AP world history summer assignment

AP world history summer assignment

Agriculture
The cultivation of land, animals, and raising crops; Hunting and gathering being the original way to get food, by taking it from the land instead of producing it themselves. When food became scarce the hunters and gathers would move into a new area. But at the end of the Ice age, there was a great population increase. Some groups made a great advance by, domesticating animals and plants. As the Neolithic era continued they began to raise a wider variety of crops.
Animism
– The belief that there isn’t a separation between spiritual and physical, that there is a living soul in inanimate and animate objects. Like plants, or a storm. A lot of mythology is based on spirits and soul. Like the water would be Poseidon, lightning would be Zeus (Greek mythology).
Civilization
– used commonly to describe a place with a level of advancement. You would find that a most civilizations have a system of writing, a legal system, agriculture, and a developed way of transportation
Cultural diffusion
The spread of an idea, religion, technologies, languages, ect. For example: Buddhist and Christian missionaries would travel to different countries spreading their religion, while religions like Hinduism where you would most likely need to be in India to worship or Judaism where your mother must be Jewish does not spread as easily.
Democracy
When you grant political rights to adult citizens. So the citizens may choose there government officials, and ect. Athens Greece, one of the first city-state to have democracy.
Domestication
Taming animals, and plants. Exp: taking the seeds from fruit and vegetables to replant them. Or having a male and female goat and have them mate to make more goats
Theocracy
a government dominated by religion
History
The study of past event and human affairs. Can also mean, a history of time after writing was invented. Historians began to analyze, examine, and sequence events in attempt to investigate cause and effects.
Ideograms
a symbol that represents an idea or concept. Some uses pictorial resemblance to a physical, exp: way finding signs such as in an airport, or place people aren’t familiar with the language
Matriarchal
is when women have political roles and moral authority. There are no know societies, but there is thought that societies with indigenous people in Asia and Africa had a matriarchal society.
Metallurgy
Studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements. The first evidence of human metallurgy is in 5th and 6th millennium BC in Serbia. Other signs were found in the 3rd millennium BC in Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom.
Migration
is the physical movement of a person from one place to another sometimes over long distances and or large groups. There is both voluntary migration and involuntary migration (includes slave trade, trafficking in human beings, and ethnic cleansing). In 1947 large populations from India moved to Pakistan and vice versa, depending on their religious beliefs.
Monarchy
A form of government that was held by a single ruler (King, Queen, Emperor, or Empress) And the office or head of state is born into the is born into position or elected by royal house. Many countries abolished monarchy in the 20th century and went to republics.
Monotheism
The belief of one God in contrast with polytheism, exp: Christianity, Judaism, Islam
Oligarchy
A form of power structure where power rest in a small number of people. These people would distinguish by military control, family ties, royalty, corporate, or wealth. Throughout history oligarchies relied on public servitude to exist. Example: North Korea is an oligarchy because power descends from one family to another
Patriarchal
is when men play a primary authority figure in society. Men also take the primary role in legal, political, and economic organizations. Having a higher role then women, women would normally stay at home, take care of the children. Religions like Buddhism and Christianity were appealing to people like women and peasants because they would be viewed more as an equal. But in Confucianism, Judaism, and Hinduism the women had a lesser role, especially in Confucianism
Polytheism
When you worship more than one God, example: Greek and Roman mythology
Religion
is the worship or belief of a superhuman, or someone with more power then you. Many wars, debates, and governments were based around religion. Example: The crusades where the Muslims and Christians were fighting over the holy land
Republic
When most adult citizens have a role in the government, but does not guarantee that will have an equal role. Example: Upper class votes may count more then lower class
Slavery
still existing today, buying of selling of humans. They were divided into many functions, household task and outdoor labor (Construction, farming, ect.).
Syncretism
is the combining of different beliefs