AP World History Key Terms

AP World History Key Terms

Neolithic/Agricultural Revolution
Transition period in which groups of people moved from nomadic lifestyles to agricultural lifestyles and town and city life (8000-3000 B.C.E.)
Nebuchadnezzar
Chaldean king who rebuilt Babylon as a showplace of architecture and culture (Hanging Gardens)
Hittites
Babylons fell to this group of people after the Kassites
Great Royal Road
Longest of the Persian roads (approx. 1600 miles)
Lydians
Came up with the concept of using coined money to conduct trade, rather than the barter system
Phoenicians
1). Established powerful naval city-states all along the Mediterranean 2). Developed a simple alphabet that used only 22 letters as opposed to the more complex cuneiform system
Hebrews
Significant for their monotheistic Jewish beliefs
Queen Hatshepsut
First female ruler known in history; ruled for 22 years during the New Kingdom; credited with greatly expanding Egyptian trade expeditions
Mohenjo-Daro/Harappa
Two major cities of the Indus Valley civilization; held more than 100,00 people (enormous, by ancient standards)
Caste System
Social hierarchical system in India established by the Aryans
Shang China
Rose in the Huang He River Valley; very isolated and believed that they were at the center of the world
Patriarchal Structure
Familial structure which was headed by the eldest male
Mandate of Heaven
Zhou Dynasty; heaven would grant the Zhou power only as long as its rulers governed justly and wisely
Bureaucracy
Way of organizing government tasks by department; allowed different parts of the government to specialize and stabilize
Djenne-Djeno
Believed to be the first sub-Saharan city; not hierarchically organized
Olmec/Chavin
Two early civilizations in the Americas; the former in Mexico and the latter in the Andes
Tikal
Most important Mayan political center; populated by around 100,000 people
Chichen Itza
Tiered temple of the Mayans, resembling the Egyptian pyramids and Mesopotamian ziggurats
Chandragupta Maurya
Founded the Mauryan Empire by unifying smaller Aryan kingdoms into a civilization
Ashoka Maurya
Chandragupta’s grandson; converted to Buddhism after battle at Kalinga
Rock and Pillar Edicts
Reminded Mauryans to live generous and righteous lives; commissioned by Ashoka
Chandra Gupta the Great
Founder of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
More decentralized and smaller than the Mauryan Empire, but referred to as the Golden Age, due to advances in mathematics, arts, and science
Qin Dynasty
Short-lived Chinese dynasty which came after the Zhou, but was noted for the Great Wall
Qin Shihuangdi
First emperor of the Qin Dynasty; recentralized feudal kingdoms and standardized laws, currencies, weights, measures, and systems of writing
Wu Ti
“Warrior Emperor” who greatly enlarged the Han Empire to central Asia
Polis
Greek city-states which shared a common culture and identity
Athens/Sparta
Two main city-states; former was the cultural center of Greece, while the latter was highly agricultural and militaristic
Draco/Solon
Aristocrats who worked to create the democracy in Athens and to ensure fair, equal, and open participation
Persian Wars
United all the Greek city-states against their common enemy, Persia
Golden Age of Pericles
Led by Pericles, who established a democracy, rebuilt Athens after Persian deconstruction (Parthenon), established Delian League, and philosophy and arts flourished
Delian League
League comprising of Athens and other city-states
Socrates/Plato/Aristotle
Greek philosophers whose processes were more revolutionary than the ideas themselves
Homer
Wrote the Illiad and the Odyssey prior to the Golden Age
Peloponnesian War
War between Athens and Sparta which eventually made it vulnerable to outside attacks (despite the Spartan victory), which were seized by the Macedonians
Philip III of Macedon
Led the Macedonians to conquer Greece; respected Greek culture and allowed it to flourish
Alexander the Great
Philip’s son who widely expanded Macedonian dominance
Antigonid
Alexander’s Empire: Greece and Macedon
Ptolemaic
Alexander’s Empire: Egypt
Seleucid
Alexander’s Empire: Bactria and Anatolia
Hellenism
The culture, ideals, and pattern of life of Classical Greece
Patricians
Land-owning noble men
Plebeians
All other free men
Twelve Tables of Rome
Codified set of Roman laws; “innocent until proven guilty”
Pater Familias
Social structure of Roman family; eldest male; patriarchy
Carthage
City-state in North Africa with powerful ambitions of its own, and became Rome’s first enemy
Punic Wars
Between Rome and Carthage; first war was to gain control of Sicily, second war began by an attack instigated by Hannibal; third war was instigated by Rome and burned Carthage to the ground
Hannibal
Carthiginian general considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all time
First Triumvirate
Pompey, Crassus, Julius Caesar
Caesar
“Emperor for Life”; resulted in assassination by angry senators
Second Triumvirate
Octavius, Marc Anthony, Lepidus
Octavius
Rose to power and assumed the name of Augustus Caesar, and became emperor; Rome became the capital of the Western world under him; established the rule of law, a common coinage, civil service, and secure travel for merchants
Pax Romana
Period of Roman peace for 200 years
Paganism
State religion of Rome
Constantine
First Christian Roman Emperor
Edict of Milan
Issued by Constantine to end the persecution of Christians
Diocletian
Emperor of Rome; brought armies back under imperial control; divided empire into two regions run by co-emperors; capped prices to deal with inflation
Constantinople
City ordered by Constantine over the Greek city of Byzantium
Visigoths
Germanic people who had adopted Roman law and Christianity; pressures faced by Rome of invasions by this group
Silk Road
Stretched from China to the Roman Empire
Medina
Mohammad and his followers fled to this city to escape persecution; “hijra” (first year in Muslim calendar)
Abu Bakr
Became caliph after Mohammad’s death
Theocracy
Government ruled by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as being divinely guided
Charles Martel
