AP World History Period 6

AP World History Period 6

Western Front
war line between Belgium and Switzerland during World War I; featured trench warfare and massive casualties among combatants
Eastern Front
war zone from the Baltic to the Balkans where Germans, Austro-Hungarians, Russians, and Balkan nations fought
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne assassinated at Sarajevo in 1914; precipitated World War I
Nicholas II
Russian tsar (r. 1894-1917); executed in 1918
Gallipoli
World War I battle, 1915; unsuccessful attempt in defense of the Dardenelles
Italian Front
war line between Italy and Austria-Hungary; also produced trench warfare
Armenian genocide
launched by Young Turk leaders in 1915; claimed up to one million lives
Submarine warfare
a major part of the German naval effort against the Allies during World War I; when employed against the US it precipitated American participation in the war
Armistice
November 11, 1918 agreement by Germans to suspend hostilities
Georges Clemenceau
French premier desiring harsher peace terms for Germans
David Lloyd George
British prime minister; attempted to mediate at peace conference between Clemenceau and Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
American president who called for self-determination and the League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles
ended World War I; punished Germany with loss of territory and payment of reparations; did not satisfy any of the signatories
League of Nations
international organization of nations created after World War I; designed to preserve world peace; the US never joined
Indian National Congress
political party that grew from regional associations of Western-educated Indians in 1885; dominated by elites; was the principal party throughout the colonial period and after independence
Morley-Minto Reforms
1909; provided Indians with expanded opportunities to elect and serve on local and national legislative councils
Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
1919; increased national powers of Indian legislators and place provincial administrations under ministries controlled by Indian-elected legislatures
Rowlatt Act
1919; placed severe restrictions on Indian civil rights; undercut impact of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms
M. K. Gandhi
Western-educated Indian lawyer and nationalist politician with many attributes of an Indian holy man; stressed nonviolent tactics and headed the movement for Indian independence
Satyagraha
“truth force”; Gandhi’s policy of nonviolent opposition to British rule
Mustafa Kemal, Ataturk
president of Turkey (1923-1938); responsible for westernization of Turkey
Effendi
prosperous business and professional urban Egyptian families; generally favored independence
Dinshawi incident
1906 fracas between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers that resulted in an accidental death; Egyptian protest led to harsh repression that stimulated nationalist sentiment
Mandates
governments entrusted to victorious European World War I nations over the colonies of the defeated powers
Balfour Declaration
1917; British promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine
Zionism
European Jewish movement of the 1860s and 1870s that argued that Jews return to their Holy Land; eventually identified with settlement in Palestine
Theodor Hertzl
Austrian Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; was unsympathetic to Arabs and promoted Jewish immigration into Palestine to form a Jewish state
Alfred Dreyfus
French Jew, falsely accused of treason in 1894; acquitted 1906; his false conviction fueled Zionism
Wafd Party
Egyptian nationalist party founded after World War I; led by Sa’d Zaghlul; participated in the negotiations that led to limited Egyptian independence in 1922
W.E.R. Du Bois and Marcus Garvey
African American leaders with major impact on rising African nationalism
Negritude
literary movement among African Americans and Africans; sought to combat unfavorable stereotypes of African culture and to celebrate African achievements; influenced early African nationalist movements
Kellogg-Briand Pact
1928; a multnation treaty, sponsored by American and French leaders, that outlawed war
Cubist movement
headed by Pablo Picasso; rendered familiar objects as geometrical shapes
Fascism
political ideology that became predominant in Italy under Benito Mussolini during the 1920s; attacked the weakness of democracy and the corruption and class conflict of capitalism; promised vigorous foreign and military programs
Syndicalism
organization of industrial workers to control the means of production and distribution
Mexican Revolution
1910-1920; civil war; challenged Porio Diaz in 1910 and initiated a revolution after losing fraudulent elections
