AP World History-Rome

AP World History-Rome

Paul of Tarsus
-55 CE Roman guards transported prisoner from port of Caesarea of Palestine to city of Rome
-Party boarded ship with grain and 276 passengers
-Ship encountered severe storm
-For 2 weeks crew and passengers worked to keep the ship afloat
-Ship eventually reached the island of Malta where the storm waves destroyed the ship
-Most of the people survived including Paul who spent 3 months on Malta before getting on another ship to Rome
Christianity
-Sect of Judaism accepted only by few people who believed Jesus of Nazareth was savior of the Jewish Community
-mid first century CE Christianity attracted many converts throughout the Mediterranean basin
-Paul was a devote Jew from Anatolia who accepted Christian teachings and became a missionary looking for converts from outside as well as inside the Jewish community
-Crowd of Paul’s enemies attacked him in Jerusalem when he promoted Christianity
-Disturbance became so big that Roman imperial government authorities intervened to restore order
Roman Empire
-Established close links between other Mediterranean regions
-As they conquered other lands the Romans enabled merchants, missionaries, and others to travel throughout the Mediterranean basin and parts of southwest Asia
-The early Christians encountered harsh opposition and persecution from Roman officials
-Eventually Christianity became official religion of the Roman empire
Kingdom to Republic
– Founded in 8th century BCE the city of Roman was originally a small state ruled by a single king
-In the late 6th century BCE the city’s aristocrats ended the monarchy and created a republic
-The Roman republic survived for more than 500 years
-Rome was dominant power in Mediterranean basin
Romulus and Remus
-Twins-Almost did not survive infancy because their evil uncle abandoned them by the flooded Tiber river expecting them to drown or die from exposure
-She-wolf found them and nursed them to health
-In 753 BCE Romulus founded Rome and established himself as the first king
Etruscans
-Italy underwent rapid political and economic development
-dynamic people who dominated much of Italy between the 8th and 5th centuries BCE
-Migrated to Italy from Anatolia
-Built thriving cities and established political and economic alliances between their settlements
-Manufactured high-quality bronze and iron goods and worked gold and silver into jewelry
-Etruscan merchants drew a large volume of traffic to Rome
Establishment of Republic
-509 BCE Roman nobility got rid of the last Etruscan king
-Replaced with aristocratic republic
Roman Forum
-Political and civic center filled with temples and public buildings where leading citizens tended to government business
Consuls
-Elected by an assembly dominated be hereditary aristocrats and wealthy classes (Patricians)
-Senate advised the consuls and ratified all major decisions
-Constant tension between the wealthy classes and the common people (Plebeians)
Conflicts between Patricians and Plebeians
-Relations between the classes became strained that the plebeians threatened to secede from Rome and establish a rival settlement
-The patricians granted plebeians the right to elect officials (tribunes) who represented their interests in the Roman government
-Originally plebeians chose 2 tribunes but then that changed to 10
-Problems continued to rise and eventually broadened to the base of political participation
-In early 5th century Plebeians threatened to secede
Plebeians were granted right to elect Tribunes
-2-10 tribunes elected
-Had power to intervene in politics
-Given veto power
The legend
-Aeneas, a refugee from Troy, escapes during the Trojan War
-Migrates to Italy
– and Remus were left by the Tiber River to die
-“Suckled” by a she-wolf
-753 B.C.E. Romulus founded the city of Rome and became the first king
The real story
-Indo-European origins
-Adopted agriculture
-Tribal structure of society
The Etruscans
-Lived in Italy 8th-5th centuries B.C.E.
-Probably from Anatolia (modern-day Turkey)
-Built cities
-Declined
-Greeks attacked at sea
-Gauls attacked on land
Kingdom of Rome
-Influenced by Etruscans
-Monarchy like Etruscans
-Many of the first kings were Etruscans
-Provided paved streets, public buildings, defensive walls
-Rome was well-situated for trade
-Easy access to Mediterranean via
Tiber River
-Protected because it was not
on the coast
Roman Republic
-509 B.C.E. Etruscan king deposed
-Aristocratic republic created
-Built public Forum
-Government
-2 consuls (presidents)
-Elected by Patricians
-Served 1 year terms
-Senate
-All early leaders were wealthy Patricians
Roman Republic Expansion
-Established military colonies
-Often exempted conquered peoples from taxation
-Allowed self-rule in a lot of regions
-Had right to trade / marry Roman citizens
-Possibility of gaining citizenship
-Had to provide soldier
Punic Wars
-264 – 146 B.C.E.