Frankish leader who stopped the Muslim advance in Europe
Shia Islam
Holds that Ali, Mohammad’s son-in-law, was the rightful heir to the empire
Sunni Islam
Holds that the four rightly guided caliphs should lead
Baghdad
Capital of the Abbasid Dynasty and one of the great cultural centers of the world
Mohammad al-Razi
Published a mathematical encyclopaedia which was unlike anything compiled before it
Sufis
Islamic mystics who were its most effective missionaries
Mamluks
Turkish slaves who revolted and established a new capital at Samarra, Iraq. This was one of the final blows to the Islamic caliphates
Mongols
Defeated the Abbasids
Middle Ages
Period after the fall of Rome and before the Renaissance
Orthodox Christianity
Brand of Christianity established in the Byzantine Empire
Justinian
Under this emperor, the former glory and unity of the Roman Empire was somewhat restored in Constantinople
Justinian Code
Codification of Roman law that kept ancient Roman legal principles alive
Hagia Sophia
Cathedral built by Justinian
Battle of Tours
Defeat led by Charles Martel, of Muslim advancing armies
Merovingian Dynasty
Declining Frankish dynasty
Carolingian Dynasty
Founded by Charles Martel; put his sons forth as successors
Pepin the Short
Martel’s son who chose to have his succession certified by the pope, a significant step that sent the clear signal that an empire’s legitimacy rested on the Roman Catholic Church’s approval
Charlemagne
“Charles the Great”; built the Holy Roman Empire
Otto the Great
His coronation marked the beginning of the name of the Holy Roman Empire
Nobles
Beneath the king in the European feudal structure; in exchange for military service and loyalty to the king were granted power over sections of the kingdom
Vassals
Lesser lords who controlled smaller sections of nobles’ land; land could further be split to subordinate vassals and so on
Peasants/Serfs
Below the vassals; worked the land
Manors
Estates that were granted to the vassals (originally called fiefs)
Three-Field System
Centered on the rotation of three fields: one for the fall harvest, one for the spring harvest, and one not-seeded fallow harvest (the latter allowing the land to replenish its nutrients)
Code of Chivalry
Honor system that strongly condemned betrayal and promoted mutual respect. Most of the lords and knights followed this code
Primogeniture
When a lord died under the feudal system, his land and title were passed down to his eldest son
Burghers
Middle-class merchants who became politically powerful during the Middle Ages
Hanseatic League
Alliance which controlled trade throughout much of Northern Europe
Crusades
Military campaigns undertaken by European Christians of the eleventh through fourteenth centuries to take over the Holy Land and convert Muslims and other non-Christians to Christianity
Scholasticism
Academic progress which sometimes came into conflict with the Church because it relied on reason rather than faith as its basis (people thought more openly and universities were found)
Pope Innocent III
Issued strict decrees on church doctrine. Heretics and Jews were frequently persecuted and a fourth Crusade, which was ultimately unsuccessful, occurred under him
Inquisition
Formalized interrogation and persecution progress of heretics, under Pope Gregory IX
Universal Church/Church Militant
Name given to the Church due to its pervasiveness and ultimate power
Thomas Aquinas
Famous Christian realist who made significant inroads in altering Christian thought. Wrote the Summa Theologica, which outlined his view that faith and reason are not in conflict, but that both are gifts from God and each can be used to enhance the other
Interregnum
Time between kings
William the Conqueror
Since his time, England followed a tradition of a strong monarchy
Magna Carta
(1215) Document which reinstated the feudal rights of the nobles, as well as extending the rule of law to other people in the country, namely the growing burgher class. Nobles forced King John to sign it. Laid the foundation for the Parliament
Joan of Arc
Farm girl who claimed to have heard voices that told her to liberate France from the hands of the English. French authorities supplied her with military backing, and she forced the British to retreat from Orleans, but was later captured by the French, tried by the English, and burned at the stake by the French
Hundred Years’ War
(1337-1453) Between England and France, which eventually resulted in England’s withdrawal from France
Bourbons
Series of royal monarchs under whom France became unified and became a major power on the European continent
Queen Isabella
Ruler of Castille, under whom Spain was united
Ferdinand
Heir to the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon. His marriage to Isabella led to the unification of Spain in a single monarchy
Spanish Inquisition
Consequences for non-Christian Spaniards were tragic; consequences for the Spanish monarchy were huge (unified and energized, led to colonization)
Tatars
Group of Mongols from the east, under Genghis Khan. They ruled a large chunk of Russia for two centuries, leading to a cultural rift and that further split Eastern and Western Europe
Czar
Ivan III declared himself this and expanded the Muscovy territory
Ivan the Terrible
Had centralized power over the entire Russian sphere, and ruled ruthlessly, using the secret police against his own nobles
Emperor Xuanzong
Ruler of the T’ang Dynasty; expanded Chinese territory into parts of Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, and Korea
Song Dynasty
China was reunified after the fall of the T’ang under this dynasty and its leader, Emperor Taizu
Yuan Dynasty
Established by the Mongols in China, and lasted less than a century
Ming Dynasty
Established after the Mongols were driven from China; restored traditional Chinese rule
Tribute System
Under the T’ang Dynasty; independent countries including Vietnam, Korea, Tibet, and various Central Asian tribes acknowledged the supremacy of the Chinese emperor and sent ambassadors to the city with gifts
Junks
Chinese ships, which were the best of their time
Wu Zhao
The first and only Empress of China after the death of her husband.
