AP World History Study Guide – Unit 2 (Classical Period)

AP World History Study Guide – Unit 2 (Classical Period)

RVCs
led to control of barbaric outsiders, expansion; political organization, legal codes, specialization, more writing and architecture
artisians
person skilled in crafts
Continuity from RVCs
barter economy, patriarchal societies
Change form RVCs
military organization, war, more writing/records
Assyrians
from northern Mesopotamia, no natural barriers/easy to attack, empire stretched from N/E of Tigris to central Egypt
provinces
dependent territories protected by army
Nineveh
Assyrian capital, one of world’d largest libraries; demolished by enemies(Medes and Chaldeans’ revenge for Assyrian cruelty)
Persia
southwest Asia; nomadic
qanat
underground canal used in water systems of ancient Persians
nomadic
roaming lifestyle
Cyrus the Great
military leader; organize by ranks; freed the Jews
Darius the Great
stops rebellions; soldier of Cyrus; expands Persia north; Builds capital Persepolis; creates postal service and spies
centralized bureaucracy
ruling with ranks/orders/parts and one central capital
satraps
Persian Governor, oversees laws, military, and taxes of their province
Darians
monetary, Persian gold coins
Royal Road
Persian trade route, connects cities for faster trade
Zorostrianism
founded by Persian prophet Zoroster, 2 gods, good and evil, idea of heaven and hell
Avesta
collection of books on Zorostrianism
Greece
independent city-states in the rocky terrain of Southeast Europe
Minonians
Crete, known for architecture and sea trade with Egypt
Myceneans
warlike, Greek gods, Trojan War, Homer w/ Odyssey and Illyiad
Dorians
from north Macedonia, iron weapons, Dark Age of little writing, a population decrease, and isolation
polis
Greek city-state
Greek governments
Monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, direct democracy
Aristocracy
the wealthy make laws
Oligarchy
Wealthy control government and army
Direct democracy
first form of democracy, created by Solon in 461 Athens, vote at the acropolis
Acropolis
A fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city
Olympics
games against polises were held to honor their gods
Athenian women
homemakers, no government role, not allowed in public
Spartan women
more equal to men (not exactly though), athletes, run businesses, step up while men were training
Greek Ionian Revolt
Cause of the Persian Wars, mistrust, no honorable satrap
Persian War
Greece vs. Persia, Greeks unite
Marathon
1st battle, Greek victory due to Phalanx formation, mostly Athenians
Emperor Xerxes
Persian, seeks revenge for the defeat at Marathon
Thermonopylae
turning point, 2nd battle, Spartans, Greek lost but bought time
Salamis
last battle, naval, Thermistecles sends a “traitor”, big Persian ship get caught and sunk in the straight
Thermistecles
Greek military leader
Athens Golden Age
political and cultural achievements, democracy becomes stronger
Pericles
Greek ruler/philosopher, pay more to political figures and then the poor can take part
Cause of Peloponnesian War
Spartan jealousy of Athenian Golden Age, fear of rising power
Peloponnesian War
civil war, Delian League (Athens) vs. Peloponnesian League (Sparta); phase 1: Athenian blockade, Spartans burning and pillaging; phase 2: Athenian plague, Spartans surround Athens
Athenian Plague
Athenians fled to inside the Athens citadel walls, disease affected 1/3 the population including Pericles
bicameral legislature
A lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts
civic duty
A belief that one has an obligation to participate in civic and political affairs
Hippocratus
father of medicine, believed germs and bacteria led to sickness
Archimedes
philosopher, pi, levers and pulleys
Aristotle
classified plants and animals, taught Alexander the Great
Macedonia
barbaric, frontier of Greece/Balkans, nomadic, pastorial, subsistent farmers
Philip II
unites the Macedonians, conquers Greek polises, Greeks don’t unite after Peloponnesian War
Macedonian weapons
catapult and long spike
Alexander the Great
Philip’s successor, age 20, student of Aristotle, goal to spread Hellenism
Hellenism
Greek culture
Alexander’s conquest
put down Thebian rebellion, invades Persia, liberates Egypt, builds Alexandria, burns Persepolis, crosses Indus to defeat unorganized Aryans (also suffers high losses due to elephants)
Antigonid Empire
Greece and Macedonia, flourishing trade, constant rebellion
Ptolemaic Empire
Egypt, Holy Land, Anatolia, wealthiest, salt monopoly
Seleucid Empire
east Persia to India, largest, cosmopolitan society
Cosmopolitan society
a condition in which international organizations, transnational corporations and global markets are accountable to the peoples of the world.
Erastosthenes
director of library in Alexandria, computed Earth’s circumference
Aristarchus
estimate sun was 300x larger than earth, and that earth revolves around the sun
Hipparchus
invented longitude and latitude
Chandragupta Mauryan
unified India, feared assasinantion so he became a Jainist monk
Mauryan history
Vedic age ends when Persians invade, Alexander the Great conquers in 326
autocratic ruler
single ruler with complete authority
Pataliputra
Mauryan capital
Kautilya
advisor of Chandragupta, wrote the Arthashastra
Arthashastra
guide for ruling, strict control, legalist
Asoka
Chandragupta’s grandson, follows Arthashastra, becomes sorrow-changed, becomes Buddhist
Battle of Kalinga
deadly battle in which Asoka becomes sorrow-changed
Asoka’s Law Code
mostly sanskrit, pillars(stupas) with 30 edicts, Buddhist principles of toleration and righteousness
Gupta Empire
the Golden Age of India, flourish in arts, literature, math, medicine, rewarded for discoveries
Chandra Gupta I
inherits his father’s kingdom, marries princess of another kingdom, conquers and assembles the other kingdoms
Chandra Gupta II
expands, prosperity/wealth, maritime and land trade, patrons of the art, etc
Kalidosa
Gupta empire poet, play Shakuntala
Aryabhatta
earth is sphere
Sushruta Samhita
text on surgery/medicine
Shi Huangdhi
1st emperor of Qin dynasty, 13, legalist
Qin Empire
nobles families lived at capital, 100s of Confucian scholars killed
autocracy
A system of government in which the power to rule is in the hands of a single individual
Qin centralization
highway networks, peasants work against will, uniform standards, law, $, weights, measures, cart and axel lengths
Han dynasty
collapse of Qin after Shi Huangdi dies, Lui Bang bring rise of Han
Changán
Han capital
Han emperor
semi divine, connection between heaven and Earth, secluded, many wives
ministers or officials
Han leaders of provinces, forced conscription, labor, taxes, etc
Han Wudi
creator of civil service exam