AP World: History of the World in Six Glasses

AP World: History of the World in Six Glasses

When did anatomically modern humans first emerge?
150,000 years ago
When did the first humans migrate out of Africa? These people were…
50,000 years ago / hunter-gatherers
When did humans in the near east begin settling down and domesticating? What did they develop as a result?
12000 years ago / pottery, wheeled vehicles, writing
When was beer developed?
sometime between 10000 and 4000 BCE
Date first examples of writing.
3400 BCE
A pictogram of stone age brew was found when and where?
4000 BCE, Tepe Gawna in Mesopotamia
When did the gathering of wild grains become widespread?
10000 BCE
After the Ice Age ended, what did the uplands of the Fertile Crescent provide? What did this mean?
great place for raising sheep, goats, cattle, pigs and growing dense strands of wheat and barley / rich pickings for hunter-gatherers
What kinds of edible plants did HGs mainly collect?
cereal grains
When are cereal grains edible?
when crushed and mixed with water
Like grains, CGs contain…?
tiny granules of starch
What are the advantages of cereal grains?
They could be stored for months or even years. A family working 8 hours a day for 3 weeks could collect enough for each member to have a pound a day for a year.
How did cereal grains lead to people staying in one place?
required them to stay in one place for at least 3 weeks, people didn’t want to leave stores unguarded
The first settlement was built when?
10000 BCE
Where?
East Coast of Mediterranean (fertile crescent)
Did the people of the first settlement have domestication?
no
What are two other important properties of cereal grains?
1. when soaked in water in non-watertight container so grains sprouted, they released diastase enzymes which convert sugar to maltose or malt, giving grains sweet taste
2. gruel made from cereal grains left to sit for a few days turned to bear
When did they discover the first property?
when cereal grains first stored
What causes the second property?
yeast in air fermented maltose sugar, creating alcohol
To strengthen beer by activating more starch-converting enzymes, what was done?
gruel cooked
Why did using same vessel improve beer production?
cultured yeast began to live in cracks and crevices
How were different flavors IE different kinds of beer first created?
addition of berries, spices, honey, herbs, etc.
Ancient Egyptian records list how many types of beer?
17
In Mesopotamia, written references to beer from when listed how many types?
3000 BCE, 20
bappir
— way Mesopotamian brewers controlled flavor and color of beer
— barley shaped into lumps and baked twice to produce bread
What debate has bappir lead to?
which came first: beer or bread
How was beer a social drink in ancient times?
people would drink from and same vessel with straws first out of necessity and then, with advent of pottery, as ritual representing connection or bond between drinkers
Why was beer believed to come from gods?
magical fermentation process
In every beer-drinking culture, beer was used in what?
religious ceremonies
Cultivation of plants began when and where?
9000 BC, fertile crescent
What was one factor that lead to the transition?
desire to increase supplies of grain needed to make beer
Farming spread from fertile crescent when?
7000 — 5000 BCE
To ensure each villager in a farming village was pulling his/her weight, what was made when? How was it recorded?
contributions to communal storehouse / 8000 BCE / clay tokens
How were these contributions justified and by who?
religious offerings / administrators who lived off surplus
What was this the basis of?
accounting, writing (keeping records), bureaucracy, giving food as offerings to gods
Who/What was beer highly significant to?
all ancient civilizations
When did villages in Mesopotamia (between Tigris and Euphrates) begin to band together, and what did they eventually form?
4300 BC, city-states
In 3000 BCE, what city-state was largest in Ma and what was its population?
Uruk, 5000
By 2000 BC, where did the entire population of Southern Ma live?
a dozen city states including Uruk, Ur, Lagash, Eridu, Nippur
Thereafter, what region took the lead and with what cities?
Egypt, Thebes and Memphis
What made the civilizations of Egypt and Ma possible?
surplus of crops, gain in particular
How?
— allowed some people to work as artisans, administrators, etc.
— meant wealth needed for large public works like canals
— grain used as currency and basis of diet in form of bread and beer
When did written records of beer begin in Sumer?
Sumer in 3400 BCE
How does the epic of Gilgamesh demonstrate the importance of beer to Sumer?
— Gilgamesh King of Uruk in 2700 BCE
— Enkidu turns from a savage to a human by drinking beer and eating bread
When did written records of beer begin in Egypt?
3rd dynasty which began in 2350 BCE
What were these first Egyptian written references to beer?
funerary texts inscribed in pyramids from end of 5th dynasty in 2350 BCE CHECK ON
In both Egypt and Ma, beer was drunk by who?
every person in every class
Who did wine become an emblem of power, prosperity, and privilege under?
Assyrians beginning with King Ashurnasirpal II in 870 BCE
When and where was wine discovered?
9000BC-4000BC in Zagros Mountain Range in modern Armenia and Northern Iran
What 3 factors made the invention of wine possible?
1. presence of Eurasian Grapevine
2. availability of cereal crops for year round food stores
3. invention of pottery
When and where is the earliest evidence of wine from?
a far from Zagros Mountain region dating back to 5400 BCE
From the Zagros Mountains, where did wine spread?