-First Punic War 264-241 BCE
-Fought over Sicily
-Rome won
-Second Punic War 218 BCE
-General Hannibal attacked from North
-Crossed Alps on elephants
-Had to return to Carthage – Rome won
-Third Punic War 149 – 146 BCE
-Rome attacked/ Burned Carthage
-Rome Won
Imperial Expansion and Domestic Problems
-Acquired lands fell to wealthy
-Elites organized plantations known as LATIFUNDIAS
-Enjoyed economies of scale (Think Wal-Mart)
-Gracchi Brothers
-Tiberius and Gaius
-Worked to limit individual landholding
-Both were assassinated
Civil War
-Generals recruited their own private armies from landless & urban poor
-Men were intensely loyal to generals, who fed them
-In 87 BCE Gaius Marius (who advocated redistribution of land) marched on Rome
Sulla, an aristocrat, gained control after his death
-Killed 10,000 people during his reign of terror
-Conservative government weakened power of the poor
Julius Caeser
-Nephew of Marius
-Liberal, favored social reform
-Led Roman army in conquering Gaul (France)
-In 46 B.C.E. he named himself Dictator for life
-Centralized power
-Redistributed land to his men and supporters
-Large-scale building projects for employment
-Extended Roman citizenship to imperial provinces
-Was attacked and killed in 44 B.C.E. in the forum
Augustus
-13 years of civil unrest after Caesar’s death
-Octavian (Augustus) was the nephew/son of Caesar
-Defeated Marc Antony & Cleopatra in 31 B.C.E.
-Ruled for 45 years
Augustus’ Government
-Monarchy disguised as a republic
-Centralized political and military power
-Kept traditional offices
-Allowed elites to participate in government
-Reorganized government
-Standing army loyal to him
-Appointed people loyal to him
-Head of everything in government
Effects of Expansion
-Sparsely populated areas quickly grew w/ Roman soldiers, merchants, diplomats and governors
-Stimulated local economies
-Cities emerged
-Paris
-London
-Toledo
Pax Romana
-Within Roman boundaries, long era of peace
-1st century C.E. – middle of 3rd century C.E.
-Facilitated trade and communication
Roman Roads
-Deep roads
-Curbs
-Drainage
-Paved w/ stone
-Large enough for 2 way traffic
-Milestones
-Stations for couriers
Roman Law
-Twelve Tables
-450 B.C.E.
-Argued:
-Defendant innocent until proven guilty
-Defendants could challenge accusers before a judge
-Unfair laws should be repealed
Trade and Agriculture
-Greece
-Olives and vines
-Syria & Palestine
-Fruits, nuts, wool
-Gaul
-Grain, copper, vines
Italy
-Pottery, glassware, bronze
Mediterranean Trade
-Roman military and naval power protected Mediterranean Sea
-Called it “Mare nostrum”
-“Our Sea”
City of Rome
-Statues, pools, monuments
-Temples, bathhouses, public buildings
-Aqueducts brought in fresh water
-Underground sewers
Entertainment
-Circuses
-Oval structures for chariot races
-Circus Maximus sat 250,000 people
-Colosseum
-Gladiators
-Humans & wild animals
Pater Families
-Patriarchal tradition of eldest male ruling family
-Women had some power within the home, especially in wealthy families
-Pater Familias had authority to:
-Arrange marriages
-Punish family members
-Sell relatives into slavery
-Execute family
“Bread and Circuses” 1st Century B.C.E.
-Many poor farmers moved into city
-Often unemployed, they would riot or join personal armies
-Imperial authorities tried to distract them with “Bread and Circuses”
-Subsidized grain
-Spectacular entertainment
Slavery in Roman Empire
-2nd Century C.E. 1/3 of population of Roman empire enslaved
-Spartacus led the most famous slave rebellion in 73 B.C.E.
-Chained together to work on Latifundia
-Conditions better in the cities
-House slaves
-Tutors
Some urban slaves manumitted at age 30
Roman Religions
-Influenced by the Greeks
-Renamed Greek gods / goddesses
-Stoicism
-Cicero followed Stoic values
-Individuals must live in accordance w/ nature and reason
-Religions of Salvation
-Sense of purpose and optimism for the future
Mithaism
-Zoroastrian mythical god
-Identified w/ sun and light
-Romans redeveloped Mithras as a god of strength, courage and discipline
-Popular among military
-Beliefs
-Human life divine
-Moral behavior
-Rewarded w/ reunion w/ Mithras for believers
Cult of Isis
-Allowed both men and women followers
-Most popular religion of salvation prior to Christianity
-Egyptian goddess was benevolent and protective
Jews and the Empire
-From 10th century B.C.E.
-Jews were first monotheistic religion
-Only recognized Yahweh as divine
-Refused to worship any other gods, emperors, etc.
The Essenes
-A sect of Judaism
-Wrote the “Dead Sea Scrolls,” discovered in 1947
-Strict moral code
-Baptism by water
-Community meals
-Searched for a savior
Jesus of Nazarth
-A Jew
-Peaceful, taught devotion to God and love for fellow man
-Alarmed Romans because he taught “the kingdom of God is at hand”
-Executed around 30 C.E.
-Became more popular after death
-“Christ” means “anointed one”
Christianity
-Paul of Tarsus was disciple of Jesus
-Appealed his case
-Traveled to spread the word of Jesus
-Argued that faith must come before individual or family