Foot Binding
A woman’s feet would be bound shortly after birth in an effort to keep them small
Yamamoto Clan
First important ruling family of Japan; first and only dynasty to rule Japan
Shinto
“Way of the gods”; goal was to become part of the kami (nature and all forces of nature) through certain rituals and customs as well as obedience and proper behaviour
Prince Shotoku
Borrowed bureaucratic and legal reforms, which were modeled on the successes of the T’ang Dynasty
Taika Reforms
Prince Shotoku’s reforms which were enacted after his death
Fujiwara
One of the most powerful Japanese families in whom the real power had shifted to. The ostensible leader was the emperor. Japan experienced golden age under them; Japanese women and literature
Shogun
Chief general; Japanese feudalism; ostensible power lay in emperor, but the real power lay in the shogun
Daimyo
Owners of large tracts of land (counterparts of European lords)
Code of Bushido
Strict code of conduct followed by Japanese samurai (similar to the code of chivalry in Europe)
Delhi Sultanate
Islamic invaders who set up shop in Delhi under the sultan
Mongol Empire
Stretched from Pacific Ocean to Eastern Europe
Hordes
Small, independent empires of the Mongol Empire
Golden Horde
Region of modern-day Russia under the Mongol Empire
Kublai Khan
Ruled Mongol China; Genghis Khan’s grandson
Pax Mongolica
Peaceful domain of the Mongols in conquered areas which existed after their ruthless conquests
Timur Lang/ Tamerlane
Destroyed the Delhi Sultanate, but it was restored again and the Mongols left
Mongolize
Chinese were not allowed to do this under the Mongols, and instead kept their own identity
Axum
Converted to Christianity in the fourth century, and then many converted to Islam in the seventh century (illustrate that the people of this kingdom were constantly in contact with the Mediterranean world)
Swahili Coast
East coast of Africa which was populated by Bantu-speaking peoples who settled into the lives of farmers, merchants, and fishermen
Mansa Musa
One of the greatest Malian rulers, who built a capital at Timbuktu and expanded the kingdom well beyond the bounds of Ghana
Sonni Ali
Songhai ruler who led the largest empire in West Africa
Oral Literature
History and stories were passed from one generation to the next in African communities
Temple of the Sun/ Machu Picchu
Display Incan skill in building, stone cutting, and mining
Quipu
Set of knotted strings used by the Incas for communication; they never developed a writing system
First Crusade
Initiated by Pope Urban in a response to the Seljuk Turks, who took control of the Holy Land
Vernacular
Native language
Machiavelli
The Price; suggested that a monarchy should be distinct from the church and that a leader should act purely in self-interest of the state rather than on the basis of vague moral tenets
John Calvin
Frenchman who led a powerful Protestant group by preaching an ideology of predestination
Calvinism
Greatly influenced religious development in Scotland under John Knox, and in France with the growth of the Huguenots
King Henry VIII
Did not have a son as heir to his throne and sought to abandon his wife, Catherine of Aragon
Church of England/ Anglican Church
Established by Henry VIII in order to solve “the king’s problem”
Ignatius Loyola
Founded the society of Jesuits, which was influential in restoring faith in the teachings of Jesus as interpreted by the Catholic Church
Jesuits
Practiced self-control and moderation, believing that prayer and good works led to salvation
Council of Trent
Series of meetings which reaffirmed Catholic dogma
Nicolaus Copernicus
Developed the heliocentric theory
Galileo
Copernican model took off under him
Ptolemaic Model
Geocentric model; model which was sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church
The Index
A list of banned heretical works; Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World
Prince Henry the Navigator
Came from Portugal’s royal family, who greatly financed exploration
Bartholomew Dias
Rounded the Cape of Good Hope
Vasco da Gama
Rounded the Cape of Good Hope, explored East African kingdoms, and established trade relations in India
Treaty of Tordesillas
Established a line of demarcation on a longitudinal line that runs through the Western Atlantic Ocean; everything east of the line belonged to Portugal, everything west of the line belonged to Spain
Amerigo Vespucci
He explored South America on several trips around 1500; realized that the continent was huge and not part of Asia; America was named after him
Ponce de Leon
In 1513, he explored much of Central America for Spain, laid sight on the Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan
In 1519, he sailed around the tip of South America to the Pacific Ocean for Portugal. He made it as far as the Philippines, where he died; his crew continued, however, and became the first to circumnavigate the globe
Giovanni da Verrazzano
In 1524, he explored the North American coast for France
Sir Francis Drake
In 1578, he became the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe
John Cabot
In 1597, he explored the coast of North America for England
Henry Hudson
Beginning in 1609, he sailed for the Dutch, looking for a North-west Passage to Asia. He explored the Hudson River and made claims to the area for the Dutch
Sternpost Rudder
Invented in China during the Han Dynasty, this allowed for better navigation and control of ships of increasing size
Lateen Sails
Invented during the early Roman Empire, allowed ships to sail in any direction, regardless of wind
Astrolabe
Sailors used this portable navigation device, developed in the Hellenic world, to help them find their way
Magnetic Compass
Borrowed from the Chinese, this instrument of navigation allowed sailors to determine direction without staying in sight of land
Three-Masted Caravels
