AP World History First Semester

Australopithecus
definition: genus of human ancestors that lived in Africa, now extinct

significance: earliest human ancestor, provides insight into early human development

Homo Erectus
definition: human ancestor that had upright skeletons, stronger builds than the Australopithecus, but smaller brains then H. Sapiens

significance: larger brain allowed for more movement, along with more successful living

Homo Sapeins
definition: current humans, larger brains allowed for more success than the H. Erectus

significance: developed modern tools and systems that are still used today

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Paleolithic Age
definition: “old stone age,” beginning of stone tools for convince, associated with foraging culture

significance: tools made with stone allowed for easier life and displayed early human ingenuity.

Hunting/Gathering Culture
definition: “foraging,” groups follow game and plant in order to survive

significance: early survival tactics used to survive along with other tools

Cro-Magnon
definition: early modern humans (h. sapiens sapiens) found in the Old World

significance: modern human, similar values to modern day humans

Venus Figurines
definition: figures of women with enhanced sexual characteristics, thought to promote fertility

significance: showed that early humans were capable of religion, deep thought, self-reflection

Sympathetic Magic
definition: cave paintings left by Cro-Magnons

significance: showed structured religion, belief system, similar significance to Venus Figurines

Neolithic
definition: “new stone age” characterized by polished tools and the agricultural transition

significance: led to agriculture and permanent settlement

Agricultural Transition
definition: period of centuries in which humans transitioned from hunter/gathering culture to neolithic agriculture

significance: led humans onto a different route, allowed more humans to survive

Metallurgy
definition: metalworking, manipulation of metals into tools or jewelry

significance: allowed more useful tools for agriculture and was a specialization made possible by the agricultural transition

Venus Figurines
definition: figures of women with enhanced sexual characteristics, thought to promote fertility

significance: showed that early humans were capable of religion, deep thought, self-reflection

Gilgamesh
definition: a legendary Sumerian king who was the hero of an epic collection of mythic stories, reigned around 5700BCE

significance: king of Uruk, led many changes in the reigon

Sargon of Akkad
definition: a conqueror from Akkad, north of Sumer, who conquered all of Mesopotamia to create the first empire

significance: created the first empire and forced many city-states to subject

Hammurabi
definition: Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia

significance: Created the first code or laws for his land

Nebuchadnezzar
definition: a Babylonian king who conquered Jerusalem and sent Jews into exile

significance: cause of the “babylonian captivity,” overtook several empires

King David
definition: leaded and unified Israel

significance: unified Israel, created an empire similar to Sargon

King Solomon
definition: Son of King David, established Jerusalem

significance: established Jerusalem, now a holy site for many religions

Moses
definition: prophet who preached about Yahweh

significance: led a cultural transformation, broke off from Mesopotamian ideas

Epic of Gilgamesh
definition: collection of works glorifying Gilgamesh

significance: showed how contemporaries thought of Gilgamesh, many thought of him as a god or god-like

Mesopotamia
definition: site of the first empire, located between the Tigris and Euphrates

significance: first civilization, location of the invention of many ideas and technologies used today

Sumer
definition: southern Mesopotamia, also known as Sumeria

significance: the invention of city-states was exemplified here

Tigris
definition: a river in southwestern Asia; begins in eastern Turkey and joins the Euphrates river, border of the Mesopotamian society

significance: provided water to Mesopotamia

Euphrates
definition: a river that begins in Turkey, flows through Syria and Iraq, and empties into the Persian Gulf, border of the Mesopotamian society.

significance: provided water to Mesopotamia

Akkad
definition: northern Mesopotamian city state, where Sargon led his army to create the first empire

significance: starting point of Mesopotamia

Hammurabi’s Code
definition: set of laws set forth my Hammurabi

significance: first laws formally set forth

Lex talionis
definition: law of retaliation “an eye for an eye”

significance: created a punishment similar to today, “the punishment fits the crime”

Assyrians
definition: a group of people to take over the Fertile Crescent

significance: a violent group that took over much land

New Babylonia
definition: new Babylonian empire after much turmoil

significance: leaders in this periods were selectd beacause of their merit

Bronze
definition: an alloy of copper and tin

significance: led to stronger tools and weapons, a major advancement in metallurgy

Iron
definition: an alloy made of iron and copper

significance: led to cheaper and even stronger tools and weapons over bronze, another advancement in metallurgy

Patriarchy
definition: a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line

significance: led to males having many significant roles in the government and household

Cuneiform
definition: an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia

significance: a standardized writing system that lead to advances in technology, math, and science

Hebrews
definition: one of the first groups of people to believe in one God

significance: led a change in culture, broke away from Mesopotamian beliefs

Palestine
definition: former name of the area that today includes Israel

significance: is now a holy site, demonstrates the violent struggle for power in the era

Israel
definition: northern part of the Palestine empire

significance: result of turmoil in the region

Judea
definition: southern part of the Palestine empire

significance: result of turmoil in the reigon

Ten Commandments
definition: list of rules made by Yehwah, presented by Moses

significance: structured rule to life, similar to Hammurabi’s Code

Torah
definition: book of scriptures made by Jewish prophets

significance: book of religion for the Jews

Phoenicians
definition: sailing and trading people who had many colonies on the Mediterranean coast

significance: best boating technology, went to far off distances to get materials

Indo-Europeans
definition: group of languages that extends from southern Asia to the Iberian Peninsula

significance: demonstrates movement patterns throughout history

Hittites
definition: peoples from Anatolia (modern day Turkey)

significance: Made advancements in technology and metallurgy

India
definition: modern day country, land of the Aryans, Dravidians, and Harappan Society

significance: center of trade, religious development, and technology

Aryans
definition: Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC

significance: influenced Indian beliefs and language greatly

Dravidians
definition: a settled, well-organized people who built cities in India

significance: formed cities and governments in India

Harappan Society
definition: first Indian civilization

significance: made technological inventions such as sewage

Indus River
definition: river near pakistan that creates a fertile plain (Indus River Valley)

significance: formed fertile areas for agriculture and encouraged growth

Harappa
definition: large ancient city of the Indus civilization, created in present-day Pakistan
Mohenjo-Daro
definition: early Indian settlement, laid out in a grid pattern with irrigation and sewage

significance: structured layout and modernly-used inventions

Sanskrit
definition: sacred language by the Vedas in India, mainly for religion

significance: shows distinctions made with every day life and religion

Prakrit
definition: ordinary language used in India, but still formal enough for writing

significance: shows distinctions made with every day life and religion

Vedas
definition: Sanskrit writings, earliest known of Hinduism

significance: showed self-thought and philosophical ideas

Rig Veda
definition: first Vedas scripture, deals with spirituality, science, etc

significance: laid out the principles for thought and development in India

Raja
definition: title given to an Indian prince or king

significance: demonstrates a government

Punjab
definition: area between Indus and Ganges river

significance: where the Aryan’s first conquered

Ganges River
definition: important river in India, supplied water

significance: allowed for development of agriculture and cities in India

Caste
definition: Hindu social rank based on wealth and profession

significance: social distinctions made by settling down due to agriculture

Varna
definition: class of which a person was placed into according to Hindu law at birth

significance: social distinctions made possible by settling down and religion

Brahmans
definition: first level of Varna, priest class of Indian society

significance: social distinctions made possible by settling down and religion

Kshatriyas
definition: second level of Varna, warrior class of Indian society

significance: social distinctions made possible by settling down and religion

Vaishyas
definition: third level of Varna, merchant class of Indian society

significance: social distinctions made possible by settling down and religion

Shudras
definition: fourth level of Varna, servant class of Indian society

significance: social distinctions made possible by settling down and religion

Jati
definition: sub Varna, groups for economic development

significance: social distinctions made possible by settling down and religion

Patriarchy
definition: a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line

significance: led to males having many significant roles in the government and household

