AP World History Midterm Vocabulary

AP World History Midterm Vocabulary

hominds
members of the family Hominidae that contains humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans
Paleolithic era
period during which humans used tools of stone, bone, and wood and obtained food by gathering and hunting
foraging
a style of life in which people gain food by gathering plant products, trapping or catching small animals and birds, and hunting larger prey
Neolithic era
period beginning in 9000 BCE during which humans obtained food by raising crops and animals and continued to use tools primarily of stone, bone, and wood
Neanderthals
group of Homo erectus with brains as large as those of modern humans that flourished in Europe and Western Asia between 150,000 and 30,000 years ago
megafaunal extinction
die-off of large animals in many parts of the world about 15,000-10,000 BCE, caused by climate change and perhaps human hunting
division of labor
differentiation of tasks by gender, age, training, status, or other social distinctions
animism
idea that animals, plants, natural occurrences, and other parts of the physical world have spirits
shamans
spiritually adept men and women who communicated with the unseen world
Agricultural Revolution
dramatic transformation in human history resulting from the change from foraging to raising crops and animals
domesticated
plants and animals modified by selective breeding so as to serve human needs; domesticated animals will behave in specific ways and breed in captivity
horticulture
crop raising done with had tools and human power
pastoralism
an economic system based on herding flocks of goats, sheep, cattle, or other animals
social hierarchies
divisions between the rich and poor, elites and common people that have been a central feature of human society since the Neolithic era
patriarchy
social system in which men have more power and access to resources than women and some men are dominant over other men
ziggurat
temple in the form of a step-pyramid built in the center of a Mesopotamian city to honor the gods
cuneiform
wedge shaped writing system that developed in Sumeria, the first writing system in the world
epic poems
narrations of the achievements and sometimes the failures of heroes that embody a people’s or a nation’s conception of its own past; first developed in ancient Sumeria
pharoh
leader of religious and political life in the Old Kingdom, commanded the wealth, resources, and the people of Egypt
polytheism
belief in many dieties
Book of the Dead
book that preserved Egyptians’ ideas about death and the afterlife
hieroglyphs
Egyptian letters, including both ideograms and phonetic signs, written with a brush on papyrus sheets or walls
Indo-European language family
large family of languages that includes English, most of the languages of modern Europe, Greek, Latin, Persian, Hindi, Bengali, and Sanskrit, the sacred tongue of ancient India
Phoenicians
people of the prosperous city states in what is now Lebanon who dominated trade throughout the Mediterranean and spread the letter alphabet
Yahweh
all powerful god of the Hebrew people and the basis for the enduring religious traditions of Judaism
Zoroastrianism
religion based on the teachings of Zoroaster, who emphasized the individual’s responsibility to choose between good and evil
Harrapan
first Indian civilization; also known as the Indus Valley civilization
Aryans
dominant people in north India after the decline of the Indus Valley civilization; spoke an early form of Sanskrit
Rigveda
earliest form of Indian hymns, ritual texts, and philosophical treatises, it is the central source of information on early Aryans
Brahmins
priests of the Aryans; supported the growth of royal power in return for royal confirmation of their own religious rights, power, and status
caste system
Indian system of dividing society into hereditary groups whose members interacted primarily within the group, and especially married within the group
samsara
transmigration of souls by a continual process of rebirth
karma
tally of good and bad deeds that determines the status of an individual’s next life
brahman
the unchanging ultimate reality, according to the Upanishads
Four Noble Truths
Buddha’s message that pain and suffering are inescapable parts of life; suffering and anxiety are caused by human desires and attachments; people can understand and triumph over these weaknesses; and the triumph is made possible by following a simple code of conduct
Eightfold Path
code of conduct set forth by the Buddha in his first sermon, beginning with “right conduct” and ending with “right contemplation”
nirvana
state of blissful nothingness and freedom from reincarnation
sutras
written teachings of the Buddha, first transcribed in the second or first century BCE