Large ships employed significantly larger lateen sails and could hold provisions for longer journeys in their large cargo rooms
Hernan Cortes
Landed on the coast of Mexico with 600 men, and found himself at the heart of the Aztec Empire
Montezuma
Aztec ruler who first mistook Cortes for a god
Francisco Pizarro
Set out in search of the Incas with 200 men
Peninsulares
At the top of the encomienda system–Spanish officials sent to govern the colonies
Creoles
People born in the colonies to Spanish parents
Mestizos
Those with European and Native American ancestry
Mulattos
Those with European and African ancestry
Viceroys
Governors who ran the Spanish empire and established the encomienda system
Middle Passage
African slaves were forced to endure this route to the Americas
Age of Exploration
Made possible by new financing schemes that now form the basis of our modern economies
Joint-Stock Company
An organization created to pool the resources of many merchants, thereby distributing the costs and risks of colonization and reducing the danger for individual investors
Muscovy Company
English company that monopolized trade routes
Dutch East India Company
Controlled routes to the Spice Islands
Mercantilism
A country actively sought to trade, but tried not to import more than it exported
Charles V
The international importance of Spain grew under him–a Hapsburg
Hapsburg
A family that originated in Austria and through a series of carefully arranged marriages, created a huge empire stretching from Austria and Germany to Spain
Ferdinand I
Brother of Charles V, who gained control over Austria and the Holy Roman throne of Germany
Philip II
Son of Charles V, who conferred the throne of Spain and jurisdiction over Burgundy (France), the Netherlands, as well as Spain’s claims in the New World
Henry VIII
Established the Act of Supremacy and established the Church of England
Elizabeth I
Daughter of Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII, who oversaw a golden age of the arts
Elizabethan Age
1558-1603 boasted a commercial expansion and exploration and colonization of the New World
James I
Came to power after the death of Elizabeth I, and attempted to institute reforms that brought together the crowns of England and Scotland, yet widespread problems persisted
Charles I
Son of James I, who, out of desperation for money, signed the Petition of Right
Long Parliament
Sat for twenty years and limited the absolute powers of the monarchy
Oliver Cromwell
Leader of the Roundheads who defeated Charles I
English Commonwealth
Oliver Cromwell was its leader
Lord Protector
Title given to Cromwell during his reign of the Commonwealth
Stuart Restoration
When Parliament invited Charles II to take the throne and restore a limited monarchy
Habeas Corpus Act
Protects people from arrests without due process, signed by Charles II
Glorious Revolution
James II was driven from power by Parliament, and was replaced by William and Mary
English Bill of Rights
Signed by William and Mary after the Glorious Revolution, Protestant rulers
Henry IV
Issued Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
Created an environment of tolerance
Cardinal Mazarin
Richelieu’s successor
Cardinal Richelieu
Played an important role as the chief advisor to the Bourbons
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Appointed by Louis XIV to manage the royal funds (he was a mercantilist)
Louis XIV
Ruled under divine right, and famously declared, “I am the State”
War of Spanish Succession
1701-1714 proved to be a disaster for the grand plans of France
Philip V
Grandson of Louis XIV who was able to rule Spain
Peace of Augsburg
Intended to bring an end to the constant conflicts between Catholics and Protestants that engulfed the region during the Reformation and counter-reformation
Thirty Years’ War
Began when the Protestant territories of Bohemia challenged the authority of the Holy Roman Catholic emperor
Peace of Westphalia
The independence of small german states was affirmed, and Prussia became the strongest of them
Ivan III
Refused to pay tribute to the Mongols and declared Russia free of Mongol rule
Cossacks
Peasant-soldiers who expanded Russian territories in the 16th-18th centuries well into Siberia and the Caspian Sea
Time of Troubles
One pretender to the throne would be killed by another pretender and yet another
Michael Romanov
Elected czar by the feudal lords–his dynasty added stability to the empire
Peter the Great
Westernized Russia by building its first navy and founded his eponymous city
Catherine the Great
More enlightened policies of education and western culture were implemented in Russia
Osman Bey
Founded the Ottoman Empire
Janissaries
Enslaved children by the Ottomans, who turned them into fighting warriors
Selim I
Much of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire occurred during his reign–Istanbul became the center of the Islamic civilization
Suleiman the Magnificient
Built up Ottoman military and actively encouraged the development of the arts
Babur
Invaded India and defeated Delhi Sultanate, thereby establishing the Mughal Empire
Akbar
Babur’s grandson who was able to unify much of India by governing under a policy of religious toleration
Angola
Established by the Portuguese for the sole purpose of expanding their trade in slaves from the interior
King Alfonso I
King of Kongo who was especially successful at converting his people to Christianity
Zheng He
Chinese navigator who led fleets throughout southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean, all the way to East Africa, a century before the Europeans did the same
Tokugawa Shogunate
A strict and rigid government that ruled Japan until 1868
Edo Period
Also known as the Tokugawa period
National Seclusion Policy
Prohibited Japanese from traveling abroad, and prohibited most foreigners from visiting Japan
Kabuki
Japanese theater which gained popularity during the Edo period
Enclosure
