ap world history period 3 600-1450

ap world history period 3 600-1450

Sufism
school of esoteric philosophy in Islam, which is based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as a definite goal to attain. In modern language it might also be referred to as Islamic spirituality or Islamic mysticism.
Acculturation
the obtainment of culture by an individual or a group of people
Al Khwarizmi
Persian scientist, mathematician, astronomer/astrologer, and author. He is often cited as “the father of algebra”, which was named after a part of the title of his book, Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala, along with the algorism number system
Al Razi
A Persian Philosopher who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. (865-925)
Ali
The fourth caliph or successor of Muhammad. He was also the Prophet’s cousin. He is revered by Shi’a Muslims as the rightful first caliph
Allah
God’s name in Islam. Muslim God.
Anasazi
Ancestral Puebloans were a prehistoric Native American civilization centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States. A native American culture flourishing in southern Colorado and Utah and northern New Mexico and Arizona
astrolabe
an instrument that was used to determine the altitude of objects (like the sun) in the sky. It was first used around 200 BC by astronomers in Greece. The astrolabe was replaced by the sextant
Avicenna
Persian physician, philosopher, and scientist. He was the author of 450 books on a wide range of subjects. Many of these concentrated on philosophy and medicine. He is considered by many to be “the father of modern medicine”
Avignon
In France, Avignon’s architecture is marked by papal history. Where the Palace of the Popes was built in the 14th century
Aztec Empire
powerful Indian empire founded on Lake Texcoco (Mexico)
bakufu
military government established by the Minamoto, a powerful Japanese clan in 1185
Battle of Tours
(October 25, 732) Charles Martel, the Frankish Leader went against an Islamic army led by Emir Abd er Rahman; the Islamic army was defeated and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed. The battle stopped the northward advancement from Spain
Bedouins
Nomadic Arabs who originally inhabited desert areas of the Middle East and northern Africa and later began to move to other parts of the region
benefice
A landed estate granted in feudal tenure.
Byzantine Empire
Eastern half of the Roman Empire following collapse of western half of the old empire; retained Mediterranean culture; capital at Constantinople
caliph
Political, religious and militaristic leader of Islam
calligraphy
writing art form
Calpulli
Aztec clans that distributed land and provided labor and warriors
celadon
Korean and Japanese pottery with a light green glaze
Charlemagne
king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor; conqueror of the Lombards and Saxons (742-814) Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany (800 C.E). He helped restore some church-based education in western Europe, and the level of intellectual activity began a slow recovering. After death, the empire could not survive.
chinampas
known as floating gardens, small, rectangle-shapes area of fertile arable land used for agriculture in the Xochimilco region of the Basin of Mexico
Christian missionaries
Christians who traveled into other countries and attempted to spread the Christian faith. Enthusiastically persecuted in Japan by Tokugawa…
Christian monks
clergy of Christianity, spread the religion
civil service exam
Exam all Chinese government official-to-be’s had to go through in order to prove themselves. Very rigorous, although once you passed, instant success was guaranteed.
Code of chivalry
The collective term for the social codes of knighthood that originated in France in the Middle Ages. It was based on brave, courteous and honourable behaviour – what came to be known as ‘gentlemanly conduct.’
Code of the samurai
Also called bushi-do, which literally means “road of the warrior.”; Based on principles of loyalty, courage and honor
Conservative
Person who generally likes to uphold current conditions and oppose changes; religious movement whose position lies between the Orthodox and Reform
Crusade
series of military campaigns, where roman catholics tried to capture “holy land” from muslims, some were in Europe
Cuzco
capital city of the Incan Empire
daimyo
Warlord rulers who divided Japan into 300 little kingdoms
dome
a common structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere
Eleanor of Aquitaine
queen of France as the wife of Louis VII; that marriage was annulled in 1152 and she then married Henry II and became Queen of England (1122-1204)
excommunication
banishment from certain religion & Church
feudalism
The social organization created by exchanging grants of lands or fiefs in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty and European Middle Ages; greater lords provided protection and aid to lesser lords in return for military service.
