople and made it the capital of an empire that spanned three continents and lasted over 600 years
Sati
the practiced followed by small minorities usually upper caste of Indians of burning windows on the funeral pyres of their deceased husbands.
Ethiopia Christian Kingdom
Songhay
successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali. R. 1464-1492
griots
professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the mali empire.
icon
artistic representation usually a religious figure
relic
an object surviving an earlier time or a part of a deceased holy person’s body or belongings kept as an object of reverence
Magna Carta
great charter issued by king john of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchical claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy
feudalism
the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord’s land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.
manorialism
the name for the organization of the economy in the Middle Ages. describes how land was distributed and who profited from the land.
flying money
paper currency of the Tang dynasty in China and can be considered the first banknote.
seppuku
ritual suicide by self-disembowelment on a sword; practiced by samurai in the traditional Japanese society.
samurai
a member of a powerful military caste in feudal Japan, especially a member of the class of military retainers of the daimyos.
ethnocentrism
evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one’s own culture.
humanism
an outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters. Humanist beliefs stress the potential value and goodness of human beings, emphasize common human needs, and seek solely rational ways of solving human problems.
calvinism
the Protestant theological system of John Calvin and his successors, which develops Luther’s doctrine of justification by faith alone and emphasizes the grace of God and the doctrine of predestination.
7 years war
fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas between 1756-1763; resulted in Prussia seizures of land from Australia, English seizures of colonies in India and North America
encomiendas
Grant of Indians laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in mesoamerica and south america
peninsulares
people living in the New World Spanish colonies but born in spain
mestizos
people mixed European and Indian ancestry in mesoamerica and south america; particularly prevalent in areas colonized by Spain often part of forced labor systems.
janissaries
ottoman infantry divisions that dominated ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans; legally slaves; translated military service into political influence particularly after 15th century.
triangular trade
commerce linking Africa; New world colonies and Europe; slaves carried to America for sugar and tobacco transported to Europe.
columbian exchange
a period of cultural and biological exchanges between the New and Old Wars. Exchange of plants and animals and diseases and technology transformed European and Native American ways to life
indies piece
term used within the complex exchange system by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave
Manchus
a member of a people originally living in manchuria who formed the last imperial dynasty of China (1644-1912)
sepoys
troops that served the British East India Company; recruited mainly from various warlike peoples in India
gauchos
a cowboy of the south america pampas
Opium War
fought between the British and Qing China begining in 1839; fought to protect British trade in opium; resulted in British victory; opening for Hong Kong as British port of trade.
Taiping Rebellion
Broke out in South China in the 1850’s and early 1860’s; led by Hong Xiuguah; a semi Christianized prophet; sought to overthrow Qing Dynasty and Confucian basis of scholar gentry
Bolsheviks
Literally the majoirty party; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by V.I. Lenin and dedicated to his concept of social revolution;
Zaibatsu
huge industrial combines created in Japan in the 1890’s as part of the processes of industrialization
Treaty of Versailes
Peace treaty at the end of World War I; it ended the state war between Germany and the Allied powers. it was signed on June 28th 1919; exactly 5 years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
League of Nations
international diplomatic and peace organization created in the treaty of versailles that ended world war I; one of the chief goals of President woodrow wilson of the us in the peace negotiations; the US was never a member
totalitarian states
a new kind of government in the 20th century that exercised massive direct control over virtually all the activities of its subject; existed in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union
Asian economic tigers
the four asian tigers or four asain dragons is a term used in refrence to the highly free market and developed economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.
Satyagraha
“truth force”; strategy of nonviolent protest developed by mohandas Gandhi and his followers of India; later deployed throughout the colonized world and us.
zionism
movement originating in eastern europe during the 1860’s and 70’s whose leaders argued that the Jews must return to a middle Eastern holy land; eventually identified with settlement of palestine.
Great Leap Forward
Economic policy of Mao Zedong introduced in 1958; proposed industrialization of small scale projects integrated into peasant communities led to economic disaster ended in 1960
Cultural Revolution
movement initiated in 1965 by Mao Zedong to restore his dominance over pragmatists; used mob to ridicule Mao’s political rivals; campaign was called off in 1968
People
Zheng He
A muslim from western china who improved compass and excellent maps and huge vessels that were good for trade. He commanded series of Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea trade expeditions under 3rd ming emperor Yunglo between 1405 and 1433
Euclid
produced what was long the world’s greatest widely used compendium of geometry
Pericles
An Athenian political leader in the 5th century who was also an aristocrat but part of a democratic political structure. Ruled through wise influence and negotiation and not through official position and helped restrain some of the more aggressive views of the Athenian democrats and couldn’t prevent the next war.