Lawbook of Manu
definition: guidelines formed based on Hindu beliefs

significance: set of laws to bring order, first ones to be based on religion

Sati
definition: ritual requiring women to commit suicide at their husband’s funeral

significance: showed belief in afterlife

Varuna
definition: god thought to view people from the heavens, also god of the sky and creation

significance: mixing of the Aryan and Indian cultures

Soma
definition: the body, according to tradition

significance: demonstrates religion and self-thought about origins

Upanishads
definition: group of peoples that contributed to older Vedas

significance: theological advancement

Brahman
definition: the Universal spirit of which we are all made

significance: demonstrates thought and questions in after-life and creation

Samsara
definition: idea of reincarnation back into suffering

significance: demonstrates thought and questions in after-life and creation

Karma
definition: idea that a person’s actions determined their incarnation

significance: demonstrates thought and questions in after-life and creation

Moksha
definition: idea that a person can break Samsara to join Brahman

significance: demonstrates thought and questions in after-life and creation

Land Bridges
definition: exposed land masses that appeared when most of the world was covered in ice, used as passages to new lands

significance: allowed migration to other areas of the world

Olmecs
definition: earliest known Mexican civilization, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples

significance: first civilization of the area, influenced other civilizations in the region

Maya
definition: civilization in Guatemala and the Yucatán Peninsula, about A.D. 250 to 900

significance: advanced society that led to many technological inventions

Tikal
definition: largest ancient Mayan city in Guatemala

significance: demonstrates abilities of Mayan engineering

Chichén Itzá
definition: Mayan kingdom that attempted to bring political stability to the region by forcing other city states to subject to its power and rule

significance: attempt to create a unified empire, like Sargon

Popol Vuh
definition: Mayan creation epic, taught that god created humans out of maize and water

significance: explanation for most of their sacrificial and gory rituals

Ball game
definition: team sport in Mesoamerica, losers were sacrificed to the gods

significance: demonstrated the need for sacrifices in Mayan society

Teotihuacan
definition: a powerful city-state in central Mexico, with over 150000 inhabitants at its peak

significance: powerful city with much attraction, may have led to Mayan downfall

Chavín
definition: a culture that thrived in the Andean region from about 900 B.C. to 200 B.C.

significance: first culture in the Andes

Mochica
definition: Andean society with much technology but no writing, known for their detailed works of art

significance: a major culture in the Andes that influenced the Incas.

Austronesians
definition: people who began to explore and settle islands of the Pacific Ocean basin

significance: led to the transfer of technologies from the mainland to smaller islands (like agriculture, etc)

Lapita
definition: Austronesian population that emerged from Taiwan

significance: demonstrated migration patterns

Sima Qian
definition: Chinese astronomer, scholar, historian, wrote historical records for China

significance: wrote some of the most important historical records of early China

Confucius
definition: political and ethical philosopher from China

significance: very influential philosopher, his ideas and sayings are still used today

Mencius
definition: Confucius’s greatest disciple, wrote Analects

significance: recorded Confucius’s ideas

Xunzi
definition: Confucian follower, suggested humans are lazy and required a totalitarian government to make them good

significance: advocate of Leagalism, mesh of leaglism and confucianism

Laozi
definition: wrote the philosophical ideas of Taosim, advocated humility and piety

significance: An important idea that influence China

Shang Yang
definition: founder of legalism, idea that proposed government and expanding borders over everything else

significance: An important idea that influence China

Han Feizi
definition: advocate of strict legalism

significance: An important idea that influence China

Qin Shi Huang
definition: unified China, major engineering projects such as canals and roads, standardized measurements and money

significance: unified China

Liu Bang
definition: Overthrew Qin dynasty, first emperor of Han dynasty

significance: founder of a new dynasty

Han Wudi
definition: most prominent and important Han dynasty empire, created public school system

significance: public school idea still used today

Wang Mang
definition: Confucian scholar, overthrew Liu family to create Xin Dynasty, tried to help the poor and implement land reforms

significance: called a “socialist” emperor, one of the first “socialist” leaders

Confucianism
definition: the teachings of Confucius, emphasized kindness and love

significance: collection of teachings of Confucius, still used today, impact throughout history

Ren
definition: Confucian virtue of benevolence, stating that a person will make the correct choice regardless of outcome

significance: collection of teachings of Confucius, still used today, impact throughout history

Li
definition: Confucian virtue of reverence

significance: collection of teachings of Confucius, still used today, impact throughout history

Xiao
definition: Confucian idea that one should respect parents and ancestors above all others

significance: idea used in modern religions in Asia

Daoism
definition: philosophy based from works from Laozi, that one should be pious and humble

significance: demonstrates ideas made years ago are still used today

Wu Wei
definition: idea that we should know what to do and when

significance: demonstrates ideas made years ago are still used today

Legalism
definition: idea that proposed government and expanding borders over everything else

significance: idea led to Chinese development and influence

Qin Dynasty
definition: first Dynasty, built Great Wall, unified China, established standards, constructed canals and roads

significance: first Chinese empire

Han Dynasty
definition: Dynasty that increased its power and borders, second to the Qin Dynasty

significance: brought more land and power to China

Xiongnu
definition: confederation of nomadic tribes in Central Asia

significance: threatened China, in response China created the Great Wall of China

Sericulture
definition: production of raw silk by raising silkworms

significance: form of domestication

Yellow Turban Uprising
definition: revolt in China over land management disputes in second-century CE

significance: led to the downfall of the Xin Dynasty

Chandragupta Maurya
definition: founded India’s first empire, was an Indian prince who conquered a large area in the Ganges River valley soon after Alexander invaded western India

significance: founder of India’s first empire

Kautalya
definition: Advisor of Chandragupta who wrote ancient political handbook known as the Arthashastra, a manual offering detailed instructions on the uses of power and the principles of government

significance: wrote ancient political handbooks, aided future governing empires

Ashoka
definition: grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire

significance: spread Buddhism, an influential religion

Kanishka
definition: one of the greatest leaders of the Kushan Empire in India

significance: creation of arts and philosophy made possible by Kanishka

Chandra Gupta
definition: the founder and ruler of the Gupta Empire

significance: led to the golden age of India

Vardhamana Mahavira
definition: Indian ascetic philosopher and the principal founder of Jainism

significance: created Jainism, an influence for Buddhism and Hinduism

Siddhartha Gautama
definition: founder of Buddhism; born a prince; left his father’s wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha

significance: created Buddhism, an influence for Hinduism and India culture

Kingdom of Magadha
definition: located in the central portion of the Ganges plain, most important state in northeastern India during the Mauryan dynasty

significance: led to the Gupta dynasty

Maurya Empire
definition: Indian empire founded by Chandragupta, beginning with his kingdom in northeastern India and spreading to most of northern and central India

significance: unified the Indian subcontinent

Bactria
definition: in Northwestern India, and ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexander’s campaigns, modern day Afghanistan

significance: influenced Indian culture and development

Kushan Empire
definition: located in Northern India/Central Asia, maintained Silk Road

significance: one of the first emerging territories from Bactria

Gupta Dynasty
definition: ruling family in India during its golden age, responsible for many achievements in math and science

significance: made many achievements in science and math, golden age of India

White Huns
definition: nomadic invaders from central Asia; invaded India; disrupted Gupta administration

significance: led to the downfall of the Gupta administration

Caste
definition: a social class separated from others by distinctions of hereditary rank or profession or wealth

significance: pivotal point in the development of Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism

