AP World History: Nationalism

AP World History: Nationalism

Congress of Vienna
Meeting of conservative leaders to restore the old order of Europe
Conservatives
Supporters of an ideology in favor of monarchies,
aristocracy, and tradition
Louis Philippe
Citizen-King of France
Victor Emmanuel
Constitutional monarch of newly unified Italy
Louis Kossuth
Leader of Hungarian nationalists
Ultraroyalists
French group of emigres and clergy who supported monarchy
Congress of Berlin
Meeting of European leaders that focused on issues relating to the Balkans
Liberals
Supporters of an ideology in favor of written constitutions and democracy
Franz Josef
Emperor of the Dual Monarchy
William I
First ruler of newly unified Germany
Magyars
Hungarian ruling class
Philhellenes
Supporters of Greek independence movement
Nationalism
The loyalty of a people to their common culture, traditions, ethnicity, geographic territory, and the idea of self-rule
Charter of French Liberties
Issued by Louis XVII, created a 2-house legislature and allowed limited freedom of the press
Charles X
Strong absolutist, rejected the idea of the Charter of French Liberties, limited right to vote and restricted the press
Louis Phillipe
Extended suffrage but only to the wealthier citizens; upper bourgeoisie prospered under his rule
Louis Napoleon
Crowned self emperor in 1848, issued constitution for the Second Republic, increased amount of people who could vote
Louis Kossuth
Became imprisoned by Australians for 3 years but got out
Frankfurt Assembly
Wanted to create the German government Monarchy; broke up Germany into 5
different states; was unsuccessful
Frederick William IV
Forced to agree to constitution by liberals in Prussia , but then issued own constitution and kept power with him and the upper class
Recession
Period of reduced economic activity
Belgium and Poland
To what lands did the revolutions spread in 1830?
Monarchies cooperated together to repress revolutions, lack of unity
Why did most of the revolutions of 1848 fail to achieve their goals?
Belgium and Greece
Which countries gained independence in 1830 and 1831?
Russia helped crush his movement
Why was Kossuth unable to win Hungarian independence?
Junkers
Powerful group in unified Germany
Denmark, Austria and France
Countries Bismarck involved Germany in wars against
By ignoring the Charter of French Liberties
How did Charles X contribute to the beginning of the French Revolution of 1830?
Risorgimento
Italian unification movement
Hatt-I Humayum
Allowed people from all cultures and religions in the Ottoman Empire to be eligible to serve in the Ottoman government, removed cultural divisions in the Ottoman Empire
Ethnic minorities
Were dissatisfied with the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Austrian-Germans and Magyars
Were satisfied with the dual monarchy of the Austrian Empire
Pan-Slavism
The desire to unify Slavic peoples in an independent state
Italy and Germany
War was used as a means of uniting various states in both
Government corruption, economic recession, limited suffrage
Causes of the French Revolution of 1848
Ausgleich
Gave Austria and Hungary common ministries of foreign affairs,
wars, and finance; prevented any independence from Hungary
Jingoism
Extreme nationalism
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Leader of the guerrillas who defeated the army of the Kingdom of the two Sicilies
Young Italy
Secret society founded by Giuseppi Mazzini in 1831; wanted to transform Italy into an independent sovereign nation
He needed a foreign force to excel Austria and achieve Italian unity
Why did Cavour decide to support France and Britain in the Crimean War?
The small states didn’t want to be dominated by Prussia
Why did the small German states dislike the idea of a united Germany?
They feared economic competition
Why did Austria want to maintain the division among German states?
Prussia
What German state led the way in creating economic, military, and political unity among the German states?
Pale
Government decrees deprived Jews of the right to own land and forced them to live in this area
Russification
Other cultures becoming Russian whether voluntarily or not
Pogroms
Organized persecution of a minority group, usually Jewish in Czarist Russia
Province of Lombay and German Estates
Two foreign territories that Austria lost from 1859 to 1866
Austria supplied manufactured goods while Hungary supplied food products
How did Austria and Hungary cooperate economically?
France, Britain, and Germany
3 countries that watched events in the Balkans closely after the treaty of Bucharest
Britain and France
Which two major European countries provided assistance to the Greek nationalists?
1829
When did the Greeks win independence from the Ottoman Empire?
Ethnic minorities
Were dissatisfied with the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary