AP World History Period 5 Terms

AP World History Period 5 Terms

Enlightenment
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
7 year war
War between British and French colonists regarding mainly territory. French ended up being defeated.
American Revolution
the revolution of the American colonies against Great Britain
constitution
a written plan of government
French Revolution
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon’s overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
Estates General
France’s traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution
Guillotine
instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles
The Terror
the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilien Robespierre France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Napoleon Bonaparte
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
Haitian Revolution
Toussaint l’Ouverture led this uprising, which in 1790 resulted in the successful overthrow of French colonial rule on this Caribbean island. This revolution set up the first black government in the Western Hemisphere and the world’s second democratic republic (after the US). The US was reluctant to give full support to this republic led by former slaves.
Toussaint L’Ouverture
was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
Congress Of Vienna
conservative, reactionary meeting, led by prince metternich, restore europe to prerevolution time
Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
Steam Engine
external-combustion engine in which heat is used to raise steam which either turns a turbine or forces a piston to move up and down in a cylinder
Coal
fossil fuel consisting of carbonized vegetable matter deposited in the Carboniferous period
Middle Class
A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism
The Wealth of Nations
written by Adam Smith, promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics
Karl Marx
founder of modern communism
The Communist Manifesto
The book written by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that outlined how every society in the world would eventually reach communism.
Laissez Faire
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Child Labor
using children to work in factories and businesses
Urbanization
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Slum
a district of a city marked by poverty and inferior living conditions
The Cult of Domesticity
new ideal of womanhood and a new ideology about the home arose out of the new attitudes about work and family in the late 19th century America
Junta
a group of military officers who rule a country after seizing power
Simone Bolivar
he led Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela to independence, and helped lay the foundations for democratic ideology in much of Hispanic America. “George Washington of South America”
Miguel Hidalgo Y Costilla
Mexican priest who led the first stage of the Mexican independence war in 1810. He was captured and executed in 1811. (p. 625)
Jose Maria Morelos
Mexican priest and former student of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he led the forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was captured and executed in 1814. (See also Hidalgo y Costilla, Miguel.) (p. 626)
Agustin de Iturbide
Mexican (creole) army officer who joined forces w/ the Indians and Mestizos won mexican’s independence then claimed himself emperor
Emperor Maximillian
1864; Austrian representative sent to Mexico to regain control of the territory, somewhat Holy Alliance like ideology; clear violation of Monroe Doctrine; after the Civil War, Prez Johnson sent the U.S. military to the border and told Maximilian to leave – and they did; first time American enforced the Monroe Doctrine via its own military power
Benito Juarez
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
Pedro I
son and successor of Joao VI in brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor
Secularism
a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations
Regionalism
a foreign policy that defines the international interests of a country in terms of particular geographic areas
Abolition
the act of abolishing a system or practice or institution (especially abolishing slavery)
Acculturation
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
Muhammad Ali
Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state (1769-1849)
Tanzimat
‘Restructuring’ reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient. (p. 678)
Fez
a felt cap (usually red) for a man
The Crimean War
a conflict between the Russian Empire, and the French, British, and the Ottoman Empires with most battles happening on the Crimean Peninsula
Modern War
a total war in which involved nations direct all resources to producing material for waging war
Florence Nightingale
Established sanitary nursing care units. Founder of modern nursing. began professional education of nursing.
Young Ottomans
Movement of young intellectuals to institute liberal reforms and build a feeling of national identity in the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the nineteenth century.
Alexander II
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)
The Opium War
Britain was exporting opium to China, who’s population was becoming addicted. It was a major problem for Chinese government, but when they tried to retaliate against Britain they were thwarted by the more industrialized country. China tried to convince Portugal to side with them and shut down trading with Britain, and upon hearing this, Britain fired back and seized China’s ports. This war was settled with the Treaty of Nanjing.
Taiping Rebellion
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.
Extraterritoriality
Right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation.
Zulu
A people of modern South Africa whom King Shaka united beginning in 1818. (p. 649)
Shaka Zulu
Leader of Zulu people, Around 1816 used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large centralized state. The Zulu land became part of British-controlled land in 1887.
African Nationalism
Believing that africa should be united to be able to push out the Europeans
East India Company
an English company formed in 1600 to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia
Sepoy Rebellion
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.
Indian Civil Service
The elite professional class of officials who administered the government of British India. Originally composed exclusively of well-educated British men, it gradually added qualified Indians.
Indian nationalism
Nationalism movements within India began to work towards independence in the 1890’s
Afrikaners Great Trek
Free Trade
international trade free of government interference
Indentured Servants
colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
Nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
nation – State
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Bessemer Process
an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities
Separate spheres
Middle-class ideal where home life was strictly separated from the workplace and womens roles were separate from mens, with women running the household and men earning money outside it.
Suffrage
the right to vote
Labor Unions
Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
German and Italian Unification
The unification of states in Germany and Italy
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)
Austro-Prussian Franco-Prussian War
War between Prussia and France over land where people spoke German but said they were French
Boxer Rebellion
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
Meiji Restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
Sino-Japanese War
a war with China and Japan that ended with Japan ruling Korea and parts of Northern China
Russo-Japanese War
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win.
Liberalism
an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard
Missionary
someone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program
King Leopold
King of Belgium who began imperialistic trade inside of Africa which resulted in the Scramble for Africa.
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts. (p. 731)
Suez Canal
a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
Berlin Conference
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
White Man’s Burden
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
Rubber Plantation
Plantations that grew rubber trees in Latin America and used slave labor to do it
Emilio Aguinaldo
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
Free Trade Imperialism
Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late nineteenth century, free-trade imperialism characterized the relations between the Latin American republics. (744)
Panama Canal
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
Mexican Independence
Creoles fearing loss of privileges joined together, led by Agustin de Iturbide to declare Mexican’s independence in 1821. Iturbide was overthrown in 1821 and CEntral America had independence from Mexico.
Republic
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them