Feudalism
system where lords provided protection/aid to serfs in return for labor
fiefs
Plots of land owned by a lord, little kingdoms
Five Pillars
religious duties of Muslims (confession of faith, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, hajj)
Five Pillars of Islam
obligatory religious duties of all Muslims: confession of faith, prayer (5 times a day facing Mecca), fasting during Ramadan, zakat (tax for charity), and the hajj (pilgrimage)
footbinding
Chinese custom of binding women’s feet. They preferred small feet? Confined women to homes. Degrading practice for women of China.
footbinding as metaphor
The societal restrictions imposed upon women as families became wealthier, women status lowered
Genghis Khan
(1170s – 1227) from 1206 khagan of all Mongol tribes; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China and territories as far west as the Abbasid regions. successful military leader, united mongol tribes, was the founder of the mongol empire (1206-1368)
Golden Horde
one of four subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after Genghis Khan’s death; territory covered much of present south-central Russia. a state established in Russia, one of the four kingdoms in the mongol empire
Gothic architecture
A style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries; characterized by slender vertical piers and counterbalancing buttresses and by vaulting and pointed arches
Great Schism
Divide of the Christian church whereby for a time there were two popes
Greek Orthodox Church
The state church of Greece, an autonomous part of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Hadith
Traditions of the prophet Mohammad that played a critical role in Islamic law and rituals; recorded by women
Hagia Sophia
large church constructed in Constantinople during the reign of Justinian
hajj
Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca
Hanseatic League
organization of cities in N. Germany/Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance. a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas; formed in 1241 and most influential in the 14th century when it included over 100 towns and functioned as an independent political power; the last official assembly was held in 1669
hereditary privileges
No more, abolishes feudalism. Meritocracy.
Heresies
any opinions/doctrines at variance with the established or orthodox position; beliefs that reject the orthodox tenets of a religion
High Renaissance
later period of the Renaissance, Italy big, Hellenistic influence
hijrah
Mohammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina
Holy Roman Empire
a continuation of the Roman Empire in central-western Europe (at least, loosely organized/modeled on it)
Humanists
The focus on humankind as the center o intellectual and artistic endeavor
Hundred Years’ War
(1337 – 1453) conflict between England and France -fought over lands England possessed in France (issue of feudal rights vs. emerging claims of national states)
Ibn Battuta
Arab traveler/trader who commented on African traveling security, cities
ideographic
A type of character representation in which characters do not represent pronunciation alone, but are also related to the component meanings of words
Inca
A member of the group of Quechuan peoples of highland Peru who established an empire from northern Ecuador to central Chile before the Spanish conquest
Incan
Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire incorporating various Andean cultures. Term also used for leader of empire
intertribal warfare
conflict between tribes.
Islam (the Qur’ran)
Major world religion originating in 610 CE in the Arabian peninsula; literally meaning submission; based o prophecy of Muhammad
Islamic slave trade:
continued slave trade on the west coast of Africa
jihad
is an Arabic word meaning ” striving in the way of God”, but it is often translated as “holy war”. Refer to an armed struggle fought in the defense of Islam to please Allah
junk
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders. Played major roles in the Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
Justinian Code
Compilation of Roman law
Ka’aba
Islamic shrine in Mecca; focus of annual truce among Bedouin tribes
Khan
Mongol ruler
khanates
region ruled under a khan, divided kingdoms under the mongol empire
Khazars
nomadic Turkic people from central asia, many converted to Judaism, basically wandering people, allies of Byzantine empire and sassanid empire
Kievan Russia
early east Slavic state, dominated by city of kiev
Kilwa
