AP World History: Middle Ages and Vikings

Carolingians
This dynasty is seen as the founders of France and Germany, and its beginning date is based on the crowning of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, and ends with the death of Charles the Fat.
Charlemagne
Son of Pepin the Short. Soon after becoming king, he conquered the Lombards (in present-day northern Italy), the Avars (in modern-day Austria and Hungary. Pope Leo III crowned him emperor of the Romans on December 25, 800 AD.
Louis the Pious
Charlemagne’s son and successor. He became sole emperor when Charlemagne died in January 814.
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Feudal Nobles
Wealthy aristocrats who owned land and provided armies for Kings (or other rulers)
Vassals
Men who would swear loyalty to a more a powerful lord.
In return for their soldiers and loyalty the greater lord would give land and protection
Parish Priests
Local Priest who would: Administer the sacrament,Preach the Gospels,Guided people on issues regarding morality.
The Benedictine Rule
A set of rules set up to govern the lives of monks in monasteries.
The rules were:
Obedience to the abbot or abbess.
Poverty.
Chastity.
The Village Church
The social center of the middle ages. Prosperous communities built elaborate stone versions.
Pope Gregory VII
Pope that outlawed marriage for priests and prohibited simony (the selling of Church offices) in 1073
Vikings
A group of seafarers from Scandinavia that colonized and raided parts of Europe from about 793 AD through about 1066 AD.
Mongols
Invaded Russia in 1236 and, by 1242, had conquered all the appendage principalities. They founded a capital at Old Sarai and developed simple administrative system.
Khanate of the Golden Horde
Mongol branch that ruled in Russia. Russian politics took the form of various local princes jockeying and groveling for the support of the Mongol khan in order to advance their petty schemes
Silkroad
Trade route between Western Europe and China that brought trade goods between the east and west including silk.
Guilds
An association of merchants, craftsman, or artists
Norman Conquest
William of Normandy with the backing of the Pope invaded England. In 1066 where he defeats King Harold and become the ruler of England.
Bayeux Tapestry
An embroidered linen tapestry with colored woolen thread. Provides a unique record of the Battle of Hastings including weapons and clothing. The last panel is missing.
“Domesday Book”
William the Conqueror’s book that listed every castle, field, and pigpen in England. Revolutionized tax collecting in Medieval England.
Magna Carta
Legal document that gave the Nobles rights in court and made clear that the king must obey the law.
Parliament
Started as the great council of nobles that among other things
approved money for wars. Edward I expanded it to include the “common people”
Holy Roman Empire
A loosely federated central European political entity that began with the coronation of the German king Otto I as the first emperor in 962. The empire was long troubled, first by the conflict between papal and civil authority and later by religious strife and political fragmentation.
Otto I
defended the Pope in Italy and was given the title of Holy Roman Emperor. (Duke of Saxony and later King of Germany)
Investiture Crisis
Debate between the Pope and Kings over who had the right to name Bishops to positions in a given territory.
Investiture
In ecclesiastical law, an elected cleric received the pastoral ring and staff (the symbols of spiritual office) signifying the transfer of the office. After the oath of fealty, the lord “invested” the vassal with the fief, usually by giving him some symbol of the land or office transferred.
Pope Gregory VII
Fought with Emperor Henry IV over the right to name Bishops to position in Germany (Holy Roman Empire)
Emperor Henry IV
Fought with Pope Gregory VIII over the right to name Bishops to position in Germany (Holy Roman Empire). Pope Gregory excommunicated him, freeing his subjects from their allegiance to the emperor. He crossed the Alps “with bare feet and clad only in a wretched woolen garment,” he presented himself to the Pope as a repented sinner.
Concordat of Worms
In 1122 both sides agreed to a compromise. The Pope had the right to appoint clergy while the King had the right to invest fiefs.
Pope Innocent III
led a crusade against the simple Christians called the Albigensians. Known as one of the strongest pope’s in history.
Pope Urban II
Called on the knights of Christendom to join a crusade to save Constantinople, Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim Turks.
Bubonic Plague
Epidemic disease that was spread by flees carried by rats. Known for causing sores among other symptoms. One third to one half the population of Europe died of the Plague within the next few years.
Gregory XII
Pope in Rome at the Council of Constance. He agreed to abdicate, provided that he was permitted officially to call the council back later to which the council agreed.
Joan of Arc
A 17 year old peasant woman. She convinced the French King to let her lead the army because she was sent by God to save France. She won many victories for France before being captured and executed by the English. In 1431 she was burned as a witch at Rouen, France.
Henry VI
English King who was crowned King of France in Paris. Under his incompetent rule, France whittles away at English holdings in France.
The Viking Age
The years between 793-1066 during which the Vikings colonized other parts of Europe and areas around North America
Manorialism
the name for the organization of the economy in the Middle Ages. The economy relied mainly on agriculture.
Feudalism
System that was implemented to provide protection to lesser lords and peasants after Viking invasions.
It was an economic, political, and social system in which protection was repaid by land or labor.
Chivalry
Code of conduct for nobles
Guilds
is an association of merchants, craftsman, or artists. (Like a Union)
They dominated town life and one could not work a trade without being a member.
Cathedral Schools
Schools based in cathedrals
Curriculum of Latin writings
Literature, philosophy, some law, medicine, theology
Best form of education in the Middle Ages
Medieval Universities
Academic guilds formed in 12th century
Both student and faculty organizations
Higher standards of education promoted
Treatment of students in town major source of concern
First Crusades
Captures Jerusalem, largely due to poor Muslim organization
Saladin
Muslim ruler who was tolerant and forbade his soldiers to kill, harm or steal from defeated crusaders.
William the Conqueror
with the backing of the Pope invades England in 1066 where he defeats King Harold in events called the Norman Invasion
Frederick Barbarossa ( Red Beard)
Attempt to absorb Lombardy (northern Italy)
Popes did not want him to gain that much power, enlisted aid from other states

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