Mahayana
the “Great Vehicle,” tradition of Buddhism that aspires to be more inclusive
bodhisattavas
Buddhas-to-be who stayed in the world after enlightenment to help others on the path to salvation
dharma
Sanskrit word for moral law, central to both Buddhist and Hindu teachings
Code of Manu
codification of early Indian law that lays down family, caste, and commercial law
loess
soil deposited by wind; fertile and easy to work
Anyang
one of the Shang dynasty capitals from which the Shang kings ruled for more than two centuries
taotie
stylized animal face commonly seen in Chinese bronzes
logographic
system of writing in which each word is represented by a single symbol, such as the Chinese script
Mandate of Heaven
theory that Heaven gives the kings a mandate to rule only as long as he rules in the interest of the people
shi
lower ranks of Chinese aristocracy; these men could serve in either military or civil capacities
Warring States Period
period of Chinese history between 403 and 221 BCE when states fought each other and one state after another was destroyed
crossbow
powerful mechanical bow developed in the Warring States Period
filial piety
reverent attitude of children to their parents extolled by Confucius
ren
ultimate Confucian virtue; translated as perfect goodness, benevolence, humanity, human-heartedness, and nobility
Dao
The Way, the whole natural order in Daoist philosophy. In Confucianism, it means the moral way
Legalists
political theorists who emphasized the need for rigorous laws and laid the basis for China’s later bureaucratic government
yin and yang
concept of complementary poles, one which represents the feminine, dark, and receptive, and the other masculine, bright, and assertive
Book of Documents
one of the earliest Chinese books, containing documents, speeches, and historical accounts about early Zhou rule
Book of Songs
earliest collection of Chinese poetry; it provides glimpses of what life was like in the early Zhou Dynasty
polis
translated as “city-state,” basic political and institutional unit of ancient Greece
hoplites
heavily armed citizens who served as infantrymen and fought to defend the polis
democracy
type of Greek government in which all citizens administered the workings of the government
oligarchy
a type of Greek government in which a small group of wealthy citizens, not necessarily of aristocratic birth, rules
tyranny
rule by one man who took over an existing government, generally by using his wealth to gain a political following
Delian League
grand naval alliance created by the Athenians aimed at liberating Ionia from Persian rule
mystery religions
religious systems in the Hellenistic world that incorporated aspects of both Greek and Eastern religions; were characterized by secret doctrines, rituals of initiation, and the promise of an afterlife
Epicuranism
Greek system of philosophy founded on the teachings of Epicurus that viewed a life of contentment, free from fear and suffering, as the greatest good
Stocism
most popular of Hellenistic philosophies, considered nature an expression of divine will and held that people can be happy only when living in accordance with nature
consuls
primary executives in the Roman republic, elected for one-year terms, who commanded the army in battle, administered state business, and supervised financial affairs; originally the office was limited to patricians
manumission
freeing of individual slaves by their masters
patricians
Roman aristocracy; wealthy landowners who held political power
Pax Romana
period of Roman security, order, harmony, flourishing culture, and expanding economy during the first and second centuries CE
plebeians
common people of Rome, who had few of the patrician’s advantages
pagan
from a Latin term meaning “of the country,” used to describe non-Christian followers of the Greco-Roman gods
senate
assembly that was the main institution of government in the Roman republic. Grew out of an earlier council of advisers to the king
bishop
Christian church official with jurisdiction over a certain area and the power to determine the correct interpretation of Christian teachings
paterfamilias
oldest dominant male of the family, who held nearly absolute power over the lives of family members as long as he lived
heresy
religious practice or belief judged unacceptable by church officials
Great Wall
rammed earth fortification built along the northern border of China during the reign of the First Emperor
Confucian classics
ancient texts recovered during the Han Dynasty that Confucian scholars treated as sacred scriptures
Records of the Grand Historian
comprehensive history of China written by Sima Qian
Silk Road
trade routes through which Chinese silk and other items were traded
tributary system