Town on W African coast, wealthy & beautiful town , access to gold (Sofala) and most southern ship stop
King Hugh Capet
king of France (987-96), first of the Capetians; son of Hugh the Great; he gave away much of his land to secure the dynasty. He spent much of his reign fighting Charles and later became involved in a controversy with the papacy—unsettled at his death—over deposition of the Carolingian archbishop of Reims
King John
Younger brother of King Richard, & bad king of England basically
Kublai Khan
Grandson of Chinggis Khan; commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China; became khagan in 1260; established sinicized Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271
landscape painting
Popular artistic style in China during the Tang-Song era. Previously popular Buddhist themes are pushed away by the new scholar-gentry classes interest in nature’s beauty
Li Tai-Po
Chinese poet living in Tang Dynasty . He is best known for the extravagant imagination and striking Taoist imagery in his poetry, as well as for his great love for liquor. He is said to have drowned in the Yangtze River, having fallen from his boat while drunkenly trying to embrace (the reflection of) the moon
Magna Carta
Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy. Nobles fed up with King John made him sign Great Charter (Magna Carta) that made sure king got approval of aristocracy before imposing taxes, etc, limited king’s power
Magyars
A Hungarian ethnic group
Mali
Country of western Africa; During the Middle Ages, Mali formed a huge territorial empire, noted as a center of Islamic study and as a trade route for gold. Its center was Timbuktu
Mali Empire
model of Islamicized (reinforced kingship) Sudanic kingdoms, Malinke merchants traded throughout W Africa
manorialism
Organization of rural economy and society by three classes of manors: a lord’s own land, serf holdings, and free peasant land
Manors
The district over which a lord had domain and could exercise certain rights and privileges in medieval western Europe
Mansa Musa
African King who made pilgrimage to Mecca, and gave out so much gold, that worth of gold dropped rapidly
Marco Polo
A Venetian trader that went and learned about China under Kublai Khan
mawali
non-arab converts to Islam
Maya
Classic culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central American contemporary with Teotihuacán; extended over broad religion; featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and mathematical systems, highly developed religion. A native American group of people that lived in Central America
Mayan
People occupying the Eastern third of Mesoamerica, particularly the Yucatan Peninsula
Mecca
The city is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. Religious Center of Islam, where Muslims pray towards, controlled by Umayyad
medieval
relating to the Middle Ages
Medina
Great trading center where Muhammad fed to and solved their civil war
Medina (the Hegira)
Medina is the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca. Its importance as a religious site derives from the presence there of the Shrine of the Prophet Mohammad by Masjid al-Nabawi or the Mosque of the Prophet
Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European discovery of the New World by Columbus
Mexica
what we know today as Mexicans
Middle Ages
Time period between the postclassical era and the renaissance. Consists of Dark Ages and the High Middle Ages, in which the latter saw an improvement in trade, economy, and lives of peasants.
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ‘ages’: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times
minaret
A tower attached to a mosque, used for call to prayer
Mississippian culture
The Mississippian culture was a Mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States in the centuries leading up to European contact. The Mississippian way of life began to develop around 900 A.D. in the Mississippi River Valley (for which it is named). Cultures in the Tennessee River Valley may have also begun to develop Mississippian characteristics at this point. The Mississippian (archaeological) Stage is usually considered to come to a close with the arrival of European contact, although the Mississippian way of life continued among their descendants. There are many regional variants of the Mississippian way of life.
Mississippians
People of the Mississippi plains
mita
Mandatory public service by society in ancient South America. During the Inca empire, public service was required in public works projects such as the building of road and military services
Mohammed
Last prophet of God.