Jainism
definition: a religion that branched off from Hinduism and was founded by Mahavira; its belief is that everything has a soul, and its purpose was to cleanse the soul, some were extreme aesthetics

significance: a religion that influenced both Buddhism and later Hinduism

Buddhism
definition: a world religion or philosophy based on the teaching of the Buddha and holding that a state of enlightenment can be attained by suppressing worldly desire

significance: one of the foundations for Hinduism, an influential religion that still exists today

Nalanda
definition: a famous Buddhist university and monastary located in the eastern Ganges Valley

significance: helped in the spread of Buddhism through Asia, one of the first formalized instruction centers

Hinduism
definition: a religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms

significance: influential and popular religion of classical India

Homer
definition: ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written down the Iliad and the Odyssey

significance: Great Greek poet who is still read today

Solon
definition: Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt

significance: great leader of Athens, prevented rebellion

Perciles
definition: led rebuilding of Athens for more than 30 years from 461BCE to 429BCE

significance: Leader of the Peloponessian war

Philip of Macedon
definition: father of Alexander of Macedon, unified the warring Greek city-states

significance: unified Greece

Alexander of Macedon
definition: also known as Alexander the Great, by 331 BCE, controlled Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia; invaded Persian homeland and burned Persepolis; crossed the Indus by 327

significance: Created Bactria which influenced India, helped diffuse Greek ideas

Sappho
definition: Greek poet who wrote about human emotions, lived on island of Lesbos

significance: Classic example on the male dominance in Greece

Socrates
definition: philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method

significance: influence to Plato, and as a result, Aristotle

Plato
definition: considered the greatest philosopher, student of Socrates, known for his Ideas theory

significance: influence to Aristotle

Artistotle
definition: prominent Greek philosopher, noted for his philosophically based thoughts of “science”

significance: his ideas were used in the Catholic Church for years by Thomas Aquinas

Euripides
definition: writer of several tragedies involving war and its misery

significance: greek playwright

Aristophanes
definition: an ancient Greek dramatist remembered for his comedies

significance: greek playwright

Minoan society
definition: society that inhabited Crete, created an undeciphered script, fell to invaders around 1100 BCE

significance: beginnings of Greece, its fall led to poleis

Knossos
definition: prominent ancient town on Crete where Bronze Age culture flourished from about 2000 BC to 1400 BCE

significance: “capital” of Minoan society

Linear A
definition: an undeciphered writing system used in Crete in the 17th century BCE

significance: showed the intuitive ability of the early Indo-Eurpoeans

Mycenaean society
definition: Greek civilization created by Indo- Europeans that lasted from 1600- 1100 BCE, during which large palaces were made, wars fought, trade established; earthquakes and invaders caused it to finally collapse

significance: beginnings of Greece, its fall led to the poleis

Linear B
definition: the modern name for the script, composed of signs and pictures, in which Mycenaean Greeks kept records on tablets of clay

significance: shows influence of the Minoans and also demonstrates how society changed through time

Trojan War
definition: war (around 1200 B.C.), in which an army lead by Mycenaean kings attacked the city of Troy in Anatolia (trojan horse!)

significance: part of the epic the Illiad, led to the fall of the Myceanean Society

Polis
definition: general Greek city-state, including the city and the land around it

significance: brought about Sparta and Athens, two influential and powerful city-states

Sparta
definition: Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts

significance: encourage a powerful army that influenced Greece

Athens
definition: powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture

significance: encouraged a flexible government that influenced Greece and the world

Persian War
definition: conflict between Persia and Greece; Persia wanted to punish Athens for helping another city-state

significance: Led to the Delian league and the fall of Athens

Delian League
definition: alliance of city-states with Athens as leader, made to keep fighting Persia

significance: led to the fall of Athens

Peloponnesian War
definition: a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta

significance: led to the fall of Athens, and in the end, Sparta

Macedon
definition: ancient kingdom of Philip II and Alexander of Macedon in the southeastern Balkans

significance: origin of Philip of Macedon and Alexander the Great

Hellenistic Age
definition: period between the death of Alexander the Great (323 BCE) and the conquest of Egypt by Rome (30 BCE), marked by migrations to the newly conquered areas
Antigonid empire
definition: the area of Macedon and Greece, the smallest of the Hellenistic empires; cities such as Athens and Corinth flourished during the Hellenistic age and cities were overpopulated

significance: center of Greece, most influential

Ptolemaic empire
definition: The empire in the Egyptian area after the breakup of Alexander’s empire

significance: had the Megalopolis of Alexandria, many ports, helped trade

Seleucid empire
definition: the largest kingdom that came of the division of Alexander’s empire

significance: helped diffuse Greek culture and ideas

Olympic games
definition: one of the panhellenic rituals observed by all Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations

significance: helped unify the many poleis

Forms or Ideas
definition: term used by Plato to refer to traits in physical objects, ex: manly, beauty, etc.

significance: part of the deviation from Socrates

Cult of Dionysus
definition: cult based on Dionysus, had many rituals involving orgies and drinking, later transitioned to a more civilized cult

significance: one of the cults that emerged with the Greek religion

Stoicism
defitinion: philosophical system of the Stoics (person who can tolerate pain) following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno

significance: philosophical ideas influence Europe

Romulus
definition: Founder of Rome; twin of Remus; killed his own twin brother Remus over disputes on the building of Rome

significance: Original founder of Rome

Gracchi Brothers
definition: Tried to equally distribute land but upper classes did not want to give up land; were both assassinated

significance: Showed that a republic was not meant for a growing empire, showed that Rome was flawed

Marius
definition: A general that advocated redistribution of land; he took down his political enemies and died the next year

significance: Laid the foundation for his successor Sulia

Sulia
definition: Took over after Marius died and posted lists of his enemies (“Enemies of the State”) that were to be killed on the spot if found; killed about 10,000 people by the time her died

significance: Weakened lower classes and strengthened wealthy

Julius Caesar
definition: Conquered Rome and made himself dictator for life; gave building jobs to those of the lower classes; was stabbed to death by elite class members who found him a tyrant

significance: Made a centralized imperial form of government in Rome and its conquered land

Augustus Caesar
definition: Nephew of Julius; original name Octavian; defeated Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; ruled for 45yrs; Senate gave him the name Augustus (divine nature of its holder); developed a monarchy disguised as a republic

significance: Organized Rome and stabilized the Roman Empire; Created time of peace in Europe

Cicero
definition: Roman statesman and orator remembered for his mastery of Latin prose

significance: helped spread stoicism

Jesus
definition: Teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth

significance: prominent figure of Christianity

Paul of Tarsus
definition: Supported Christianity and was put to death for it

significance: Helped to spread Christianity and it eventually became the official religion of the Roman Empire

Etruscans
definition: People who dominated most of Italy; built successful cities; had many alliances; traded frequently; had bronze, iron, gold, and silver; defeated by Greeks

significance: Influenced early Rome

Roman Senate
definition: A council of wealthy and powerful Romans that advised the city’s leaders

significance: Indirectly helped govern the Roman Empire

Punic Wars
definition: Fought between Rome and Carthage over Sicily and Mediterranean trade

significance: Rome won and conquered Carthage; annexed possessions like grain, oil, wine, silver, and gold

