ap world history on islam

ap world history on islam

islam
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
allah
Muslim name for the one and only God
muslims
those who practice the religion of Islam; believe in one God, and the prophet Muhammad whom they believe God spoke through
muhammad
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
quran
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
bedouin
nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam
shaykhs
Leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society; usually men with large herds, several wives, and many children
Mecca
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
Umayyad clan
Forced Muhammed to flee
ka’ba
Most revered religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus of obligatory annual truce among bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important shrine in Islam
medina
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
ali
the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites
umma
the Muslim community or people, considered to extend from Mauritania to Pakistan
zakat
The Muslim obligation to give alms for the care of the poor and needy
caliph
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
abu bakr
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni’s as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi’ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad’s death.
ridda wars
wars that followed muhammad’s death; resulted in the defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of islam
sunni’s
85% of Muslims, and it is NOT necessary to be related to Muhammad to be a successor. majority in bangladesh, india, indonesia, and pakistan
shia
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
mawali
Non-Arab converts to Islam
jizya
tax paid by Christians and Jews who lived in Muslim communities to allow them to continue to practice their own religion
dhimmis
a term meaning “protected peoples”; they included Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians.
hadith
(Islam) the way of life prescribed as normative for Muslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of Muhammad and interpretations of the Koran
abbasid
The dynasty that came after the Umayyads. Devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the arts.
baghdad
capital and largest city of Iraq
wazir
chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of Empire
dhow
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design
lateen sail
triangular sail that made it possible to sail against the wind; used in the Indian Ocean trade
al-mahdi
Third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted but failed to reconcile moderates among Shi’a to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problem of succession
harun al-rashid
caliph (r. 786-809) who is responsible for a Golden Age in the Muslim World and the House of Wisdom in Baghdad
the thousand and one nights
A group of tales narrated by a fictional princess, many are set in baghdad, include romances, fables, adventures, best known for Aladdin and the magic lamp
buyids
Persian invaders of the 10th century; captured Baghdad and acted as sultans through Abbasid figureheads.
sultan
military and political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country
seljuk turks
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
crusades
a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
saladin
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
ibn khaldun
Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city.
omar khayyam
Persian poet and mathematician and astronomer whose poetry was popularized by Edward Fitzgerald’s translation (1050-1123)
rubaiyat
Epic poem of Omar Khayyam; seeks to find meaning in life and a path to union with the divine
ulama
Muslim religious scholars. From the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies. (p. 238)
al-ghazali
Brilliant Islamic theologian; struggled to fuse Greek and Qur’anic traditions; not entirely accepted by ulama
sufis
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
mongols
Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph
chinggis khan
born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227 prior to conquest of most of the Islamic world
hulegu
ruler of Ilkhan Khanate; grandson of Chinggis Khan; responsible for capture and destruction of Baghdad
mamluks
Muslim slave warriors; established a dynasty in Egypt; defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and halted Mongol advance
muhammad ibn qasim
Arab general; conquered Sind in India; declared the region and the Indus valley to be part of the Umayyad Empire
mahmud of ghazni
Third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression.
muhammad of ghur
military commander of persian extraction; began attempt to establish muslim control of india
sultans of delhi
Title of the Islamic imperial houses of India, which literally means princes of the heartland.
sati
a ritual that required a woman to throw herself on her late husband’s funeral pyre or burn herself. This was done gladly and if a woman didn’t comply with this she would be disgraced.
bhaktic cults
Hindu groups dedicated to gods and goddesses; stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the god or goddess who was the object of their veneration; most widely worshipped gods were Vishnu and Shiva
shirivijaya
Trading empire based on the Malacca Strait; its Buddhist government resisted Muslim missionaries; when it fell, southeastern Asia was opened to Islam.
stateless nation
a nation of people that does not have a territory to legally occupy, like the Palestinians, Kurds, and Basques
bantu migration
the movement of the bantu peoples southward throghout africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000
ifriqiya
the Arabic term for Eastern North Africa
almoravids
followers of the Great Puritanical Reformist Movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of northern Africa; reject Sufis; very violent (launch a series of jihads, or holy wars)
almohadi
a Berber dynasty founded in the 12th century that conquered most of northern Africa
jihad
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
axum
trading center, and powerful ancient kingdom in northern present-day Ethiopia
ethiopia
Ethiopia is a republic in northeastern Africa on the Red Sea
king lalibela
Ethiopian king who had Christian churches carved downward into mountains
sudanic states
States trading to north Africa and mixing Islamic and indigenous ways.
ghana
the first West African kingdom based on the gold and salt trade
mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
sundiata
the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes
griots
Storytellers of sub-Saharan Africa who carried on oral traditions and historians
ibn batutta
from Morocco, visited muslim countries
mansa musa
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west africa
timbuktu
a city in central Mali near the Niger river
songhay
successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
muhammad the great
Extended the boundaries of the Songhay Empire; Islamic ruler of the mid-16th century
hausa
the chief member of the Chadic family of Afroasiatic languages
sharia
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
zenji
Arabic term for the people and coast of east Africa.
benin
a country on western coast of Africa
kingdom of kongo
Basin of the Congo (Zaire) river, conglomeration of several village alliances, participated actively in trade networks, most centralized rule of the early Bantu kingdoms, royal currency: cowries, ruled 14th-17th century until undermined by Portuguese slave traders
great zimbabwe
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state. (p. 385)