Mohammed
The prophet of Islam: born in 570 in clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca
moldboard plow
plow invented during the Middle Ages to improve farming effeciency
Monasticism
Monasticism is the ancient style of vowed religious life which typically includes community, prayer, common worship, silence, and labour. It is governed by a monastic rule, or way of life, which involves a choice to live apart from society and the world, and so to witness in a radical way to Jesus Christ
Mongol Peace
Pax Mongolica – Mongols brought peace to almost the entire Asian continent because they tolerated and encouraged diversity, especially religions
monochrome
Either black or white
Montezuma
emperor of the Aztecs who saw his empire defeated by the Spanish
Moors
The Medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb. They captured Spain in 700s, and were expelled from Spain in 1492
moundsbuilders
in Mississippi region of N. America, civilizations found that created moundlike temples of dirt
movable type
invented in China in the mid-eleventh century. Individual characters made of fired clay were assembled and glued onto a plate to create a printing block. Introduced in Europe in the 15th century
Muhammad
Prophet who spread the Islamic religion. Born in 570, received revelations from Allah in 610, before passing away in 630
Muslims
People who believe and follow the Islamic religion
Neo-Confucianism
a response by the Confucians to the dominance of the Daoists and Buddhists, severe Confucianism
new strains of rice
new strains of rice – led to population growth in Asia
Northern Renaissance
Flemish, dutch art focus
Olmec
Cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico (1200 BCE); featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems. Was the basis for Mesoamerican traditions (Aztec, Maya, etc. )
Omar Khayyam
He was famous during his lifetime as a mathematician and astronomer who calculated how to correct the Persian calendar. he objected to the notion that every particular event and phenomenon was the result of divine intervention; nor did he believe in any Judgement Day or rewards and punishments after life. Instead he supported the view that laws of nature explained all phenomena of observed life
Orthodox Christianity
Orthodox Christianity is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions which descend from the Roman Catholic Church
Otto the Great
King of the Germans and arguably the first Holy Roman Emperor
Parliament
Beginning in England with a House of lords (aristocracy) and House of Commons (rich merchants) governing legislative body
parliamentary system
representative government led by a prime minister
Peasant
Agricultural worker that works land they own or rented
Pepin
Mayor of the Palace of the whole Frankish kingdom (both Austrasia and Neustria), and later King of the Franks; born 714; died at St. Denis, 24 September, 768. He was the son of Charles Martel
Perspective in art
development in the Renaissance that included realistic three-dimensional perspective
plantation system
The use of cotton gins and slaves for production
Pope
Pope in Rome had top authority, while regional churches had bishops
Pope Innocent III
Supported Otto, believing Otto will give church back power but Otto betrayed and seized church’s land and distributed among vassals
Prince Shotoku
Important Japanese regent and scholar of the Asuka period… promoted Buddhism and Confucianism, reinstituted embassies to China, and adopted the Chinese calendar and court ranks
Prince Shotoku
Prince of Japan. When young, received Buddhist influences from relatives that were affected by Paekche and Kokuryo Buddhisms. Established an official rank system (based on Chinese and Korean official rank system) and a constitution (stressed the acceptable behaviors of the people) and spread Buddhism around Japan
provincial leaders
Regional Rulers
Quechua
the language of the Inca empire, now spoken in the Andes highlands from southern Colombia to Chile
Quetzalcoatl
A god of the Toltecs and Aztecs, one of the manifestation of the sun god Tezcatlipoca and represented as a plumed serpent
quipu
system of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system…could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records. A record-keeping device of the Inca empire consisting of a series of variously colored strings attached to a base rope and knotted so as to encode information, used especially for accounting purposes
Qur’an
the holy book of Islam… recitations of revelations received by Muhammad
Ramadan
Islamic month of fasting from dawn to sunset
Romanesque
A style of European architecture prevalent from the ninth to the twelfth centuries, with round arches and barrel vaults influenced by Roman architecture and characterized by heavy stone construction
Rubaiyat in Persian
Rubaiyat is a common shorthand name for the collection of Persian verses known more formally as the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. In fact, rubaiyat (a plural word derived from the arabic root meaning ‘four’) means “quatrains” in the Persian language
Russian Orthodox Church
conservative branch of Christianity that developed in Russia with Byyzantine cue
samurai
Japanese feudal military leaders, rough equivalent of Western knights. Warrior class, top during Shogunate
Scholasticism
dominant medieval philosophical approach… based on the use of logic to resolve theological problems
sectarian strife
violent conflict between Muslims and Coptic Christians in Egypt.
Seljuk Turks
major branch of the Oghuz turks, ruled parts of central asia and middle east (11-14 centuries)
Sephardim
The Jews whose traditions and culture originate from the Mediteranean, including Spain and Portugal
seppuku
ritual suicide/disembowelment in Japan (hara-kiri); demonstrating courage and restoring family honor
serfdom
A person in bondage or servitude
Serfs
peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle Ages
Sharia
Islamic Law
Shogun
military leaders of the bakufu
Shogunate (bakufu)
military government in 12th century Japan… established by the Minamoto after the Gempei Wars… retained emperor but real power resided in military government and samurai
slavery vs. serfdom
were not property themselves and could not be sold apart from the land which they worked. Serfdom is the forced labour of serfs, on the fields of the privileged land owners, in return for protection and the right to work on their leased fields.