Twelve tables
definition: The basic law code for citizens of the early republic

significance: First of written laws in the Roman Empire

Roman roads
definition: Were built for easy transportation and communication; had curbs; had drainage; were topped with stone; were 2-8 meters (6-26ft) wide depending on the location; had postal stops along the roads

significance: Helped link all of the conquered land, vehicle for Christianity

Colosseum
definition: Marble stadium and sports arena that had seating for 50,000 people; had an awning to protect spectators from weather

significance: Was a place for Romans to gather and watch different events

Patricians
definition: the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners

significance: influenced most of the early decisions in the Roman Senate

Plebeians
definition: Members of the lower class of Ancient Rome including farmers, merchants, artisans and traders

significance: cause of most of the civil conflict in Rome

Stoicism
definition: Idea that there are moral laws governing the universe; followers are generally indifferent to pain and pleasure.
Mithraism
definition: ancient Persian religion that was later adapted to values of courage, honor, etc

significance: example of Roman adaptation; became popular among solders

Cult of Isis
definition: Was a cult devoted the Egyptian goddess Isis. It allowed both men and women into the cult. They felt she was a protective goddess who neutered her worshipers and helped them coped with the stress. It also offered Salvation

significance: Biggest religion of salvation prior to Christianity

Essenes
definition: Religious group which believed the temple of worship was impure

significance: Led to Baptism, demonstrated political instability in Rome

Judaism
definition: Monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud

significance: led to Christianity

Christianity
definition: Monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior

significance: modern religion, considered a “threat” to Rome

New Testament
definition: The collection of books of the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, the Pauline and other Epistles, and Revelation

significance: basis of Christian teachings, proof of Jesus

Sermon on the Mount
definition: The first major discourse delivered by Jesus

significance: Summarizes the Christian fate, I have to learn it for catechism class

Latifundia
definition: Farming plantations for the wealthy

significance: Wealthy land owners had these and pressured smaller farmers

Pax Romana
definition: “Roman Peace” Augustus created a time of peace that lasted for 2 and 1/2 centuries

significance: no more civil conflict in Rome led to increased trade in the empire and travel b etween Mesopotamia and the Atlantic ocean

Mare nostrum
definition: “Our Sea,” started to call the Mediterranean the Roman Lake

significance: Was used for trade routes

Pater familias
definition: “Father of the Family”; had the authority to arrange marriages, determined duties, and punish; had rights to sell them into slavery and execute them

significance: Demonstrated Roman patriarchal society

Zhang Qian
definition: on expedition; sent by Wudi in 139 BC; general and explorer; 13 years later his troops went back nearly wiped out by barbarian attacks and were in captivity for 10 years

significance: “father” of the silk road

Han Wudi
definition: most prominent and important Han dynasty empire, created public school system

significance: public school idea still used today

Gregory the Wonderworker
definition: a tireless missionary with a reputation for performing miracles and who popularized Christianity in central Anatolia

significance: Helped promote Chirstianity, prominent missionary

Mani
definition: self characterized as Apostle of Christ, originally part of judaizing christian community, Book of Mani’s life and teachings was found in small book in Egypt, 216-274

significance: Founder of Manichaeism

Diocletian
definition: He was a Roman general turned emperor who introduced reforms

significance: Tried to stable the Roman empire, and managed to keep it on its feet for another fifty years

Constantine
definition: Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians

significance: allowed the public to practice Christianity

Attila
definition: Leader of the Huns who put pressure on the Roman Empire’s borders during the 5th century

significance: led to the downfall of Western Rome

Odoacer
definition: A Germanic general who deposed the Roman emperor in 476, marking the fall of the Western Roman Empire

significance: sacked the Western Roman Empire

St. Augustine
definition: Scholar that later converted to Christianity, helped explain history and science from a Christian point of view.

significance: helped appeal Christianity to the higher classes

Silk roads
definition: a system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods.

significance: facilitated the transfer of ideas and cultures

Monsoon system
definition: rainy season in southern Asia when the southwestern monsoon blows, bringing heavy rains

significance: facilitated trade in the Indian area

Rhapta
definition: principal commercial center on east African coast, contributed ivory, tortoise shell, and slaves and dominated East African trade

significance: principal trading port

Buddhism
definition: a world religion or philosophy based on the teaching of the Buddha and holding that a state of enlightenment can be attained by suppressing worldly desire

significance: influenced Chinese development, helped us monitor progress along the silk road

Hinduism
definition: a religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms

significance: prominent Indian religion that spread along the silk road

Christianity
definition: Monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior

significance: religion that spread to many parts of the Silk Road

Nestorians
definition: Christian sect found in Asia; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions

significance: influenced the Asian world

Manichaeism
definition: formed with a combination of Christianity, Zoroastriaism, Buddhism, and Judism

significance: sought to explain the ultimate truth

Epidemic
definition: a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease

significance: led to the collapse of China and Rome

Yellow Turban
definition: a rebellion in the Han dynasty by peasants that brought down the dynasty because of unequal distribution of land

significance: led to the collapse of China

Barracks emperors
definition: generals who seized power, held it briefly, and they lost it when they were displaced by rivals or their own mutinous troops

significance: led to turmoil in Rome

Visigoths
definition: member of the western Goths that invaded the Roman Empire in the fourth century A.D. and settled in France and Spain, establishing a monarchy that lasted until the early eighth century

significance: led to the collapse of the Western Roman empire

Huns
definition: people who migrated from Eastern Europe into territory controlled by Germanic tribes, forcing them to move into areas controlled by Rome

significance: forced the Visigoths into Rome

Edict of Milan
definition: issued by Constantine in 313, ended the “great persecution” and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire

significance: allowed Christianity to gain ground in Rome

Council of Nicaea
definition: Christian council that met in 325 to determine the question of the trinity; decided on the divinity of all three persons.

significance: demonstrated the size of the Christian Church

Procopius
definition: Wrote about the smuggling of silk worms and sericulutre techniques from China

significance: Demonstrated Chinese influence

Constantine
definition: Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity

significance: founder of Constantinople and first leader of Byzantium

Justinian
definition: Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D., initiated an ambitious building program, including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code

significance: led the creation of Hagia Sofia and corpus irius civilis

Theodora
definition: the wife of Justinian, originally a prostitute

significance: influenced Justinian who influenced the Byzantium empire

Belisarius
definition: Justinian’s top general who reconquered much of Africa and tried to reconquer Europe

significance: demonstrated attempts to re-conquer the fallen Roman empire

Basil II
definition: Bulgar-slayer, using themes he moved west and destroyed the Bulgars

significance: Destroyed Bulgars, demonstrated theme system

Liudprand of Cremona
definition: an ambassador whom Otto sent on a diplomatic mission to Constantinople in 968, insulted Byzantium and its emperor

significance: strained relationships between the west and Byzantium

Arius
definition: theologist who didn’t accept that Jesus was divine (Arianism) and was outlawed as a heretic

significance: demonstrated caesaropapism

Leo III
definition: imposed iconoclasm for fear that they were being worshiped as physical idols

significance: imposed iconoclasm

St. Simeon Stylites
definition: popular Pillar saint, influenced the creation of monastaries

significance: popular Pillar Saint, influenced the creation of monastaries

St. Basil of Caesarea
definition: urged reforms of monasteries that increased their efficiency

significance: helped spread Christianity by increasing efficiency

St. Cyril
definition: first of two popular missionaries that invented the Cyrillic alphabet and used that to explain the Bible

significance: invented Cyrillic alphabet, spread Christianity

St. Methodius
definition: second of two popular missionaries that invented the Cyrillic alphabet and used that to explain the Bible

significance: invented Cyrillic alphabet, spread Christianity

Vladimir of Kiev
definition: convert to Christianity, despite being a drunkard

significance: affirmed Byzantium’s rule on Russia

Byzantion
definition: a modest market town turned military and economic center of the Byzantine empire

significance: led to the name “Byzantium”