West to Greece and Anatolia (modern Turkey) and South through Levant (Syria, Lebanon, and Israel) to Egypt
Why did wine remain a drink for only the wealthy in the fertile crescent?
lack of grapes
What was a cheaper substitute for wine in the FC?
date palm wine — fermented date syrup drunk by poor if not beer
When did wine become more popular than beer?
1st millennium BC
Who were the first people to produce wine on a commercial scale?
Greeks
In Greek Culture, how was social class delineated based on wine?
age of and type of wine drunk
How were the Greeks unique regarding wine?
added water to it
How did the Greeks feel about not adding water to wine?
considered it barbaric
Why did they add water?
to make wine safer and less intoxicating
How did the Greeks feel about not drinking wine?
it was just as bad as not adding water
symposium
Greek wine-drinking party CHECK THAT THAT’S RIGHT WORD
By the 5th century, how far afield was Greek wine being exported?
South France in West, Egypt in South, Crimean Peninsula in East, Danube Region in North
When did Rome overtake Greece as the world’s leading producer of wine?
146 BCE
During the 1st century BC, to meet demands, where in the Roman Empire was wine production increased?
Gaul and Spain
How was wine transported around the Mediterranean?
in freighters
When did North African wine begin to dominate?
after the election of Septimus Severus in 193 BCE
Study the process of wine reaching Rome in notes.
thing
What types of Romans drank wine?
all classes
What denoted class in Roman society?
the type of wine you drank
What was the best type of wine?
Falernian
What did spending on sumptuous wines result in?
laws being passed about what could be spent on food so as to prevent the wrath of the poor
convivium
Roman wine-drinking party, symposium’s Roman counterpart
How was a convivium different from a symposium?
— less intellectual and more of a way to show off class
— the food one was served depended on their class rather than the host’s
— mixed water with wine like Greeks but did so individually rather than in communal krater (special type of vessel)
List the types of wines in order of social class association from the highest to lowest rank in society.
1. Falernian
2. wine that had additives to improve flavor
3. posca
4. lora
posca
water mixed with wine that had become vinegar-like
Who drank posca?
soldiers when better stuff was unavailable because it was more of a type of water purification technology than a wine
lora
water mixed with whatever was left after wine-making like stalks and leaves
Who drank lora?
slaves
Romans also used wine as a…?
medicine
They believed wine promoted…?
yellow bile and phlegm
The _____ the more medicinally effective the wine was.
better the wine quality and vintage
True/False: The barbarians that invaded Rome preferred beer to wine.
False: They continued wine-drinking tradition
What else helped the continuation of wine-drinking tradition?
Christianity
Who drank most of the wine used for Christian ceremonies?
religious figures: very small amounts needed for communion
Why did Muhammad abhor wine?
two of his disciples had a fight during a drinking party
What was Islam’s ban on wine more likely caused by?
Islam’s rise to dominance meant that power was now in the hands of Arabian desert tribes instead of previously elite people of the Mediterranean coast
— replaced wheeled vehicles with camels, chairs with cushions, and banned wine — the utmost symbol of sophistication
Why else were Muslims predisposed to wine?
its significance in the rival Christian faith
Some people took Islam’s prohibition to simply mean one shouldn’t…?
overindulge
Diluted grape and other kinds of wine continued to be served in places like where?
Iberian Peninsula
In medieval Europe, where beer was dominant vs. where wine was dominant depended on what?
whether the land was within the former boundaries of the Roman Empire
Was there an exception to this?
yes: beer dominant in Britain
What are the leading producers of wine today?
— Spain
— France
— Italy
Who are the leading consumers?
Luxembourg (in France) and Italy
At the close of the 1st millennium, what was the most advanced city in the world?
Islamic Cordoba in Spain
Where was distillation invented and how far back?
Arab world, at least millennium of 4000 BCE CHECK ON THIS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Who markedly improved distillation and when?
Arabs, particularly Arab scholar Jabir ibn Hayyan, one of the fathers of chemistry
What was distillation originally used for?
To strengthen wine because alcohol has lower boiling point than water, resulting in alcohol-rich vapors. This new drink — spirits — was originally intended to be used for medicinal purposes.
When, where, and why did spirits start to become popular to casually drink?
Age of Exploration, Europe and its colonies, the drink’s durability
When did knowledge of drink spread to Europe?
12th century with Italian alchemist Michael Salernus, but really picked up in the 13th century as medical schools began popping up throughout continent.
How did Europeans originally feel about spirits?
regarded it as panacea, calling it aqua de vite
Why did spirits become even more popular in the 15th century?
for its intoxicating effects, knowledge of distillation spread even further thanks to invention of printing press
Why did slave traders in Africa except spirits as payment?
it was stronger than local brews
dashee or bizy
gift of alcohol presented to African slave traders before negotiations began
When and where was rum first made?
Barbados, 1640s
cane brandy
Portuguese name for drink made by fermenting the foam on the top of the sugar cane juice that formed as it was being boiled and distilling the result
Where and how was the technique of making cane brandy further refined?
