AP World History: Greece & Persia Vocabulary

AP World History: Greece & Persia Vocabulary

Persian Empire
-First powerful empire the world ever saw, strong military, wealthy; stretched from Mediterranean sea to Kush mountains
Alexander the Great
-Ended the reign of the Persian Empire (Achaemenid Empire); Conquered most of the Persian Empire
Athenian Democracy
-Opened government offices for all citizens; wealthy officials could take part in the council
Greco-Persian Wars
-Persian and Greek war started by Greece interfering with Persian affairs; After many failed attempts Xerxes conquered Athens
Hellenistic Era
-Greek ideas and traditions were now influencing other civilizations such as the Phoenicians
Aristotle
-Formed elaborate theories and ideas; wrote about physics, biology, astronomy, politics, etc.
Cleisthenes
-Father of Athenian Democracy; Established a set of democratic ideas for other civilizations
Cyrus the Great
-First King of Persia that launched the Persians’ imperial venture; founder of the Achaemenid Empire
Delian League
-Discouraged further Persian actions in Greece
Greek “Classical Age”
-Sophisticated era in Greece where Greek education and culture improved and advanced
Minoans
-First sophisticated society on the island of Crete; established ground for Myceneans
Myceneans
-Society that traded and later overpowered the Minoans; established settlements along the Greek Peninsula and Mediterranean sea
Helots
-Neighboring people Spartans conquered that did farming for Spartans
Hoplites
Peloponnesian War
-Civil War in Greece caused great tension between Sparta and Athens; Macedonia conquests of Greece easily made due to rivalry in Greece
Monarchies, Aristocracies, Democracies
-All forms of government; rule by the people(Democracy), rule by monarchs(Monarchies), rule by aristocrats(Aristocrats)
Pericles
-Athenian leader that influenced the government; Under his leadership Athens became the most sophisticated Polis
Plato
-Greek philosopher; Elaborated a systematic philosophy of great subtlety
Polis
-City states in Greece; Athens and Sparta most important; Decentralized Rule
Satraps
-Administrators for Persia; ruled over certain districts
Socrates
-Athenian philosopher; Understood human affairs & human beings complexity
Tyrants (Greece)
-Ruled many Poleis in Greece; gained pained power through irregular means
Virgil
Darius
-Persian King after Cyrus; extended the Persian Empire; built the Royal Road; greatest wealth during his reign
Xerxes
-Persian king that attempted and succeeded in going into Athens and conquering it
Royal Road
-Easy trade access led to wealth and easy transportaion for military