Constantinople
definition: the capital of the eastern Roman Empire and later of the Byzantine Empire

significance: The “heart” of Byzantium, once destroyed, so was Byzantium

Caesaropapism
definition: the doctrine that the state is supreme over the church in ecclesiastical matters

significance: used in Byzantium to decide on several ecclesiastical matters

Hagia Sophia
definition: the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian

significance: Demonstrated Byzantine intelligence, also influenced Russia

Corpus iuris civilis
definition: “Body of Civil Law,” Justinian’s codification of Roman law

significance: demonstrated Justinian influence, idea is used today

Greek fire
definition: a mixture used by Byzantine Greeks that was often shot at adversaries that would ignite

significance: facilitated battles and victories for Byzantine

Theme
definition: administrative division of the Byzantium empire in which generals would oversee aristocrats to keep the free peasantry strong

significance: allowed mobilizations of troops and tax revenue

Bezant
definition: Byzantine gold coin; the standard currency of the Byzantium empire

significance: standardized coinage facilitated trade

Hippodrome
definition: the Colosseum of the Byzantian empire where the Greens and Blues were held

significance: kept the masses entertained and distracted

Greens and Blues
definition: teams that fought in the Hippodrome and caused major social unrest

significance: caused social unrest, but also unity to protest taxes

Arianism
definition: doctrine stating that Jesus was not God but created by God, taught by Arius

significance: demonstrated caesaropapism

Iconoclasm
definition: deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture’s own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives

significance: led to the schism of 1054 and several revolts

Pillar saints
definition: saints that prayed on pillars to demonstrate their aesthetic lifestyle

significance: promoted the creation of monasteries

Mount Athos
definition: an autonomous area in northeastern Greece that is the site of several Greek Orthodox monasteries founded in the tenth century

significance: prominent monastary

Eastern Orthodox Church
definition: Christian followers in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire); split from Roman Catholic Church and shaped life in eastern Europe

significance: product of the Schism of 1054

Crusades
definition: series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule

significance: forty-two

Battle of Manzikert
definition: battle between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turks (Muslims) in 1071, where the Byzantine lost

significance: commenced the downfall of Byzantium

Saljuqs
definition: Turkish tribe that gained control over the Abbasid empire and fought with the Byzantine empire, sealed their grain

significance: sealed the fate of Byzantium

Ottomans
definition: Turks who had come to Anatolia in the same wave of migrations as the Seljuks

significance: sealed the fate of Byzantium

Bulgars
definition: defeated Eastern Romans, took possession of the lower Danube River, set base for Bulgarian kingdom

significance: helped the downfall of Byzantium

Cyrillic alphabet
definition: Russian alphabet, brought by Greek Orthodox Christian missionaries who brought Christianity to Russia

significance: facilitated teaching and the creation of government in the Slavic area

Kiev
definition: trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century

significance: center of Russia, the “world’s third Rome”

Muhammad
definition: the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
significance: founder of Islam, a prominent religion
Abu Bakr
definition: companion of 1st Muslim leader after Muhammad, regarded by Sunni’s as the 1st caliph and rightful successor
significance: First sucessor to Muhammad, set the status-quo for Caliphs
Ali
definition: the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites
significance:
Abu al-Abbas
definition: Leader of rebellion in Persia that led to the downfall of the Umayyad
significance: led to the downfall of the Umayyad
Harun al-Rashid
definition: fifth and most famous Abbasid Caliph in Iraq
significance: Brought the high point of the Abbasid empire, supporting weath
Al-Ghazali
definition: Islamic theologian who struggled to fuse Greek and Koranic traditions
significance:
Omar Khayyam
definition: Persian poet and mathematician and astronomer whose poetry was popularized by Edward Fitzgerald’s translation (1050-1123)
significance: Demonstrated Persian influence during the Abbasid empire.
Ibn Rushd
definition: tried to blend Aristotle’s and Plato’s views with those of Islam- argued that Greek philosophy had the same goal: to find the truth.
significance: demonstrated classical influence
Islam
definition: the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
significance: Prominent religion, helped bring unity to large stretches of land
Muslim
definition: a believer or follower of Islam
significance: Spread Islamic religion
Dar al-Islam
definition: religious conceptualization of the world as belonging either to Muslim or non-Muslim territory, exists within Islam
significance: Allowed for expeditions from other countries to be facilitated
Mecca
definition: City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion
significance: Important location in Islam
Quran (Koran)
definition: the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
significance: Basis of the Islamic faith
Hadith
definition: a tradition based on reports of the sayings and activities of Muhammad and his companions
significance: Established a principle based on Muhammad’s life
Medina
definition: a city in western Saudi Arabia to where Muhammad had fled
significance: Islamic significance, location where Muhammad was buried, first Mosque
Hijra
definition: The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam
significance: Founded Islam
Umma
definition: the Muslim community or people, considered to extend from Mauritania to Pakistan
significance: Provided peace along these lands
Seal of the Prophets
definition: name recognizing Muhammad as the last and greatest prophet
significance: Solidified Muhammad’s role as a great prophet
Kaaba
definition: a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
significance: Sacred Muslim site, many pray at the Kaaba several times a day
Five Pillars of Islam
definition: the five basic acts of worship that are central to Islam (Faith, Prayer, Fasting, Alms, Pilgrimage)
significance: Foundation of Islam, reinforced by Muhammad
Sharia
definition: the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Muhammed
significance: Sharia is still used today, prohibits actions according to Islam, demonstrates Muhammad’s influences
Caliph
definition: the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
significance: Center of several debates, the leader of an expansive empire
Umayyad
definition: the dynasty caliphs whose capital was Damascus, one of the largest empires ever
significance: Spanned large areas of land that facilitated trade and brought unity
Shia
definition: the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
significance: source of many debates, one of the largest Islamic denominations
Abbasid
definition: The dynasty that came after the Umayyads, devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the arts
significance: ushered in an era of flourishing of the dar al-Islam
Ulama
definition: Orthodox religious scholars within Islam; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology
significance: Ensured observance of Islamic traditions
Qadis
definition: Muslim judges who carried out the judicial functions of the state
significance: Ensured observance of Islamic traditions
Sultan
definition: the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
significance: true leaders of dar al-Islam, set up a puppet state
Caravanserai
definition: an inn in some Eastern countries with a large courtyard that provides accommodation for caravans
significance: facilitated trade by making it easier
Al-Andalus
definition: Arabic name given to a nation in the parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims
significance: Demonstrated the expansive realm of Islam
Sufis
definition: a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
significance: most successful missionaries, helped spread
Hajj
definition: the fifth pillar of Islam, a pilgrimage to Mecca
significance: A large part of a Muslim’s life, symbol of religious unity
Xuanzang
definition: Buddhist monk that illegally visited India; popularized Buddhism in China (629 C.E.)
significance: Popularized Buddhism in China
Huang Chao
definition: military commander that led an uprising of Eastern China for almost a decade (875-884) that helped to bring the Tang to a close
significance: Weakened the Tang empire, leading to its demise
Du Fu
definition: a famous chinese poet who wrote “spring landscape” and his poems were base on the suffering of his own life
significance: Wrote about several changes in Chinese history
Li Bo
definition: Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
significance: Wrote about Chinese social life during the Song dynasty
Zhu Xi
definition: (1130-1200) Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China
significance: demonstrated the influence of Buddhism
Sui
definition: a dynasty (581 to 618) that rebuilt the Great Wall and began canal building, restored centralized rule after war
Grand Canal
definition: an inland waterway 1000 miles long in eastern China built by the Sui dynsaty
significance: facilitated trade in China from north to south
Tang
definition: the imperial dynasty of China from 618 to 907, restored centralized rule after war
Chang’an
definition: ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi’an
Equal field system
definition: inheritance system where 1/5 of the land when to the peasant’s descendants and the rest went to the government
Bureaucracy of merit
definition: civil service examinations; based on Confucian education – no longer decided by family lineage
significance: Helped to strengthen the imperial government
Middle Kingdom
definition: refers to China because the people believed that their land stood between heaven and Earth
significance: rationalized the reason as to why the Chinese ruled over so many
Uighurs
definition: A group of Turkic-speakers who controlled their own centralized empire from 744 to 840 in Mongolia and Central Asia.
Song
definition: the imperial dynasty of China from 960 to 1279
significance: flourished empire of China
Khitan
definition: Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture
significance: brought the end of the Song dynasty
Jurchen
definition: nomadic people that conquered Khitan, overran northern China, and captured the Song capital
Foot binding
definition: practice in Chinese society to mutilate women’s feet in order to make them smaller
significance: demonstrated Chinese patriarchal society
Dunhuang
definition: A Chinese city on the edge of Taklimaken desert; all silk road routes reached this point
significance: Location of a prominent Buddhist monastery, promoted Buddhism
Chan Buddhism
definition: Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society
significance: brought Buddhism into China
Neo-Confucianism
definition: term that describesthe resurgence of Confusianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the Tang dynasty
significance: demonstrated Buddhist influences
Silla
definition: Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies
significance: Stopped Chinese rule in China, helped extend Chinese influence
Vietnam
definition: a southern state below China
significance: had fast-ripening Rice, allowed much more food to be produced
Nara Japan
definition: Japanese period (710-794) centered around city of Nara, that was the highest point of Chinese influence
significance: demonstrated CHinese influence
Heian period
definition: (794 – 1100) move the capital to Heian; 300 years of developing a new culture; growth of large estates
significance: moved away from chinese culutre, began to become more distinct
Tale of Genji
definition: story of Prince Genji and his lovers, written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu at end of 11th century, world’s first full novel
significance: first novel
Minamoto
definition: Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th century Japan
significance: Brought in the medieval period of Japan
Shogun
definition: a hereditary military dictator of Japan
significance: established in place of an emperor, fractioned imperial rule
Kamakura
definition: Yorimoto’s capital during his shogunate, destroyed in 1331
significance: head of the true power of Japan
Muromachi
definition: later medieval period of Japan that ran from 1336 – 1573 CE; during the two periods, Japan developed a decentralized political order
significance: Japan developed a decentralized political order
Samurai
definition: a Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy
significance: leaders of the military emperor
Bushido
definition: traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage and loyalty and self-discipline and simple living
significance: provided more time for the Samurai to focus on bettering themselves
Seppuku
definition: Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor
significance: demonstrated the Samurai’s dedication to his profession
Buzurg ibn Shahriyar
definition: A storytelling mariner who came from the emporium of Siraf on the Persian Gulf