Public lands that were shared during the Middle Ages were closed by fences, which allowed for private farming and private gain
Urbanization
Natural outgrowth of the increased efficiencies in farming and agriculture–cities grew
Domestic System
An inefficient, highly labor-intensive system in which cotton was woven into cloth in homes or small shops in Britain
Flying Shuttle
Invented by John Kay, this sped up the weaving process
Spinning Jenny
Invented by John Hargreaves, this was capable of spinning vast amounts of thread
Cotton Gin
Invented by Eli Whitney, this allowed massive amounts of cotton to be quickly processed in the Americas and exported to Europe
Steam Engine
Improved by James Watt, this invention was revolutionary because steam could not only be used to generate power for industry, but also for transportation
Steamship
Built by Robert Fulton
Steam-Powered Locomotive
Built by George Stephenson
Telegraph
Invented in 1837 by Samuel Morse, this allowed people to communicate across great distances within seconds
Telephone
Invented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell
Lightbulp
Invented in 1876 by Thomas Edison–allowed factories to run all night
Internal Combustion Engine
Invented in 1885 by Gottlieb Daimler
Radio
Invented in the 1890s by Guglielmo Marconi
Airplane
Invented in 1903 by Orville and Wilbur Wright
Interchangeable Parts
Eli Whitney’s system in which machines and their parts were produced uniformly so that they could be easily replaced when something broke down
Assembly Line
Henry Ford’s system in which each factory worker added only one part to a finished product, one after another
Adam Smith
Wrote that economic prosperity and fairness is best achieved through private ownership
Free Market System
Capitalism; Smith argued would best meet the needs and desires of individuals as a whole
Laissez-Faire Capitalism
When governments remove themselves entirely from regulation
Karl Marx
German economist and philosopher who spent a good part of his adult life in poverty, pointed out that the factory workers had genuine opportunities but were being exploited as a consequence of capitalism
Socialism/Communism
Result of impact of Marxism
Labor Unions
Vehicles through which thousands of employees bargained for better working conditions, or threatened to strike, thereby shutting down the factory
Factory Act of 1883
Limited the hours of each workday, restricted children from working in factories, and required factory owners to make working conditions safer and cleaner
Mobility
The ability of a person to work his way up from one social class to the next–became more commonplace during the second half of the 19th century
Women’s Suffrage Movement
Successfully gave women the right to vote in 1920 (United States) and 1928 (Britain)
Social Darwinists
Applied Charles Darwin’s biological theory of natural selection to sociology
Rudyard Kipling
Summed up Social Darwinism in his poem “White Man’s Burden”
British East India Company
Joint-stock company that operated like a multinational corporation with exclusive rights over British trade with India
Robert Clive
Raised an effective army that ridded the Indian subcontinent of the French
Bahadur Shah II
Last of the Mughal rulers who was sent into exile, thereby ending the Mughal Empire for good–Queen Victoria was Empress of India
Indian National Congress
Formed by well-educated Indians, and would begin the path toward independence
Opium War
Britain and China fought a war over opium trade in the first of these wars
Treaty of Nanjing
China was forced to sign the first of what became known as the “unequal treaties,” by which Britain was given considerable rights to expand trade with China
White Lotus Rebellion
Led by Buddhists who were frustrated over taxes and government corruption
Taiping Rebellion
Led by a religious zealot claiming to be the brother of Jesus, recruited an army nearly a million strong and nearly succeeded in bringing down the Manchu government
Self-Strengthening Movement
Manchu Dynasty tried to get its act together in the 1860s
Sino-French War
Chinese lost control of Vietnam to the French, who established a colony there called French Indochina
Sino-Japanese War
Japan defeated China in this war, and became a rising imperial power
Treaty of Shimonoseki
China was forced to hand over control of Taiwan and grant the Japanese trading rights similar to those it had granted the Europeans
Spheres of Influence
Not quite colonies, but were areas in which the European powers invested heavily, built military bases, and set up business, transportation, and communication operations
Open Door Policy
United States pledged its support of the sovereignty of the Chinese government and announced equal trading privileges among all imperial powers
Boxers
Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists organized with other groups in response to the Manchu government’s defeats and concessions to the Western powers and Japan
Boxer Protocol
China was forced to sign this, which demanded that China not only pay the Europeans and Japanese the costs associated with the rebellion, but also to formally apologize for it as well
Commodore Matthew Perry
Came from the United States to Japan in a steamboat, something the Japanese had never seen before and shocked them into realizing that their isolation had resulted in their inability to compete economically and militarily with the industrialized world
Treaty of Kanagawa
West won concessions from Japan through treaties such as this, as they grossly favored the United States and other countries
Meiji Restoration
Ushered in an era of Japanese westernization, after which Japan emerged as a world power
Russo-Japanese War
Victorious Japan kicked Russia out of Manchuria and established its own sphere of influence there–Japan was now not just an imperial power, but also a world power
Boer War