system first established during the Han Dynasty to regulate contact with foreign powers; states and tribes beyond its borders sent envoys bearing gifts and received gifts in return
eunuchs
castrated males who played an important role as palace servants
Age of Division
period after the fall of the Han Dynasty, when China was politically divided
Grand Canal
canal, built during the Sui dynasty, that connected the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers, notable for strengthening China’s internal cohesion and economic development
Chan
school of Buddhism (known in Japan as Zen) that rejected the authority of the sutras and claimed superiority of mind-to-mind transmission of Buddhist truths
Shinto
The Way of the Gods, it was the native religion espoused by the Yamato rulers of Japan
Nara
Japan’s capital and first true city; it was established in 710 and modeled on the Tang capital of Chang’an
Qu’ran
sacred book of Islam
hadith
collections of the sayings and anecdotes about Muhammad
Sunna
Arabic term meaning “trodden path,” term refers to the deeds and sayings of Muhammad, which constitute the obligatory example for Muslim life
Five Pillars of Islam
basic tenets of the Islamic faith; incled reciting a profession of faith in God and in Muhammad as God’s prophet, praying five times daily, fasting and praying during the month of Ramadan, making a pilgrimage to Mecca one in one’s lifetime, and contributing alms to the poor
umma
community of people who share a religious faith and commitment rather than a tribal tie
diwan
unit of government
imam
leader in community prayer
Shi’a
Arabic term meaning “supporters of Alli;” they make up one of the two main divisions of Islam
Sunnis
members of the larger of the two main divisions of Islam; the division between Sunnis and Shi’a began in a dispute about succession to Muhammad, but over time, many differences in theology developed
ulama
religious scholars whom Sunnis trust to interpret the Qur’an and the Sunna, the deeds and sayings of Muhammad
emirs
Arab governors who were given overall responsibility for public order, maintenance of the armed forces, and tax collection
shari’a
Muslim law, which covers social, criminal, political, commercial, and religious matters
vizier
caliph’s chief assistant
dhimmis
term meaning “protected peoples,” included Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians
madrasa
school for the study of Muslim law and religious science
Mozarabs
Christians who adopted some Arabic customs but did not convert
Hamitic thesis
nineteenth-century concept, tied to scientific racism, that a subgroup of the Caucasian race, the Hamites, brought superior technology and knowledge to Africa in the ancient past, now completely discredited
Bantu
speakers of a Bantu language living south and east of the Congo River
Sudan
African region surrounded by the Sahara, the Gulf of Guinea, the Atlantic Ocean, and the mountains of Ethiopia
Berbers
North African peoples who controlled the caravan trade between the Mediterranean and the Sudan
Mogadishu
Muslim port city in East Africa founded between the eighth and tenth centuries; today it is the capital of Somalia
stateless
African societies bound together by ethnic or blood ties rather than being political states
Ghana
from the word for ruler, the name of a large and influential African kingdom inhabited by the Soninke people
Koumbi Saleh
city in which the king of Ghana held his court
Timbuktu
originally a campsite for desert nomads, it grew into a thriving city under Mansa Musa, king of Mali, and Africa’s most famous ruler
Aksum
kingdom in northwestern Ethiopia that was a sizable trading site and the center of Christian culture
Swahilli
the East African coastal culture, named after a Bantu language whose vocabulary and poetic forms exhibit strong Arabic influences
Kilwa
most powerful city on the east coast of Africa by the late thirteenth century
Great Zimbabwe
ruined South African city discovered by a German explorer in 1871; it is considered the most powerful monument south of the Nile Valley and Ethiopian highlands
dynastic sycle
thory that Chinese dynasties go through a predictable cycle of early vigor and growth to subsequent decline as administrators become lax and the well-off find ways to avoid taxes, cutting off state revenues
compass
tool developed in Song times to aid in navigation at sea; consisted of a magnetic needle that would point north that was placed in a small protective case
scholar-official class
Chinese educated elite that included both scholars and officials Officials had gained office through civil service examinations; scholars had studied for the examinations but failed repeatedly
examination system
system of selecting officials based on competitive writing examinations
movable type