Barbados / molasses (chief byproduct of sugar-making process) used instead
What was the advantage of this?
allowed cane brandy to be made cheap without any reduction in sugar production
Why was rum such a good alternative to European beers and wines?
European beers and wines often spoiled by the time they reached Barbados, and were costly to import
Describe the evolution of the name of the drink known today as rum.
— originally called kill-devil because extremely strong but not possessing pleasant taste
— travelers to Barbados in 1651 found preferred drink there was Rumbullion
X slang word from Southern England meaning “brawl” or “violent commotion”
X often the outcome of drinking it
X shortened to rum
How was rum used to control slaves?
owners got them addicted to it
What was another use of rum?
as a medicine
Who did rum become very popular among?
sailors
What is grog?
watered-down version of rum with sugar and lime added to it
Who invented grog?
British Navy Admiral Edward Vernon whose nickname was “Old Grogram”
How did grog contribute to the British Navy’s rise to supremacy?
reduced instances of scurvy:
— wasting disease caused by Vitamin C deficiency
X lemon and lime juice contain Vitamin C
— other navies didn’t drink grog
Describe the circular economy of the slave–for–rum trade.
rum could be used to buy slaves to make sugar, the byproduct or which was rum which could be used to buy more slaves
Describe how trans-Atlantic trade was affected by rum and brandy.
Brandy helped to kick it off. Rum made it profitable
Why couldn’t English colonizing North America make beer?
the climate
When did rum begin to serve as an essential substitute there for beer?
second half of 17th century
What New England’s economy become entirely based on?
importing molasses from West Indies and distilling it into a lower quality but far cheaper rum
Why did slave traders in particular buy a lot of New English rum?
rum had become alcoholic currency for African slaves
What started or caused the Molasses Act?
New English distilleries were buying molasses from French colonies rather than English ones
What did the Molasses Act originally do and when was it passed?
put 6-pence tax on every gallon of foreign molasses bought, 1733
What was the problem with importing molasses from English colonies?
They didn’t produce nearly enough and what they did produce was of lower quality than French molasses
How did the English distilleries react? What was this an early step to?
completely ignored Act, American Revolution
After what did the Molasses Act start becoming much more heavily enforced?
French Indian War
whiskey
distilled fermented cereal grains
When did Americans begin to favor whiskey over rum?
when they began to move West
Why?
— Revolutionary War interrupted Molasses Trade
— because it was an imported product, molasses was expensive to move West
— cereal grains easier to grow farther inland
Read about Whiskey Rebellion in notes.
nothing funny on the back of the card this time
What is believed to be the origin of Native Americans’ enthusiasm about spirits?
NAs though it was like local hallucinogenic plants, spirits had magical powers that could be accessed only if the drinker was completely intoxicated
How did the Europeans exploit Natives’ enthusiasm about spirits?
supplied large quantities of alcohol when trading with the NAs
— French — brandy: fur traders in Canada used it for example
— British — rum
— Spanish — mescal
mescal
distilled version of pulque
pulque
Aztec drink, mildly alcoholic fermented juice of avage plant
Along with gunpowder and infectious diseases, spirits helped to secure European dominance over the Americas and their indigenous people.
just thought you should know
What mirrored the spread of coffee?
The spread of the Scientific Revolution / Age of Reason / Enlightenment — spread of new rationalism throughout Europe
Before coffee, what did people start the day out with?
mild alcohol
What was the benefit of drinking coffee rather than that?
people were stimulated in the morning, made more alert, rather than slightly inebriated, dizzy, and hazy
What was coffee considered the antithesis of?
Alcohol: It provided sobriety rather than inebriation
Does coffee really combat inebriation?
No. In fact it causes alcohol to leave the bloodstream more slowly, but it increases alertness.
Why was coffee the perfect drink for the Age of Reason?
never drunk by Greeks or Romans, making it perfect for age when everyone wanted to escape their outdated scientific philosophy
coffee
coffee berries boiled in water
When and where did coffee first become a popular drink?
in Yemen in the 15th century
Was it the first time people had used the berries on a major scale?
No: People in the Islamic world may have chewed on berries for their stimulating effects long before that.
Though unknown, who is the invention of coffee generally attributed to? Occupation? Reason for inventing it? Date of death?
Muhammad al-Dhabhani:
— scholar
— member of Sufi order of Islam which performed many nocturnal rituals
X needed way of staying awake
— died in 1470
What is coffee known as in Arabic?
gahwah
Describe the percolation of coffee throughout the Arab world.
— 1510 — reached Mecca and Cairo
— spread all over the Middle East from those two cultural centers
When coffee reached Mecca and Cairo, what large debate sprang up regarding it?
whether coffee should be prohibited because of intoxicating effects (Quranic Law)
Why in particular did many politicians express disapproval?
coffeehouses had begun to spring up:
— places of rumor, gossip, and political/satirical discussion
— places where board games like chess/backgammon played
X betting illegal
Why did attempts to close coffeehouses ultimately fail?
no law was being broken