When the Boers discovered diamonds and gold in the Transvaal, the British quickly followed, fighting a series of wars for the rights to the resources–British reigned supreme, and all of South Africa was annexed as part of the British Empire
African National Congress
Educated South Africans formed this in an effort to oppose European colonialism and specific South African policies
Muhammad Ali
Defeated French and Ottomans, and gained control of Egypt–although it was technically still part of the Ottoman Empire, this viceroy wielded almost exclusive control
Abbas I
Grandson of Muhammad Ali, under whom Ali’s westernization attempts were temporarily halted, but later reinvigorated under subsequent rulers
Suez Canal
Connected the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean, eliminating the need to go around the Cape of Good Hope–because the British had a huge colony in India, this became more important to the British than anyone else
Protectorate
Essentially a colony, except the local people remained in political power
French and Indian War
Seven Years’ War; British victory changed the boundaries of the two empires’ worldwide possessions, pushing French territory to the north while English territories expanded westward into the Ohio River valley
George Grenville/Charles Townshend
Passed very unpopular laws on behalf of the British crown
Revenue Act/Stamp Act/Tea Act
Intended to raise additional funds for the British crown
Thomas Paine
In his pamphlet “Common Sense,” he assailed the monarchy as an encroachment on Americans’ natural rights and appealed to the colonists to form a better government
Estates General
Governing body that hadn’t met for 175 years, but called by Louis XVI in order to raise taxes
National Assembly
The Third Estate declared themselves this
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Adopted by the National Assembly–a document recognizing natural rights and based on the ideas of the Enlightenment, the American Declaration of Independence, and the writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Convention
Under the new constitution, this was the new governing body, and it quickly abolished the monarchy and proclaimed France a republic
Jacobins
Radicals who led the Convention to imprison the royal family and behead the king for treason
Committee of Public Safety
The Convention threw out the constitution and created this, an all-powerful enforcer of the revolution and murderer of anyone suspected of anti-revolutionary tendencies
Maximilien Robespierre
This man and the Jacobins led the Committee of Public Safety
Directory
Five-man government established by France
Napoleon Bonaparte
This man returned to France and used his reputation and immense popularity to overthrow the Directory, and legitimized his actions by putting them before a popular vote, and once affirmed, he declared himself the First Consul under the new constitution
Napoleonic Codes
Recognized the equality of French citizens (meaning men), and institutionalized some of the Enlightenment ideas that had served as the original inspiration for many of the revolutionaries
Prince von Metternich/Alexander I/Duke of Wellington
Principal members of the coalition against Napoleon
Battle of Waterloo
Allies united against their common threat, and defeated Napoleon, and sent him into exile
Congress of Vienna
Allies decided what to do with France and its territories during this meeting
Pierre Toussaint L’Ouverture
Former slave who led a violent, but ultimately successful slave revolt against the French in Haiti
Jacques Dessalines
L’Ouverture’s lieutenant who proclaimed Haiti a free republic and named himself governor-general for life
Simon Bolivar
Helped establish a national congress, which declared independence from Spain
Royalists
Supporters of the Spanish crown
Gran Colombia
Gained freedom due to Bolivar–included modern-day Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela
Jose de San Martin
Began to put his extensive military experience to use for the rebels, and took command of Argentinian armies
John VI
Portuguese king who fled to Brazil and set up his royal court in exile
Pedro
Son of John VI, who declared Brazilian independence and crowned himself emperor
Pedro II
Son of Pedro, who reformed Brazilian society in many ways and turned it into a major exporter of coffee, and also abolished slavery
Miguel Hidalgo
Creole priest who sympathized with those who had been abused under Spanish colonialism, led a revolt against Spanish rule
Jose Morelos
Picked up where Hidalgo left off, and led the revolutionaries to further successes against the loyalists
Treaty of Cordoba
Spain was forced to recognize that its 300-year domination of Latin America was coming to an end
Victor Emmanuel II
King of Sardinia–believed strongly in Italian unification
Count Camillo Cavour
Prime minister of Victor Emmanuel–also believed strongly in Italian unification
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Italian nationalist who raised a volunteer army and drove Spain from the Kingdom of Two Sicilies
William I
New king of Prussia
Otto von Bismarck
Prime minister of William I, who was appointed with the aim of building the military and consolidating the region under his authority
Franco-Prussian War
Consolidated the German Catholic regions under Prussian control
William II
Forced Bismarck to resign and re-established authority as the emperor–oversaw the rise of Germany into one of the most powerful nations in the world
Alexander II
Began some reforms in Russia, long after the Enlightenment had an effect on most developments in the West
Emancipation Edict
Essentially abolished serfdom, but did little good
Russification
All Russians, including people in the far-flung reaches of the Empire that did not share a cultural history with most of Russia, were expected to learn the Russian language and convert to Russian Orthodoxy
Bloody Sunday
