AP World History Terms Chapter 8,9,11,12

AP World History Terms Chapter 8,9,11,12

Genghis Khan
The title of Temujin when he ruled the Mongols. It means the “oceanic” or “universal” leader
Mongols
people living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia.
Nomadism
A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water.
Bubonic Plague
A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans; humans can spread it through coughing.
Il-Khan
A “secondary” or “peripheral” khan based in Persia. The Il-Khans’ khanate was founded by Hulegu, a grandson of Genghis Khan, and was based at Tabriz in modern Azerbaijan. It controlled much of Iraq and Iran.
Golden Horde
Mongol Khanate founded by Genghis Khan’s grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde.
Yuan Empire
Empire created in China and Siberia by Khubilai Khan.
Zheng-He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim , An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
Beijing
China’s northern capital, first used as an imperial capital in 906 and now the capital of the People’s Republic of China.
Kamikaze
the “divine wind” which the Japanese credited with blowing Mongol invaders away from their shores in 1281.
Alexander Nevsky
Russian saint and national hero named after the Neva River, where he defeated the Swedes in 1240.
Tsar
From Latin “Caesar”, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian rule by Ivan II
Ottomans
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, it was based at Istanbul from 1453 to 1922, encompassing lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and easten Europe.
Lama
In Tibetan Buddhism, a teacher.
Kublai Khan
Mongol emperor of China; grandson of Genghis Khan. He led the conquest of China and founded the Yuan dynasty.
Yi Kingdom
The Yi dynasty ruled Korea from the fall of the Koryo kingdom to the colonization of Korea by Japan.
Ming Empire
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire.
Maize
Tall annual grass bearing kernels on large eat: widely cultivated in America in many varieties
Bloodletting Rituals
the ritualized self-cutting or piercing of one’s body. Crucial to the maintenance of social and political structure
Teotihuacan
A powerful city-state in central Mexico with a peak population of about 150,00
Chinampas
raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields
Maya
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, and Honduras.
Toltecs
Powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico.
Aztecs
created a powerful empire in central Mexico. They forced defeated people to provide goods and labor as a tax
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco
Tribute System
A system in which defeated people were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor
Huitzilopochtli
the god of war, a sun god, and the Patron of Tenochtitlan… “Hummingbird on the left”
Anasazi
important culture of what is now the southwest United States. Centered on Chaco Canyon in new mexico, and Mesa Verde in Colorado.
Chimu
A civilization flourishing on the northern coast of Peru from about 1200 to 1460
Coca
The dried leaves of the tropical coca plant are chewed as a stimulant by the people of western south america and also used to make the drug cocaine
Tiwanku
capital city and empire centered on the region near Lake Titicaca in modern Bolivia
Wari
Andean civilization culturally linked to Tiwanku, perhaps beginning as a colony of Tiwanku
Inca
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco
Khipu
system of knotted colored cords used by preliterate Andean peoples to transmit information
Mit’a
Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the rule and religious organizations
Moche
civilization of the north coast of Peru
Charlemagne
was King of the Franks from 768-814 and emperor from 800-814. He established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and part of Germany and Italy.
Investiture Controversy
Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands.
Medieval
Means “middle age”, a term used to define Europe between 500 and 1500. The intermediate point between Greco-Roman antiquity and the Renaissance
Monasticism
Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to chastity, obedience, and poverty rules. Prominent element of medieval Christianity and Buddhism.
Byzantine Empire
Eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward. Capital city of Constantinople
Kievan Russia
State established at Kiev in Ukraine in 879 by Scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population.
Schism
A formal split within a religious community
Manor
A large, self-sufficient landholding in medieval Europe consisting of the lord’s residence, out-buildings, peasant village, and surrounding land.
Horse Collar
Harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animal’s neck to shoulders
Serf
An agricultural laborer in medieval Europe legally bound to a lord’s property and obligated to perform set services for the lord.
Crusades
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. Brought an end to western Europe’s centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation.
Fief
Land granted in return for a sworn oath to provide specified military service in medieval Europe
Pilgrimage
Journey to a sacred shrine by Christians seeking to show their piety, fulfill vows, or gain absolution for sins.
Vassal
In medieval Europe, a sworn supporter of a king or lord committed to rendering specified military service to that king or lord.
Papacy
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head.
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor election by the princes. Lasted from 962 to 1806.
Shi’ites
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad’s son-in-law Al. It’s the state religion of Iran.
Sunnis
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing thw community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries.
Mecca
city in western Arabia. Birthplace of Muhammad and ritual center of Islam
Muhammad
Arab prophet. Founder of Islam.
Muslim
Adherent to the Islamic religion. A person who “submits” to the will of God.
Islam
religion expounded by prophet Muhammad, on the basis of his reception of divine relations. Calls on people to recognize one creator god- Allah
Medina
city in western Arabia to which Muhammad and his followers emigrated to escape persecution in Mecca.
Umma
the community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of 7th century Arabia
Caliphate
office established after Muhammad to rule the Islamic empire. Also the name of that empire
Quran
Book composed of divine revelations made to Muhammad. The sacred text of Islam.
Umayyad Caliphate
first hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs. They ruled an empire extending from Spain to India.
Abbasid Caliphate
Descendent of Muhammad’s uncle. They ruled an empire extending from Spain to India
Mamluks
Turkish military slaves. Formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate.
Ghana
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan west Africa. Once known as the Gold Coast.
Ulama
Muslim religious scholars. The primary interpreters of Islamic laws and core of urban societies.
Hadith
A tradition relating the words or deeds of Muhammad. Second most important basis for Islamic law.