significance: Demonstrated trade influenced in India

Harsha
definition: 7th century north Indian ruler; built a large state that declined after his death 646 (last true Hindu ruler)

significance: unified India temporarily

Mahmud of Ghazni
definition: third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression

significance: set back Islam in India

Harihara and Bukka
definition: two brothers dispatched by officials in Delhi to represent the sultan and implement court policies in the sought. Converted from Hinduism to Islam; in 1336 they renounced Islam, returned to Hindu faith, and proclaimed of an established empire, independent empire of Vijayanagar

significance: Established a new empire

Shankara
definition: southern India; tried to harmonize all the Hindu writings

significance: matured Hinduism

Raminuja
definition: taught in the hands of Vishnu one will win god’s grace and live in presence

significance: matured Hinduism

Sind
definition: Indus River valley in NW India; conquered in 711; fringe of Islamic world

significance: helped spread Islam to India

Sultanate of Delhi
definition: the kingdom established by Mahmud’s succesors to spread islam in India

significance: spread Islam to India

Chola Kingdom
definition: kingdom situated in the deep south. At its high point, Chola forces conquered Ceylon and parts of southeast Asia, funded by the profits of trade, dominated the sea, did not build a tightly centralized state

significance: brought order to Southern India

Vijayanagar
definition: independent empire proclaimed by Harihara and Bukka; “city of victory”. Dominate state in southern India until 1565

significance: brought order to Southern India

Monsoons
definition: seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons

significance: helped trade and agriculture

Dhows
definition: Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design

significance: helped to trade in the Indian Ocean Basin

Junks
definition: Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula

significance: helped trade in the Indian Ocean Basin

Kingdom of Axum
definition: Christian kingdom in Ethiopia

significance: Helped with maritime trade

Caste System
definition: a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity

significance: helped integrate immigrants

Vishnu
definition: A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world

significance: helped with Cults and Hinduism

Shiva
definition: an important Hindu deity who in the trinity of gods was the Destroyer

significance: helped with Cults and Hinduism

Sufis
definition: a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life

significance: helped spread Islam

Bhakti
definition: Indian movement that attempted to transcend the differences between Hinduism and Islam

significance: helped spread Islam

Funan
definition: Early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries C.E.

significance: demonstrated Indian influence

Srivijaya
definition: Southeast Asian kingdom, based on the island of Sumatra that used a powerful navy to dominate trade

significance: Used Maritime trade to garner power

Angkor
definition: Southeast Asian Khmer kingdom (889-1432) that was centered around temple cities

significance: demonstrated Indian influence

Melaka
definition: the first major center of Islam in Southeast Asia, a port kingdom on the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula

significance: Helped to spread Islam

Clovis
definition: king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy

significance: Reunified Europe for some time

Charles Martel
definition: Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe

significance: Stopped Muslim expansion

Charlemagne
definition: king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor

significance: Symbolized the relationship between the Church and Charlemagne

Pope Leo III
definition: crowned Charlemagne the “Holy Roman Emperor”

significance: strained Byzantian relationship

Gregory of Tours
definition: literate monk who wrote the History of the Franks and some of the other few surviving histories of the Early Middle Ages
Louis the Pious
definition: third son of Charlemagne and king of the Caroligian Empire and Holy Roman Emperor

significance: Dissolved the Caroligian empire without a strong rule

Alfred
definition: king of Wessex 871-899; known as Alfred the Great. His military resistance saved southwestern England from Viking occupation

significance: Drove off Vikings

Otto I
definition: king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor

significance: Drove off Mayagars for good

Pope Gregory I
definition: was most important figure for providing Roman church with sense of direction; “Gregory the Great”; mobilized local resources and organized defense of Rome

significance: Defended Rome, brought unity to the Church, stopped independent bishops