Pancho Villa
Mexican revolutionary leader in northern Mexico after 1910
Emilliano Zapata
Mexican revolutionary commander of a guerrilla movement centered at Morelos; demanded sweeping land reform
Mexican Constitution of 1917
promised land and educational reform, limited foreign ownership, guaranteed rights for workers, and restricted clerical education and proprerty ownership; never fully implemented
Lazaro Cardenas
Mexican president (1934-1940); responsible for large land redistribution to create communal farms; also began program of primary and rural education
Corridos
popular ballads written to celebrate heroes of the Mexican Revolution
Cristeros
conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; a reaction against secularism
Party of Institutionalized Revolution (PRI)
inclusive Mexican political party developing from the 1920s; rued for the rest of the 20th century
Soviet
council of workers; seized the government of St. Petersburg in 1917 to precipitate the Russian Revolution
Aleksander Kerensky
liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917; attempted development of parliamentary rule, but supported continuance of the war against Germany
Russian Communist Party
Bolshevik wing of the Russian socialists; came to power under Lenin in the November 1917 revolution
Council of People’s Commissars
government council composed of representatives from Russian soviets and headed by Lenin; came to power after November 1917
Red Army
built up under the leadership of Leon Trotsky; its victories secured communist power after the early years of turmoil following the Russian Revolution
New Economic Policy (NEP)
initiated in 1921 by Lenin; combined the state establishing basic economic policies with individual initiative; allowed food production to recover
Supreme Soviet
communist-controlled parliament of the USSR
Comintern
Communist International; an organization under dominance of the USSR; designed to encourage the spread of communism to the rest of the world
Joseph Stalin
Lenin’s successor as leader of the USSR; strong nationalist view of communism; crushed opposition to his predominance; ruled USSR until his death in 1953
Collectivization
creation of large state-run farms replacing individual holdings; allowed mechanization of agriculture and more efficient control over peasants
Yuan Shikai
warlord in northern China after fall of the Qing dynasty; president of China in 1912; hoped to become emperor, but blocked in 1916 by Japanese intervention in China
Sun Yatsen
head of Revolutionary Alliance that led the 1911 revolt against the Qing; president of China in 1911, but yielded to Yuan Shikai in 1912; created the Guomindang in 1919
May Fourth Movement
acceptance at Versailles of Japanese gains in China during World War I led to demonstrations and the beginning of a movement to create a liberal democracy
Guomindang (National Party)
founded by Sun Yatsen in 1919; main support from urban businesspeople and merchants; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925
Chiang Kai-shek
leader of the Guomindang from 1925; contested with the communists for control of China until defeated in 1949
Mao Zedong
communist leader who advocated the role of the peasantry in revolution; led the Communists to victory and ruled China from 1949 to 1976
Long March
Communist retreat under Guomindang pressure in 1934; shifted center of communist power to Shanxi province
Totalitarian State
a 20th century form of government that exercised direct control over all aspects of its subjects; existed in Germany, Italy, the Soviet Union, and other Communist states
Spanish Civil War
civil war between republican and autocratic supporters; with support from Germany and Italy,the autocratic regime of Francisco Franco triumphed
Import substitution economies
Latin American and other nations’ effort to produce what had formerly been imported
Corporatism
conservative political movement emphasizing the organic nature of society, with the state as mediator between different groups
Tojo Hideki
Japanese general who dominated internal politics from the mid-1930s; gave the military dominance over civilian cabinets
Spanish Civil War
civil war between republican and autocratic supporters; with support from Germany and Italy, the autocratic regime of Francisco Franco triumphed
National Socialist (Nazi) Party
founded by Adolf Hitler in the period of the Great Depression in Germany
Blitzkrieg
German term meaning lightening warfare; involved rapid movement of troops and tanks
Vichy
collaborationist French government established in Vichy in 1940 following defeat by Germany
Winston Churchill
British prime minister during World War II; exemplified British determination to resist Germany
Holocaust
