AP World History Period 1 Ancient Egypt Vocab

pharaoh
A ruler of ancient Egypt.
Hatshepsut
1480 BC this Queen came to power during the New Kingdom, forced ruling with her husband and then on behalf of her stepson, Thutmose III. Had herself crowned pharaoh. Wore false beard, usually worn by kings. Built great fueral temple in Valley of the Kings; first female pharoh
Akhenaten
(c. 1279-1347 BCE) he changed his name to Atenhotep IV. He replaced the traditional Egyptian gods with the one god Aten, the disc of the sun. He introduced ethnical guidance and naturalistic art. His new name means “One who is useful to Aten”. He constructed the new capital Akhenaten free from influence of traditional priesthood. He is also speculated to have been the first monotheist in History.
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Nile
The world’s longest river, which flows northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea; floods annually and keeps the land nearby moist and fertile. People can plant crops in summer and winter
Upper Egypt/Lower Egypt
the original division, later unified in ca.3100BCE, divided by the direction of the flow of the Nile
Hyksos
A pastoral group of unknown ethnicity that invaded Egypt and ruled in the north from 1650 to 1535 BCE. Their dominance was based on their use of horses, chariots, and bronze technology
hieroglyphics
A system of writing in which pictorial symbols represented sounds, syllables, or concepts. It was used for official and monumental inscriptions in ancient Egypt. Because of the long period of study required to master this system, literacy in it was confined to a relatively small group of scribes and administrators. Cursive symbol-forms were developed for rapid composition on other media, such as papyrus.
papyrus
A reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a coarse, paperlike writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East.
scribes
Ancient Egyptians that learned how to read and write hieroglyphics; Egypt’s official writers and record keepers
nobility
A person with special rank and authority by virtue of birth or title.
dynasty
A government where the series of rulers are from a single family
Kush
African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile ca. 1000 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.
monumental architecture
structures constructed to represent or honor people or things
isolation
until the Empire or New Kingdom period. Natural barrier of the desert to the east and west and the Mediterranean sea to the north assisted this; no extensive trade
New Kingdom
(1550 BCE – 1100 BCE) Period in ancient Egyptian history characterized by strong pharaohs who conquered an empire that stretched from Nubia in the south, to the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia.
Middle Kingdom
2050 BC. – 1800 BC.: A new dynasty reunited Egypt. Moved the capital to Thebes. Built irrigation projects and canal between NIle and Red Sea so Egytian ships could trade along coasts of Arabian Penninsula and East Africa. Expanded Egyptian territory:Nubia, Syria.
Ramesses II
A long lived ruler of New Kingdom Egypt (r. 1290- 1224 B.C.E.). He reached an accommodation with Hittites of Anatolia after a standoff in battle at Kadesh in Syria. He built on a grand scale throughout Egypt.
Anubis
Egyptian god of embalming said to be of human form with the head of a jackal.
mummification
A process of embalming and drying corpses to prevent them from decaying
monotheism
Belief in the existence of a single divine entity. Some scholars cite the devotion of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten to Aten (sun-disk) and his suppression of traditional gods as the earliest instance.

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