St. Benedict of Nursia
definition: Italian monk who created a set of rules for Western monasteries in the 6th century

significance: Set rules for which many monastaries based their lives upon

St. Scholastica
definition: twin sister of Benedict; devoted her life to the Church

significance: brought the influence of the Rule to nuns

Franks
definition: group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis

significance: brought Europe together

Aachen
definition: capital of Charlemagne’s empire, c. 800; a city in present-day Germany

significance: scholastic town based around Christianity

Missi dominici
definition: official appointed by Charlemagne who investigated if the counties were obeying his rules

significance: Ensured a somewhat-centralized rule of the Franks

Magyars
definition: Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary

significance: Spread Christianity, caused instability

Vikings
definition: Scandinavian pirates who plundered the coasts of Europe from the 8th to 10th centuries

significance: caused Instability

Holy Roman Empire
definition: the lands ruled by Charlemagne

significance: Brought a degree of stability back to Europe

Lords
definition: people of high rank who received land in exchange for their loyalty

significance: Political directors of a region in feudalism

Retainers
definition: a servant or attendant, especially one in the household of a person of high rank

significance: Helped the Lords rule by providing them with labor

Benefice
definition: a gift given for service performed, usually land

significance: enticed retainers, made being a retainer more appeasing

Manor
definition: a large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord

significance: Location where lords ruled

Serf
definition: a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord

significance: bottom of the Feudal hierarchy, very important as they provided sustenance for the lords

Heavy plow
definition: agricultural invention that allowed people to migrate to colder climates and produce more food

significance: Produced more food which allowed for a population growth and urbanization

Papacy
definition: the government of the Roman Catholic Church

significance: Brought cultural unity during feudal times in Europe

Monasticism
definition: set of responsibilities taken by monasteries

significance: spread and kept literature and ideas

Rule of Saint Benedict
definition: basic guide for religious life and discipline in a monastery

significance: provided a set of rules to life in Monastaries

Mahmud of Ghazni
definition: third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of the wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression

significance: stopped progression of Islam

Chinggis Khan
definition: a mongol who united mongol and Turkish tribes, began campaign west, using fear as a tactic

significance: Brought unity to asia and Eurasia

Marco Polo
definition: Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)

significance: praised Kublai for his generosity

Khubilai Khan
definition: last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260-1294) and founder of the Yuan Empire

significance: spread Buddhism through his empire

Tamerlane
definition: Mongolian ruler of Samarkand who led his nomadic hordes to conquer an area from Turkey to Mongolia (1336-1405)

significance: Brought control to the power vaccuum

Osman
definition: most successful warrior and “founder” of Ottomans

significance: established the ottoman empire

Turks
definition: a member of the Turkish-speaking ethnic group in Turkey, or, formerly, in the Ottoman Empire

significance: brought unity to the area of Asia and Eurasia and toppled many kingdoms

Yurts
definition: large, circle-shaped tents made of animal hides, also called gurs

significance: demonstrated nomadic ingenuity

Kumiss
definition: an alcoholic drink prepared from animal products by fermenting mare’s milk into a potent concoction

significance: demonstrated nomadic ingenuity

Shamans
definition: medicine men or women who treat people with mental problems by driving out their demons with elaborate rituals, such as exorcisms, incantations, and prayers

significance: demonstrated nomadic culture

Khan
definition: a Mongol ruler

significance: brought unity to Asia

Saljuq Turks
definition: Turkish tribe that gained control over the Abbasid empire and fought with Byzantine

significance: sacked much of Byzantine’s cities and agrarian sources

Sultan
definition: the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)

significance: unified an area

Manzikert
definition: site where Saljuq forces inflicted a devastating defeat on the Byzantine army in 1071

significance: sacked Byzantine’s agrarian sources

Karakorum
definition: capital of the Mongol empire under Chinggis Khan, 1162 – 1227

significance: brought political unity

Khanbaliq
definition: “city of the khan”; previously ruled by Jurchens but was new capital for the Mongols

significance: brought political unity

Chaghatai
definition: one of Chinggis Khan’s sons whose descendents rued the khanate of Chaghatai

significance:

Golden Horde
definition: a Mongolian army that swept over eastern Europe in the 13th century

significance: brought unity to Russia

Yuan Dynasty
definition: the imperial dynasty of China from 1279 to 1368

significance: brought unity over China, albeit bad

Ilkhanate of Persia
definition: Abbasid empire toppled, Baghdad sacked, 1258

significance: Brought unity

Lamaist Buddhism
definition: prominent place for magic and supernatural powers; recognized Mongol leaders as legitimate rulers

significance: helped spread buddhism

Uighur Turks
definition: among the most important of the Mongols’ allies were these people, who lived mostly in oasis cities along the silk roads; they were literate and often highly educated, and the Mongols needed that

significance: Helped the mongols succeed

Bubonic plague
definition: disease brought to Europe from the Mongols during the Middle Ages. It killed 1/3 of the population and helps end Feudalism
Ottoman Turks
definition: Muslims that took over Constantinople in 1453.
Istanbul
definition: the largest city and former capital of Turkey
Sundiata
definition: the founder of Mali empire, crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes

significance: brought prosperity to Ghana

Mansa Musa
definition: Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west Africa

significance: Helped promote Islam

Ibn Battuta
definition: Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan

significance: documented his travels, providing insight

Ali ibn Muhammad
definition: rebel slave that organized 15,000 Zanj slaves in 869 to revolt from Abbasid; Zanj Revolt was crushed in 883

significance: showed that slaves are important

Griots
definition: Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire

significance: Kept history

Banana
definition: elongated crescent-shaped yellow fruit with soft sweet flesh

significance: promoted population growth

stateless society
definition: a society that is based on the authority of kinship groups rather than on a central government

significance: brought rudimentary order

Chiefdom
definition: Form of political organization with rule by a hereditary leader who held power over a collection of villages and towns. Less powerful than kingdoms and empires, chiefdoms were based on gift giving and commercial links

significance: helped ward off invaders

Kingdom of Kongo
definition: Basin of the Congo (Zaire) river, conglomeration of several village alliances, participated actively in trade networks, most centralized rule of the early Bantu kingdoms, royal currency: cowries, ruled 14th-17th century until undermined by Portuguese slave traders

significance: set the status quo for kingdoms

Camels
definition: Pack animals that made cross-Sahara caravans possible

significance: allowed trading through the Sahara

Gao
definition: Prosperous capital city of the kingdom of Songhai, had caravan trade routes.

significance: helped bring taxes

Kingdom of Ghana
definition: first of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa

significance: Facilitated trade

Koumbi Saleh
definition: Capital of Ghana which had 15,000 people with buildings of stone and more than a dozen mosques. Supported by a large number of qadi and Muslim scholars

significance: promoted trade

Mali empire
definition: Formed in 1240 when Sundiata took control of Ghana Empire. It controlled trade across Sahara, the South and the Niger River.

significance: promoted trade

Swahili
definition: the most widely spoken Bantu languages

significance: demonstrated eastern trading

Kilwa
definition: one of many trading cities on the East African coast

significance: demonstrated eastern trading

Zimbabwe
definition: a landlocked republic in south central Africa formerly called Rhodesia

significance: Demonstrated Eastern Trading and influence

Age grades
definition: African social distinctions determined by when you were born. People belonging to a certain group had certain expectations. The groups established ties transcending family or clan loyalties.

significance: helped to delegate taxes

Zanj revolt
definition: led by Ali ibn-Muhamad; 15,000 slaves revolt for 14 years until it it ceased by Abbasids in 883

significance: demonstrated the influence of slaves

Diviners
definition: individuals who by virtue of their innate abilities or extensive training had the power to mediate between humanity and
supernatural beings

significance: Basis of African religion

Axum
definition: a town of northern Ethiopia. From the first to the eighth century A.D. it was the capital of an empire that controlled much of northern Ethiopia

significance: Christian society in Africa, one of the few

Solomonic dynasty
definition: A string of Ethiopian rulers who claimed descent from David in an attempt to add biblical authority to their rule.

