AP World History HHS Unit 2: The Classical Period

AP World History HHS Unit 2: The Classical Period

Minoans
People who lived in the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete, ~1600 BCE
Mycenaeans
Replaced the Minoans, part of great trade network of the late Bronze Age
Phoenicians
A sea-faring group from the eastern Mediterranean Sea; visited the Aegean Sea; re-established contact between the Middle East and Greece
Polis
The Greek name for a city-state
Monarchy
Hereditary rule by one
Oligarchy
Rule by a few
Aristocracy
Rule by leading families
Democracy
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them; a new form of popular government
Tyrant
Often military leaders who won popular support of the aristocracy; not necessarily oppressive
Helots
Servants captured when the Spartans defeated the neighboring city-state Messenia ~700 BCE
Hoplites
Heavily armored infantrymen who fought in very close contact and cooperation together
Secularism
Emphasis on affairs of this world, rather than on religion
Natural Law
A concept that early philosophers created; forces of nature that cause natural phenomena to occur, rather than the gods themselves causing the phenomena
Socrates
(470-399 B.C.E.) first philosopher to focus on ethical questions and truth-seeking regarding human nature, understandings, and relationships; clash between religion and and independent thinking
Plato
Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society
Aristotle
Was Plato’s student; interested in every field of human endeavor, including the natural and social sciences
Cyrus the Great
The first Persian Warrior King; overcame other rulers to extend territory from the edge of India to the Mediterranean Sea
Satraps
Persian governors responsible for collecting tribute, providing soldiers, and keeping order. Often had hereditary positions; had mini courts that mimicked that of the King
Darius
A Persian King
Xerxes
Darius’s successor
Delian League
An alliance formed between many Greek city-states and Persia, under the leadership of Pericles, attacked Corinth, an ally of Sparta
Peloponnesian War
(431-404 B.C.E.) Highly destructive war between Athens and Sparta; Sparta eventually won, although all were weakened and left vulnerable to invaders in the north (Macedonia)
Alexander the Great
Had a short career of 13 years; conquered most of the known world to the Greeks
Hellenistic Age
(323-30 B.C.E.) Period following the conquests of Alexander the Great; marked by the spreading of Greek culture to north-eastern Africa and western Asia
Etruscans
Came into Italy (~800 B.C.E.); established a series of small city-states that ruled the native people
Patricians
Aristocrats who passed their possessions down to their sons; made up the Senate
Plebeians
Commoners who made up 90% of the population; represented by an elected General Assembly
Julius Caesar
A charismatic patrician general with great sway over his soldiers; formed a Triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey. Caesar eventually declared himself dictator, only to be assassinated by senators on the Ides of March (March 15), 44 B.C.E.
Augustus Caesar
Julius Caesar’s nephew Octavian; battled Mark Anthony, and in the Battle of Actium won control of Rome in 31 B.C.E. and the Senate declared him “Augustus”, meaning “revered one”
Law of the Twelve Tables
The law code from the days of the republic
Pax Romana
The “Roman Peace” lasted until the late 2nd century C.E., when the empire reached its largest extent
Punic Wars
The wars between the Roman Republic and Carthage (246-146 B.C.E.) Romans won parts of the southern and western Mediterranean Sea, and burned the city of Carthage to the ground and salted the earth
Republic
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them