Germany’s attempted extermination of European Jews and others; 12 million, including 6 million Jews, died
United Nations
global organization, founded by the Allies following World War II
Tehran Conference
1944; meeting between the leaders of Britain, the US, and the Soviet Union; decided to open a new front against Germany in France; gave the Russians a free hand in eastern Europe
Yalta Conference
1945; agreed upon Soviet entry into the war against Japan, organization of the United Nations; left eastern Europe to the Soviet Union
Potsdam Conference
1945; meeting between the leaders of the US, Britain, and the Soviet Union; allies accepted Soviet control of eastern Europe; Germany and Austria were divided among the victors
Atlantic Charter
1941; pact between the US and Britain; gave Britain a strong ally; in return the document contained a clause recognizing the right of all people to select their own government
Quit India movement
mass civil disobedience campaign against British rule of India in 1942
Muslim League
Indian organization that emerged at the end of World War II; backed Britain in the war
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muslim Indian nationalist; leader of the Muslim League; worked for a separate Muslim state; first president of Pakistan
Land Freedom Army
African revolutionary movement for reform of Kenyan colonial system; began a conflict in 1952; called the Mau Mau by the British
National Liberation Front (FLN)
Algerian nationalist movement that launched a guerrilla war during the 1950s; gained independence for Algeria in 1962
Afrikaner National Party
became the majority in the all-white South African legislature in 1948; worked to form the rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid
Cold War
struggle from 1945 to 1989 between the communist and democratic worlds; ended with the collapse of Russia
Eastern bloc
the eastern European countries of Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, and Eastern Germany dominated by the Soviet Union during the cold war
Iron Curtain
term coined by Winston Churchill to describe the division between the Western and communist nations
Marshall Plan
1947 United States program to rebuild Europe and defeat domestic communist movements
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
formed in 1949 under US leadership to group Canada and western Europe against the Soviets
Warsaw Pact
the Soviet response to NATO; made up of Soviets and their European satellites
Welfare state
Great Depression-inspired system that increased government spending to provide social insurance and stimulate the economy
Technocrat
a new type of bureaucrat trained in the sciences or economics and devoted to the power of national planning; rose to importance in governments after World War II
Green movement
rise during the 1970s in Europe of groups hostile to uncontrolled economic growth
Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan
conservative leaders of the 1970s and 1980s; worked to cut welfare and to promote free enterprise; Cold Warriors
European Union
began by six nations as the European Economic Community (Commons Market); by the 21st century incorporated most of western European states and was expanding eastward
New feminism
a wave of agitation for women’s rights dating from about 1949; emphasized equality between sexes
Solidarity
Polish labor movement beginning in the 1970s, taking control of the country from the Soviet Union
Socialist realism
Soviet effort to replace Western literature and arts with works glorifying state-approved achievements by the masses
Third World
term for nations not among the capitalist industrial nations of the first world or the industrialized communist nations of the second world
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
agreement between the US, Mexico, and Canada that lowered trade barriers
Liberation theology
combination of Roman Catholic and socialist principles aiming to improve the lives of the poor
Banana republics
conservative, often dictatorial, Latin American governments friendly to the US; exported tropical products
Good Neighbor Policy
introduced by US president Franklin Roosevelt in 1933 to deal fairly, without intervention, with Latin American states
Alliance for Progress
1961 US programs for economic development of Latin America
Indira Gandhi
Prime Minister of India (1966-1977, 1980-1984); daughter of former Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru; dominated Indian politics for several decades
Primary products
food or industrial crops with a high demand in industrialized economies; their prices tend to fluctuate widely
Neocolonialism
continued dominance of new nations by their former rulers
Gamal Abdul Nasser