significance: helped to add authority to their rule

Toltec
definition: a people who invaded central Mexico and were ruled by a military class; had a capital city of Tula; influenced the Maya; introduced the working of gold and silver; spread the worship of their god Quetzalcoatl; destroyed in the AD 1100s

significance: helped set up the region for society

Mexica
definition: founded Tenochtitlan; regarded themselves as chosen people in charge of keeping the world from destruction

significance: founded Tenochtitlan and the Aztecs

Huitzilopochtli
definition: Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god

significance: Led Aztec religion

Quetzalcoatl
definition: Aztec nature god, feathered serpent, his disappearance and promised return coincided with the arrival of Cortes

significance: coaxed the Aztecs into helping Cortes

Pueblo
definition: a member of any of about two dozen Native American peoples called pueblos by the Spanish because they live in villages built of adobe and rock

significance: demonstrated Spanish influence

Iroquois
definition: New York Indian tribe which

significance: built great mounds that are marvels to look at

Inca
definition: a member of the small group of Quechuan people living in the Cuzco valley in Peru who established hegemony over their neighbors to create the great Inca empire that lasted from about 1100 until the Spanish conquest in the early 1530s

significance: built roads, major society of South America

Tenochtitlan
definition: capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco; population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest; Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.

significance: Demonstrated Aztec ingeniuity

Chinampas
definition: Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields

significance: led to more agriculture

Quipu
definition: knotted cords of various lengths and colors used by the Inca to keep financial records

significance: helped to make up for lack of writing

Cahokia Mound
definition: enormous earthen mound at Cahokia near East St. Louis, Illinois; built by Iroquois people for ceremonies or ritual performance

significance: demonstrated Iroquois ingenuity

Marae
definition: Polynesian ceremonial precinct and temple structure; often had several terraced floors

significance: demonstrated polynesian culture

Ali’i nui
definition: a chief or noble (hereditary) in Polynesian tribes

significance: demonstrated hierarchy in Polynesian societies

Marco Polo
D: Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)

S: Explored Asia, brought back goods.

Otto I
D: king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor (912-973)

S: Brought back centralized rule

Pope John XII
D: crowned Otto Holy Roman Emperor in 962

S: Allowed Otto to rule

Pope Gregory VII
D: fought lay investiture by issuing a decree forbidding high-ranking clerics from receiving their investiture from lay leaders

S: limited an Emperor’s authority

Henry IV
D: the first Lancastrian king of England from 1399 to 1413

S:

Frederick Barbarossa
D: Holy Roman Emperor from 1152 to 1190

S: Expanded the holy roman empire

Hugh Capet
D: King of France elected in 987 and founding the Capetian dynasty (940-996)

S: Established a new monarchy

Duke William of Normandy
D: invaded England in 1066, and introduced Norman principles of govt and land tenure to England

S: Established a government

King Louis IX
D: King of France (1226-1270), helped consolidate Capetian hold on French monarchy

S: helped to consolidate Capetian hold

Eleanor of Aquitaine
D: Queen of France as the wife of Louis VII

S: Helped improve the influence of Troubadours

St. Thomas Aquinas
D: scholastic theologian

S: Gave rise to scholastic theology

St. Dominic
D: founded orders of beggars and worked to persuade heretics to return to the Roman Catholic Church

S: Led the mendicants

St. Francis
D: founded orders of beggars and worked to persuade heretics to return to the Roman Catholic Church

S: Led the mendicants

Pope Innocent III
D: Pope called that for the crusade in 1198

S: Called for a crusade against Cathars

Eric the Red
D: Norwegian adventurer who founded a colony on Greenland

S: Demonstrated European ambition

Leif Erickson
D: viking explorer who reached North America around 1000, before Columbus

S: Demonstrated Europe ambition

Robert Guiscard
D: led Norman adventures and counquered much of southern Italy against the Muslims

S: Reconquered Italy

Roger Guiscard
D: brother of Robert Guiscard, founded a state for himself in Italy and named it Sicily

S: displays the effect to which Normans were able to re-conquer Italy

Pope Urban II
D: pope who called for the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims

S: Launched crusades

Peter the Hermit
D: french religious leader who led one of the bands of the first crusades

S: Launched first crusade for Jerusalem

Saladin
D: (1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem

S: Retook Jersualem

Holy Roman Empire
D: the lands ruled by Charlemagne

S: Brought order to Europe

Investiture contest
D: A struggle between the Holy Roman Emperor and the Pope over who nominates clergymen. The Pope eventually won this struggle.

S: Demonstrated church-and-state influence

Capetian dynasty
D: a Frankish dynasty founded by Hugh Capet that ruled from 987 to 1328

S: forty-two

Normans
D: a member of a Viking people who raided and then settled in the French province later known as Normandy, and who invaded England in 1066

S: Brought better govertnment to England

Champagne fairs
D: vast marketplaces in France where merchants from around Europe would gather

S: Showed that Europe did have something to trade

Hanseatic League
D: a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas

S: Represented European seafarers

Three estates
D: The three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries; church, nobles, and urban leaders.

S: Basis for social organization

Chivalry
D: the medieval principles of knighthood

S: Demonstrated Troubadours influence

Troubadours
D: wandering poets; their love songs focused on cherishing and protecting women

S: Spread Chivalry

Guilds
D: Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests

S: Allowed better workplace environments; like unions

Cathedral schools
D: Bishops and Archbishops organized these types of schools and invited well known scholars to serve as master teachers. Established formal curricula based on writings in Latin. Famous ones at Paris, Chatres, and Bologna.

S: Basis for modern Universities

Universities
D: Degree-granting institutions of higher learning. Those that appeared in Latin West from about 1200 onward became the model of all modern universities.

S: Basis for modern universities

Scholasticism
D: the system of philosophy dominant in medieval Europe

S: Influenced Muslim scholars to convert

Sacraments
D: Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church

S: Showed the development of the average-person religion

Saints
D: followers of christ who lived lives of holiness on earth and now share in eternal life with God in heaven

S: showed the development of the average-person religion

Relics
D: valued holy objects from the past, esp. Saints

S: showed the development of the average-person religion

Pligrimages
D: journey to a religious site

S: spawned tourism industry

Waldensians
D: people who led heretical movements against the church. They appealed to the biblical ideal of simplicity and separation from the world.

S: demonstrated movements in the church

Cathars
D: a Christian religious sect in southern France in the 12th and 13th centuries

S: demonstrated movements in the church

Vinland
D: Scandinavian name for the land explored near present day Newfoundland

S: Demonstrated European interests in expansion

Teutonic Knights
D: Order of knights devoted to Christianity and to fighting Muslims and pagans. Most active in Baltic region where they fought Slavs.

S: Expanded European rule

Reconquista
D: The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.

S: Expanded European rule

Crusades
D: 1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade

S: Opened up trade

Ibn Battuta
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
John of Montecorvino
The most active of Roman Catholic missionaries in China
Hongwu
First Ming emperor in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored position of scholar-gentry
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
Prince Henry
Portuguese prince who started a school for sailors and sponsored early voyages of exploration
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean.
Vasco de Gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
Fernando and Isabel
the king and queen of Spain, underwrote Columbus’s voyage
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Qadi
A Muslim judge who renders decisions according to the Shari’ah, the canon law of Islam.
Sufi
a Muslim who represents the mystical dimension of Islam
Melaka
The first major center of Islam in Southeast Asia, a port kingdom on the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula.
Little Ice Age
A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable. (p. 462)
Black Death
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
Ming dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644
Reconquista
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Renaissance
the revival of learning and culture
Humanism
the cultural movement of the Renaissance

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