social mobility
the ability of an individual to change his/her social status
Sofala
Southern port with gold produced in the interior, controlled by Kilwa
Song
Chinese dynasty that united the entire country until 1127 and the southern portion until 1279, during which time northern China was controlled by the Juchen tribes
Songhay Empire
successor to Mali empire, fusion of Islam, pagan, took over Niger valley, dominant in area until Muslims with muskets
Spanish Inquisition
In the Middle Ages, a judicial procedure that was used to combat heresy… in Spain, authorized by Sixtus IV in 1478; the pope later tried to limit its powers but was opposed by the Spanish crown…the grand inquisitor Tomás de Torquemada was responsible for burning about 2,000 heretics at the stake
St. Cyril
a missionary sent by the Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans… converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity…responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic
steppe diplomacy
institution that the Mongols employed to all empires under its control. Paying tribute was one aspect of it
steppes
a vast semiarid grass-covered plain, found in southeast Europe and Mongolia
Sufis
mystics within Islam… responsible for expansion of Islam in southeastern Asia
sultan
Islamic title, used for rulers of the muslim country
Sundiata
“Lion prince”; member of the Keita clan; created a unified state that became the Mali Empire; died in 1260
Sunni versus Shiite
Sunnis believe this process was conducted in a fair and proper manner and accept Abu Bakr as a righteous and rightful Caliph. The second major sect, the Shia, believe that the Prophet had appointed his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor years earlier during an announcement at Ghadir Khom.
Swahili
A Bantu language of the coast and islands of eastern Africa from Somalia to Mozambique
T’ang
Chinese emperor who overthrew the Hsia dynasty and founded the Shang dynasty
Taika Reforms
attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese- style emperor…also tried to make a professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army
Tatars
Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kievan state. name applied to the Turkic ppl of eastern Europe and central asia, derived from Ta-ta a Mongolian tribe that inhabited present northeast Mongolia in 5th centrury AD
Temple of the Sun
Inca Religious center located at Cuzco
Tenochtitlan
center of Aztec power, founded on marshy island in Lake Texcoco
Teotihuacan
city founded by the Aztecs in 1325
the Kaaba
building located inside the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah). The mosque has been built around the Kaaba. The Kaaba is the holiest place in Islam.
the Talmud
of a series of disputations that took place in Europe during the Middle Ages, a group of rabbis were called upon to defend the Talmud. The attacks against Judaism was based on a long held idea that rabbis had “distorted” the Bible through their interpretations, keeping Jews from “adopting” Christianity.
Thomas Aquinas
Creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God
Thousand and One Nights
Arabian Nights’ Entertainment: a collection of folktales in Arabic dating from the 10th century
Tikal
A ruined Mayan city of northern Guatemala. It was the largest of the Mayan cities and may also be the oldest
Timbuktu
Port city of Mali; located just off the flood plain on the great bend in the Niger River
Timur Lang
leader of Turkic nomads – last Mongol nomad
Timur the Lame
name given to Timur Lang
Toltec
a member of a Nahuatl-speaking people of central and southern Mexico whose empire flourished from the 10th century under invasion by the Aztes in the 12th Century
Treaty of Verdun
843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious divided his territories, the Carolingian Empire, into three kingdoms
tribute
The sacrificing to the gods or the offering and payments to the leaders and/or owners of the land
Tula
capital of the Toltec people, established around 968 CE
ulama
An aristocratic lineage group of prehistoric origin (for example, the Fujiwara, the Taira)
umma
religious leaders – traditional leanings in Islamic Empire