Moderates marched on the czar’s palace in a peaceful protest, an attempt to encourage him to enact Enlightened reforms, but Nicholas II felt threatened and ordered his troops to fire on the protestors
Peter Stolypin
Prime minister appointed by Czar Nicholas II in order to enact legislative reforms
Duma
A body intended to represent the Russian people, but every time it was critical of the czar, he disbanded it
Monroe Doctrine
It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention
Roosevelt Corollary
Provided that the United States would intervene in financial disputes between European powers and countries in the Americas, if doing so would help to maintain peace
Panama Canal
United States incited Panamanians to declare their independence from Colombia, so that the US could negotiate their right to build this
Spanish-American War
Conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, the result of American intervention in the Cuban War of Independence
Triple Alliance
Created by Bismarck–comprised of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Triple Entente
Friendly agreement between Britain, France, and Russia
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
His death marked the beginning of WWI
Gavrilo Princip
Member of the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist, who shot and killed the Archduke and his wife
Central Powers
Alliance between the Ottoman Empire, Germany, and Austria-Hungary
Allies
Britain, France, Russia, Japan
Isolationism
Focus on internal affairs–the United States in the beginning of WWI
Zimmermann Telegram
A secret message sent between German diplomats suggesting that Mexico might want to join forces with Germany and thereby regain the territory it had lost to the United States in the Mexican-American war of 1846–it was intercepted by the United States
Treaty of Versailles
Brought an official end to WWI
Fourteen Points
Established by President Wilson–focused on achieving future peace and a workable balance of power
League of Nations
A joint council of nations called upon in Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Czar Nicholas
Forced to abdicate his throne in 1917, thereby ending the rule of the Romanov Dynasty
Alexander Kerensky
A provisional government was established under him during the Russian Revolution
Soviets
Local councils in Russia
Bolsheviks
Socialist party in Russia
April Theses
Issued by Lenin, which demanded peace, land for peasants, and power to the soviets
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Armistice between Russia and Germany, which ceded a huge part of western Russia to Germany, so Russia dropped out of WWI
Red Army
Military force under Leon Trotsky, created by the Bolsheviks
Mustafa Kemal
Ataturk; led successful military campaigns against the Greeks, and then overthrew the Ottoman sultan
New Economic Policy
Instituted by Lenin–it had some capitalistic aspects, such as allowing farmers to sell portions of their grain for their own profit
Five Year Plans
Instituted by Stalin, who felt that the NEP was too slow–called for expedient agricultural production by ruthlessly taking over private farms and combining them into state-owned enterprises (collectivization)
Great Purge
Murders between 1936 and 1938 by Stalin’s government
Great Depression
Instigated by the U.S. stock market crash in 1929
Fascism
Political ideology in which the will of the individual ought to be destroyed in favor of “the people”
Blackshirts
Squads paid by Mussolini’s party in order to fight socialist and communist organizations
Weimar Republic
Fairly conservative democratic republic that Germany was after WWI
Reichstag
Weimar Republic’s elected body
Francisco Franco
Took control of large parts of Spain–led to the defeat of democracy
Rhineland
Hitler continued his policy of restoring Germany to its former world-power status by taking this region back–it had been taken away after WWI
Munich Conference
Hitler, Mussolini, and Chamberlain–Hitler was given the Sudetenland, without the consent of Czechoslovakia, in return for the promise to cease his expansionist activities
Appeasement
Policy used by Chamberlain during the Munich Conference
Nazi-Soviet Pact
Stalin and Hitler agreed that Germany would not invade the Soviet Union if the Soviets stayed out of Germany’s military affairs–the countries also determined how Eastern Europe would be divided among them
Manchukuo
Japan invaded Manchuria and established a colony there, renaming it this
Anti-Comintern Pact
Pact against communism, signed by Japan and Germany
Winston Churchill
Replaced Britain’s more diplomatically minded Chamberlain
Battle of Britain
Massive air bombing campaign launched in 1940 by Hitler, when Churchill refused to cut a deal with Germany
Tripartite Pact
Japan entered this with Rome and Berlin, thereby ensuring worldwide implications for a war that had been two regional wars
Pearl Harbor
Japanese bombing of a US naval station in Hawaii, to which the US declared war against Japan, and Germany declared war against the US
Manhattan Project
Development of an atomic bomb
D-Day
English, American, and Canadian forces launched their biggest offensive landing on the French beaches of Normandy
President Truman
Ordered the dropping of an atomic bomb on Hiroshima
Nagasaki
Truman authorized the dropping of a second bomb on this city when the Japanese vowed to fight on–this brought an end to WWII
Marshall Plan
Billions of dollars of American money made available for reconstruction, in order to help the rebuilding effort after WWII
United Nations
First international organization established to replace the League of Nations
Yalta and Potsdam
Allied conferences in which Germany and other parts of Eastern Europe were divided into temporary spheres of influence, each to be occupied and rebuilt by respective members of the Allied forces
Berlin Blockade