system of printing in which one piece of type is used for each unique letter
Neo-Confucianism
revival of confucian thinking that began the the eleventh century, characterized by the goal of attaining the wisdom of the sages, not exam success
concubine
woman who is a recognized spouse but of lower status than a wife
foot binding
practice of binding the feet of girls with long strips of cloth to keep them from growing large
cloistered government
system in which an emperor retired to a Buddhist monastery but continued to exercise power by controlling his young son to the throne
The Tale of Genji
Japanese literary masterpiece about court life written by Lady Murasaki
Esoteric Buddism
sect of Buddhism that maintains that the secrets of enlightenment have been secretly transmitted from the Buddha and can be accessed only through initiation
shogun
Japanese general-in-chief, whose headquarters was the shogunate
Bushido
literally “the way of the warrior” conde of conduct by which the samurai were expected to live
Zen
a school of Buddhism that emphasized mediation and truths that could not be conveyed in words
chattel
item of personal property; term used in reference to enslaved people that conveys the idea that they are subhuman, like animals, and can be treated like animals
age-grade system
among the Senegambia, groups of men and women whom the society initiated into adulthood at the same time
oba
the title of the king of Benin
Taghaza
settlement in the Western Sahara, the site of the main salt-mining center
Tuareg
along with the Moors, warriors who controlled the north-south trans-Saharan trade in salt
cowrie shells
imported from the Maldives, served as the medium of exchange in West Africa
Coptic Christianity
orthodox form of Christianity from Egypt and practiced in Ethipoia
Swahili
East aFrican coastal culture named after a Bantu language whose vocabulary and poetic forms exhibit strong Arabic influences
Middle Passage
African slave’s voyage across the atlantic to the Americas, a long and treacherous journey during which slaves endured appalling and often deadly conditions
sorting
a collection or batch of British goods that would be traded for a slave of for a quantity of gold, ivory, or dyewood
shore trading
process for trading goods in which european ships sent boats ashore or invited African dealers to bring slaves and traders out to the ships
Ottomans
ruling house of the Turkish empire that lasted form 1299 to 1922
Anatolia
region of modern Turkey
sultan
Arabic word originally used by the Seljuk Turks to mean authority or dominion; used by the Ottomans to connote political and military supremacy
viziers
caliph’s chief assistan
devshirme
process whereby the sultan’s agents swept the provinces for Christian youths to become slaves
janissaries
Turkish for recruits, formed the elite army corps
shah
persian word for “king”
Safavid
dynasty that encompassed all of Persia and other regions; its state religion was Shi’ism
Qizilbash
Nomadic Sufi tribesmen who were loyal and supportive of the early Safavid state
Mughal
term meaning “Mongol” used to refer to the Muslim empire of India, although its founders were primarily Turks, Afghans, and Persians
jizya
a poll tax on non-Muslims
factory-forts
term first used by the British for their trading post at the Surat that was later applied to all European walled settlements in India
sepoys
native Indian troops who were trained as infantrymen
Ming dynasty
Chinese dynasty that marked a period of agricultural reconstruction, foreign expeditions, commercial expansion, and a vibrant urban culture
civil service examinations
highly competitive series of tests held at the prefecture, province, and capital levels to select men to become officials
Qing Dynasty
dynasty founded by the Manchus
banners
units of the Qing army, composed of the soldiers, their families, and slaves
No Theater
a type of Japanese theater in which performers convey emotions and ideas as much through gestures, stances, and dress and through words
daimyo
regional lords in Japan who built their power by seizing what they needed and promoting irrigation and trade to raise revenues
Tokugawa Shogunate
Japanese government founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu. also called the edo period because the shogunate was located at Edo
alternate residence system
arrangement in which lords lived in Edo every other year and left their wives and sons there as hostages
kabuki theater
popular form of Japanese drama that brings together dialogue, dance, and music to tell stories. actors would wear colorful costumes and dramatic makeup
kowtow
ritual of kneeling on both knees and bowing one’s head to the ground performed by children to their parents and by subjects to the Chinese ruler
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