member of the Free Officers Movement who seized power in Egypt in a 1952 military coup; became leader of Egypt; formed a state-directed reforming regime; ousted Britain from the Suez Canal in 1956; most reforms were unsuccessful
Anwar Sadat
successor of Nasser as Egypt’s ruler; dismantled Nasser’s costly and failed programs; signed peace treaty with Israel in 1973; assassinated by a Muslim fundamentalist
Ayatollah Khomeini
religious leader of Iran following the 1979 revolution; worked for fundamentalist Islamic religious reform and elimination of Western influences
Apartheid
Afrikaner policy of racial segregation in South Africa designed to create full economic, social, and political exploitation of African majority
Homelands
areas in South Africa for residence of “tribal” African peoples; overpopulated and poverty-stricken; source of cheap labor for whites
African National Congress (ANC)
South African political organization founded to defend African interests; became the ruling political party after the 1994 elections
Nelson Mandela
ANC leader imprisoned by Afrikaner regime; released in 1990 and elected president of South Africa in 1994
F.W. de Klerk
South African president (1989-1994); led Afrikaner push for reforms ending apartheid; Nelson Mandela was freed in his presidency
Douglas MacArthur
American commander during the war against Japan; headed American occupation government of Japan after the war; commanded United Nations forces during the Korean War
Liberal Democratic Party
moderate political party that monopolized Japanese governments from 1955 into the 1990s
Republic of Korea
southern half of Korea occupied by the US after World War II; developed parliamentary institutions under authoritarian rulers; underwent major industrial and economic growth after the 1950s
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
northern half of Korea dominated by USSR after World War II; formed a communist dictatorship under Kim Il-Song; attacked South Korea to begin the Korean War
Mass Line
economic policy of Mao Zedong inaugurated in 1955; led to formation of agricultural cooperatives that then became farming collectives in 1956; peasants lost land gained a few years earlier
Great Leap Forward
economic policy of Mao Zedong introduced in 1958; proposed small-scale industrialization projects integrated into peasant communities; led to economic disaster and ended in 1960
People’s Liberation Army
military, and dominant, arm of the communist structure in China
Cultural Revolution
initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 to restore his dominance oveer the pragmatists; disgraced and even killed bureaucrats and intellectuals; called off in 1968
Jiang Qing
wife of Mao Zedong; one of the Gang of Four; opposed pragmatists and supported the Cultural Revolution; arrested and imprisoned for life in 1976
Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, and Liu Shaoqui
pragmatists who opposed the Great Leap Forward; wanted to restore state direction ad market incentives at the local level
Red Guard
student brigades active during the Cultural Revolution in supporting Mao Zedong’s policies
Gang of Four
Jiang Qing and her allies who opposed the pragmatists after the death of Mao Zedong
Tayson Rebellion
peasant revolution in southern Vietnam during the 1770s; toppled the Nguyen and the Trinh dynasties
Nguyen Anh (Gia Long)
with French support, unified Vietnam under the Nguyen dynasty in 1802 with the capital at Hue
Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDD)
middle-class revolutionary organization during the 1920s; committed to the violent overthrow of French colonialism; crushed by the French
Communist Party of Vietnam
the primary nationalist party after the defeat of the VNQDD in 1929; led from 1920s by Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
shifted to a revolution based on the peasantry in the 1930s; presided over the defeat of France in 1954 and the unsuccessful US intervention in Vietnam
Viet Minh
Communist Vietnamese movement; fought the Japanese during World War II and the French afterwards
Viet Cong
the communist guerrilla movement in southern Vietnam during the Vietnamese War
Mikhail Gorbachev
leader of the USSR (1985-1991); inaugurated major reforms that led to the disintegration of the communist regime
Glasnost
term meaning openness; Gorbachev policy opening the opportunity to criticize the government
Perestroika
term meaning economic restructuring; Gorbachev policy for the economic rebuilding of the USSR by allowing more private ownership and decentralized economic control
Globalization
the increasing interconnectedness of all parts of the world; opposed by many environmental and social justice groups
Multinational corporations
business organizations with connections across political borders