The Soviets wanted all of Berlin to be within its control, so they cut off land access to Berlin from the west
Berlin Airlift
Western retaliation to the Berlin Blockade, in which food and fuel were flown in to the “trapped” western half of the city
Soviet Bloc
East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Hungary became part of the Eastern bloc
Western Bloc
Western Europe, including Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, West Germany, Greece and Turkey
Containment
Policy used in the Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine
United States explicitly stated that it would aid countries threatened by communist takeovers
NATO
Military alliance of mutual defense for the Western bloc
Warsaw Pact
Military alliance of the Eastern bloc–response to NATO
Iron Curtain
Churchill called the line between the East and West this, because Western influence couldn’t penetrate it, and Easterners were rarely allowed to go to the Western bloc
Three Principles of the People
Sun Yat-sen; nationalism, socialism, and democracy
KMT (Kuomindang)
Sun Yat-sen’s political party, dedicated to his own goals
Chiang Kai-shek
Sun Yat-sen’s successor, who established the KMT as the ruling party of China for a while
Mao Zedong
Rallied millions of peasants in northern China and swept towards KMT strongholds, eventually driving them out
Republic of China
Established by the KMT after Mao in Taiwan
People’s Republic of China
Mainland China
Great Leap Forward
Huge communes were created as a way of catapulting the revolution toward its goal of a Marxist state
Cultural Revolution
Discourage anything approaching a privileged ruling class, as it existed in the West as well as among the Soviet communist elite
Deng Xiaoping
Changed the education policy in China and began to focus on restructuring the economic policies after the Cultural Revolution
Tiananmen Square
One million demonstrators converged here, calling for democratic reform
General MacArthur
Led the UN forces in aid for South Korea
Vietminh
Nationalists who fought the French in their colony of Indochina
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of the land north of the 17th parallel
Ngo Dinh Diem
Vietnamese leader of the democratic south
Viet Cong
Communist fighters in Vietnam who eventually took control of the south
Platt Amendment
United States remained involved in Cuban affairs, and this also provided for the presence of US military bases
Batista Dictatorship
United States supported this dictatorship in Cuba, which continued the policies that benefited the welathy landowners
Fidel Castro
Led a peasant uprising to the Batista regime
Cuban Revolution
Success against Batista
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Authorized by Kennedy; failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961
Cuban Missile Crisis
Standoff that occurred after Kennedy made it clear to the world that if missiles were to be launched from Cuba, the United States would retaliate against the Soviet Union itself
Sandinista
Guerilla fighters in Nicaragua and El Salvador
Export Economies
Economies of Latin America–reliance on products that has resulted in weak domestic economies and tremendous debt
Solidarity
Polish movement under Lech Walesa, in which thousands of workers joined a strike for reform of the communist economic system
Glasnost
Openness
Perestroika
Restructuring of the Soviet economy
Ethnic Cleansing
Nationalistic movements within Yugoslavia led to this, in which Bosnian and Albanian Muslims were raped and slaughtered by Christian Serbians
Boris Yeltsin
Russia’s first president who resigned, and was succeeded by Putin
Muslim League
Founded by Muhammad Ali Jinnah to advance the causes of Islamic Indians
Gamal Nasser
General in the Egyptian army who overthrew the king and established a republic
African Union
A political and economic confederation formed to replace the Organization of African Unity–53 of Africa’s 54 nations belong to this
Tutsi
15% of Rwandan population
Hutu
85% of the Rwandan population
Sharpeville Massacre
After this, the ANC supported guerrilla warfare
Balfour Declaration of 1917
Explicitly stated the right for a home in Palestine for the Jewish people, but also stated that it should in no way displace the Palestinians who currently lived there
Pogroms
Anti-Semitic mobs
David Ben-Gurion
First prime minister of Israel
1948 Arab-Israeli War
Muslims from six Arab countries attacked Israel in this war–shortly after the announcement of Israel’s creation–Israelis won
Six Days’ War
Israelis took control of the West Bank, Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, and Golan Heights–Israelis won
Camp David Accords
Signed by Sadat and Begin–agreement that did not mention Golan Heights, Syria, or Lebanon, but which led to Israel pulling out the Sinai and Egypt becoming the only Arab country yet to recognize Israel’s right to exist
Intifada
“Uprising”–movement that sometimes uses terrorism against Israeli citizens in an attempt to either destroy Israel or force it into withdrawal from the occupied territories
Ariel Sharon
Approved the construction of a wall to be built between the Palestinian West Bank and Israel in order to protect Israelis against suicide attacks
Mahmoud Abbas
Palestinian president who quickly signed a cease-fire with Israel that effectively ended the intifada
Reza Shah Pahlavi
Rose to power by ousting the then-ruling shah, who had allowed Persia to fall under European spheres of influence–he decided that the best way to beat the Westernizers was to join them
Iranian Revolution
Shah was ousted by power, and replaced by Ayatollah Khomeini
Iran-Iraq War
Iraq invaded Iran following a series of border disputes–neither side gained much until a cease-fire was signed
Persian Gulf War
The West sent forces to drive the Iraqis out of Kuwait
Special Economic Zones
China created these, which were exempt from the strict controls of communism