vassals
community of the faithful within Islam; creating political unity
viking/Norse
members of military elite who received land or benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty. Subordinate who, in exchange for land, gives loyalty
Vikings
Scandinavian raiders
Villein
A culture originating in Scandinavia (now Norway, Denmark and Sweden) around the mid-8th century AD The Vikings were fierce conquerors, brave explorers, and skilled craftspeople; they invaded and settled countries throughout Western Europe
Vladimir
one of a class of feudal serfs, that held legal status of freedom in dealings with ppl except their lord
warlordism
Ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev – converted kingdom to Christianity
William the Conquerer
A military commander exercising civil power in a region, whether in nominal allegiance to the national government or in defiance of it
woodblock printing
It is a technique for printing used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China sometime between the mid-6th and late 9th centuries
Wu Zhao
Empress in China; supported Buddhism
Yuan dynasty
1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty. Period of Kublai Kahn and the Mongols dominance over China
zakat
obligatory tax for Muslims used for charity
Zimbabwe
country where Bantu ppl began migrating into, linked to the establishment of trade ties with muslim merchants on Indian ocean (bout 10th century) trading natural resources such as gold, ivory, copper for cloth and glass
Abbasid
(750 C.E.) The Sunni dynasty that overthrew the Umayyads as caliphs
Abu Bakr
(632-634 C.E.) The first caliph; one of Muhammad’s earliest followers and closest friends
Ali
The 4th caliph; the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad who was meant to be the original successor of Muhammad but was too young. Caused warfare between the Sunnis and Shi’a for not punnishing the murderer of the 3rd caliph, Uthman
Architecture of the Renaissance
architecture based on mathematical precision, columns, domes, geometrically perfect designs, revival of Roman architecture
aristocracy
The upper, noble and rich class
Ashikaga Shogunate
, 1336-1573) was a feudal military dictatorship ruled by the shoguns of the Ashikaga family. most of the regional power still remained with the provincial daimyo, and the military power of the shogunate depended largely on their loyalty to the Ashikaga. As the daimyo increasingly feuded among themselves in the pursuit of power, that loyalty grew increasingly strained, until it erupted into open warfare
Baroque
exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, and music. The style started around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe
Battle of Tours
(October 25, 732) Charles Martel, the Frankish Leader went against an Islamic army led by Emir Abd er Rahman; the Islamic army was defeated and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed. The battle stopped the northward advancement from Spain
Benin
A powerful city-state formed around the 14th century; was not relatively influence by the Europeans despite coming into contact with the Portuguese’; important commercial and political entity until the 19th century
Byzantine Empire
Eastern Half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; capital at Constantinople
Caliphate
Political and religious successors to Muhammad
Carolingian dynasty
(8-10th century) Royal house of franks that succeeded the Merovingian dynasty; most prominent member was Charlemagne
Charles Martel
Charles the “Hammer”; led the the Battle of Tours and saved Europe from the Islamic expansion. (732 C.E.)
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor – heritage from German Hapsburgs, Burgundy, Spanish heritage – united empires
Chichen Itza
Originally a Mayan city; conquered by the Toltecs (1000 C.E)
Code of Bushido
(Formulated 14th century) Way of the Warrior for Japanese samurais; defined service and conduct appropriate to their status
code of chivalry
Social codes of knighthood that originated in France in the Middle Ages; associated with ideals of knightly virtues, honour and of courtly love; came to known as ‘gentlemanly conduct.’
