AP World History Jargon (A-C)

abolition
the legal prohibition and ending of slavery, especially of slavery of blacks in the U.S.; the act of abolishing
absolutism
the principle or the exercise of complete and unrestricted power in government.
administer
to manage (affairs, a government, etc.); to have executive charge of
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administration
a body of administrators, especially in government.
afro-
a combining form of Africa: Afro-American; Afro-Asiatic.
agrarian
relating to land, land tenure, or the division of landed property: agrarian laws.
amer-
a combining form of American
analyze
to examine carefully and in detail so as to identify causes, key factors, possible results, etc.
analysis
a presentation, usually in writing, of the resultof this process: The paper published an analysis of the political situation.
anarchism
a doctrine urging the abolition of government or governmental restraint as the indispensable condition for full social and political liberty.
anarchy
freedom from external or foreign rule; independence.
ancient
of or in time long past, especially before the end of the Western Roman Empire a.d. 476: ancient history.
anti-semitism
discrimination against or prejudice or hostility toward Jews.
appeasement
to yield or concede to the belligerent demands of (a nation, group, person, etc.) in a conciliatory effort, sometimes at the expense of justice or other principles.
arable
capable of producing crops; suitable for farming
archaeology
the scientific study of historic or prehistoric peoples and their cultures by analysis of their artifacts, inscriptions, monuments, and other such remains, especially those that have been excavated.
archaic
marked by the characteristics of an earlier period; antiquated: an archaic manner; an archaic notion.
architecture
the character or style of building: the architecture of Paris; Romanesque architecture.
-archy
a combining form meaning “rule,” “government,”, monarchy
aristocracy
any class or group considered to be superior, as through education, ability, wealth, or social prestige.
atheism
the doctrine or belief that there is no God.
asceticism
rigorous self-denial; extreme abstinence; austerity.
authoritarian
favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to individual freedom: authoritarian principles; authoritarian attitudes.
authoritarianism
of or pertaining to a governmental or political system, principle, or practice in which individual freedom is held as completely subordinate to the power or authority of the state, centered either in one person or a small group that is not constitutionally accountable to the people.
balance of power
a distribution and opposition of forces among nations such that no single nation is strong enough to assert its will or dominate all the others.
balance of trade
the difference between the values of exports and imports of a country, said to be favorable or unfavorable as exports are greater or less than imports.
barbarian
a person without culture, refinement, or education; non-Greek, non-Roman, non-Christian, depending on the time in history
bureaucracy
government by many bureaus, administrators, and petty officials.
border (national)
the line that separates one country, state, province, etc., from another; frontier line
bourgeoisie
(in Marxist theory) the class that, in contrast to the proletariat or wage-earning class, is primarily concerned with property values; the middle class
capital
the wealth, whether in money or property, owned or employed in business by an individual, firm, corporation,etc.
capitalism
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, especially as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
capitol
a building occupied by a state legislature. The building in Washington, DC used by Congress.
capitulate
to surrender unconditionally or on stipulated terms.
cartel
an international syndicate, combine, or trust formedespecially to regulate prices and output in some field ofbusiness.
casualty
a member of the armed forces lost to service through death, wounds, sickness, capture, or because his or her whereabouts or condition cannot be determined.
causation
the action of causing or producing.
celibacy
abstention from sexual relations.
celibate
a person who remains unmarried, especially for religious reasons.
central
in, at, or near the center: a central position.
-centric
a combining form with the meanings “having a center or centers” of the specified number or kind
circa (c. ca.)
about: (used especially in) approximate dates
city-state
a sovereign state consisting of an autonomous city with its dependencies.
citizen
a native or naturalized member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to its government and is entitled to its protection
civilization
an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached.
chauvinism
biased devotion to any group, attitude, or cause.
chivalry
the sum of the ideal qualifications of a knight, including courtesy, generosity, valor, and dexterity in arms.
class struggle
Also called class conflict. Conflict between different classes in a community resulting from different social or economic positions and reflecting opposed interests.
classical
of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Greek and Roman antiquity: classical literature; classical languages.
coerce
to dominate or control, especially by exploiting fear, anxiety, etc.
coercive
serving or tending to coerce.
coincidence
a striking occurrence of two or more events at one time apparently by mere chance:
colony
any people or territory separated from but subject to a ruling power.
colonial
of, concerning, or pertaining to a colony or colonies: the colonial policies of France.
Columbian Exchange
a dramatically widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including slaves), communicable disease, and ideas between the Eastern and Westernhemispheres (Old World and New World).
communal
of, by, or belonging to the people of a community; shared or participated in by the public: communal land;
communism
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership beingascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
conjuncture
a combination of circumstances; a particular state of affairs.
conscript
to compel into service.
conscription
a compulsory contribution of money or service to a government during a time of war.
conservative
disposed to preserve existing conditions, institutions, etc., or to restore traditional ones, and to limit change.
constitutionalism
the principles of constitutional government or adherence to them.
consumer
Economics . a person or organization that uses a commodity or service.
consumerism
the concept that an ever-expanding consumption of goods is advantageous to the economy.
conflate
to fuse into one entity; merge: to conflate dissenting voices into one protest.
context
the set of circumstances or facts that surround a particular event, situation, etc.
continent
one of the main landmasses of the globe, usually reckoned as seven in number (Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Australia, and Antarctica).
contingency
dependence on chance or on the fulfillment of a condition; uncertainty
convention
a meeting or formal assembly, as of representatives ordelegates, for discussion of and action on particular mattersof common concern.
conventional
conforming or adhering to accepted standards, as of conductor taste. Non-nuclear weapons (conventional weapons).
converge
to tend to a common result, conclusion, etc.
coporation
an association of individuals, created by law or underauthority of law, having a continuous existenceindependent of the existences of its members, and powersand liabilities distinct from those of its members.
corporate
pertaining to a united group, as of persons; having to do with a corporation
corollary
an immediate consequence, result or easily drawn conclusion.
correlation
mutual relation of two or more things, parts; similarity, interconnection
cosmopolitan
free from local, provincial, or national ideas, prejudices, orattachments; at home all over the world.
coup d’etat
a sudden and decisive action in politics, especially one resultingin a change of government illegally or by force.
-cracy
Denoting a particular form of government, rule, or influence: “democracy”
craft ( n & v)
Noun: an art, trade, or occupation requiring special skill, especially manual skill: the craft of a mason. Verb: to make or manufacture (an object, objects, product, etc.) with skill and careful attention to detail.
credit
confidence in a purchaser’s ability and intention to pay,displayed by entrusting the buyer with goods or serviceswithout immediate payment.
currency
something that is used as a medium of exchange; money.

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