Crusades
series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims (temporarily succeeded in capturing Jersalem and establishing Christian kingdoms)
Czar
male monarch/emperor of Russia
Daimyo
warlord rulers of 300 small kingdoms following Onin War and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate
Delhi Shogunate
various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526
divine right
belief that God stays out of our daily lives – he’s a big clockmaker who started the universe, gave us everything we need, European belief by monarchs, aristocracy that their right to rule was legitimized/sanctioned by God,I was born into a monarchy, I must deserve it
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Queen of France as the wife of Louis VII; married Henry II that marriage was annulled and became Queen of England during 1152-1204
Emperor Xuanzong
(reigned 713-755) Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty; encouraged overexpansion
existentialism
human existence as having a set of underlying themes and characteristics, such as anxiety, dread, freedom, awareness of death, and consciousness of existing. Existentialism is also an outlook, or a perspective, on life that pursues the question of the meaning of life or the meaning of existence
feudalism
A political and economical system; relation of a vassal and its lord is characterized by homage and protection
footbinding
began Tang Dynasy – 700, eventually spread to all classes, feet bound on girls at 6 years old, status symbol – only rich could afford to do it, symbol of femininity – women willing to go through pain for appearance – see high heel shoes
gold trade in West and Central Africa
made inland nations rich, relied on slave trade and gold to increase wealth, stunted/slowed industrialization, made African nations dependent, needed to purchase European weapons to expand control of region
Hagia Sophia
former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now converted into a museum, in the Turkish city of Istanbul
Italian Renaissance
rebirth of Classical (Greece/Rome) art/architecture – humanistic focus – patrons – families like Medici and the Catholic Church – blended natural world w/ religion – transition away from religion
Northern Renaissance
spread to Nothern Europe – literature, art – blended human form w/ religion – literature/arts in vernacular for the masses
Osman I
1299 – Osman is regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Empire, and it is from him that its inhabitants, the Turks, called themselves Osmanli until the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
purdah
practice of requiring women to cover their bodies so as to cover their skin and conceal their form, separates genders, some places more cultural than religious
Reconquista
reestablishment of Christian rather than Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula, taking place between 718 and 1492
Rococo
The Rococo style of art emerged in France in the early 18th century as a continuation of the Baroque style, but in contrast to the heavier themes and darker colors of the Baroque, the Rococo was characterized by an opulence, grace, playfulness, and lightness. Rococo motifs focused on the carefree aristocratic life and on lighthearted romance rather than heroic battles or religious figures; they
secular
Not bound by any religious faction
sultan
certain Muslim rulers who claimed full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e. the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), without claiming the overall caliphate. It then developed some further meanings in certain contexts. The dynasty and lands ruled by the Sultan is called Sultanate
unification
The joining of two or more groups
unprecedented
Lacking previous experience of the sort
Western Hemisphere
Often known as Western Europe or USA
Mamluks
Arabic word for “owned”, slave soldiers used by muslim caliphs and the ottoman empire
puppet emperor
Emperor with no real power. In Japan, the shogun (who acted in the name of the emperor) had all the major power
Ming dynasty
ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. It was the last ethnic Han-led dynasty in China – vast navy and army were built, including four-masted ships of 1,500 tons displacement in the former, and a standing army of one million troops. Over 100,000 tons of iron per year were produced in North China (roughly 1 kg per inhabitant), and many books were printed using movable type
ronin
masterless samurai between 1180-1868
Dome of the Rock
Islamic shrine in Jerusalem; believed to be the site where Muhammed ascended to Heaven
iconoclastic controversy
religious controversy with the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons
uji
An aristocratic lineage group of prehistoric origin (for example, the Fujiwara, the Taira)
Quetzalcoatl
A god of the Toltecs and Aztecs, one of the manifestation of the sun god Tezcatlipoca and represented as a plumed serpent
Orthodox
The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho (‘right’, ‘correct’) and doxa (‘thought’, ‘teaching’), is typically used to refer to the correct theological or doctrinal observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body. Each is headed by a bishop; most are related to a specific country, as in Serbian, Russian and Greek Orthodox
mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith
Ghana
Formed by 8th century by exchanging gold from the forests of west Africa for salt/dates from the Sahara or for goods from Mediterranean north Africa. Camels, were introduced tcreating better trade. By 3rd century C.E. it rose to power by taxing the salt and gold exchanged within its borders. 10th century, rulers had converted to Islam and were at its height of power. Almoravid armies invaded Ghana from north Africa (1076), the power was declining despite the kingdom’s survival. 13th century, new states rose.
Andean societies
developed in the second millennium BCE in the central Andes and the central Pacific coast of South America. While oldest artifacts carbon date around 9750 BCE, evidence of a significant economic surplus begins around 2000 BCE. The Andean civilizations included the urbanized cultures of Chav�n, Moche, Ica-Nazca, Chimu, Tiwanaku, Aymara, Chachapoya, and other Pre-Inca cultures. The semi-urbanized Inca conquered greater Peru in the 15th century. Then, in the 16th century, the European fiefdom of Spain conquered Peru.
Chimor
political grouping of the chimu culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru, from 850-1470
harem
living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household