AP World History Time Period 2: 600 BCE – 600

AP World History Time Period 2: 600 BCE – 600

Classical Civilization that was located in modern day Iran and spread throughout “Greater Mesopotamia”. Give both of its names.
Persian / Achaemenid Empie
What was a satrap in the Persian Empire? What was their role?
Governor, to collect tribute, keep order, and provide soldiers and a system of courts.
Maintained Political organization, which allowed for conquered territories to retain their own laws. (Person)
Cyrus
Build the “Royal Road” where iron technology, art, and philosophy spread and long distance thrived.
Cyrus
Where did Darius get the idea of uniform currency (coins)?
The Lydians
belief system based on a system of rewards and punishments in afterlife.
Zochastianism
What classical civilization was known for tolerance of local customs of its conquered peoples?
Persia / Achaemenid Empire
Order of what succession?
Cyrus –> Darius –> Xerxes
Persian succession of rules
What was the reason for Persia’s collapse?
– Wars with Greece
– Conquered peoples began to Rebel
– Conquered by Alexander the Great (300 BC)
What Persian emperor related himself with Ahuramazda?
Darius
What were the Chinese warring states?
(400 BC – 221 BC) Time period when noble families fought for the control of China after the Zhou Dynasty collapsed.
Why did the Zhou Dynasty collapse?
– Failed to control iron production
– Nomadic invasions
– Rising armies from with in
– Warring States
What three major systems emerged as the result of the collapse of Zhou Empire?
Confucianism
Daoism
Legalism
What are the majors belief in Confucianism?
-defined proper conduct for people and govts
– people are naturaly good and should concentrate in improving their behavior (li) and doing what they know is right
– Five Key Relationships
– for society to be strong, rulers must model virtue
What are the major beliefs in Daoism?
– a philosophy that teaches that people gain peace and happiness by becoming one with the Dao (the way)
– Dao is a universal “force” connected to nature
– People are part of nature
– yin yang (opposing forces in nature)
What are the major beliefs in Legalism?
– all people are bad
– philoshophy
– strong society because of laws with clear punsihments and rewards.
– trust no one
What was the succession of power in classical China?
Zhoue –> Qin –> Han –> Xin –> Han –> FALL
Who brought stability to China post- the Warring States?
Qin
What style did Qin Shihuangdi establish in Chine after the Warring States?
Legalism
What were some Qin achievements?
– iron weapons / brought stability to end the Warring States in China
– GREAT WALL OF CHINA
– Terra Cotta Warriors (Emperors tomb with clay soldiers)
– Standardized currency , weights and measures.
– Standardized writing
– Centralized rule
Why did the Qin collapse?
(1 year after his death)
– harsh policies
– buried Confucian scholars or burned them
What allowed the Han to take over?
– He was a methodical planner
– Had brilliant advisors
– Loyal Troops
Who established “civil service” exams and what where they?
– Han Wudi
– C.S exams allowed for all men to take a test and become burreucrats if they passed it.

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What were some accomplishments by the Han?
– Made the Silk Road
– Imperial monopolies of Iron and Salt
– Expanded borders east
– Invented paper
What influenced the Han’s Collapse?
– Social Tensions (gap between rich and poor, debt slavery, no land reform)
– Challenged and defeated by the Xin and then taken over by the Xiongnu
What was the Han Society like?
– Patriarchal
– Women subordinate
– Buddism expanded into chine
– Confuncianism
What the Ancient Chinese grow?
Rice and Millet
What the Chinese trade?
Paper
Silk
What are the five basic relationships in Confucianism?
– ruler and subect
– parent and child
– husband and wife
– older brother and younger brother
– friend and friend (equal)
What was the succession of empires in classical India?
Mauryan –> Guptan
What were some of the Gupta’s advanced in math?
Pi, Zero, “Arabic” Numerals
Where did the “Arabic” Numbers originally come from?
India (Gupta)
What did the Guptan’s trade?
Wheat, Rice, cotton and spices in exchange for:
Horses and gold ivory.
Why did the Gupta collapse?
Invaded by the White Huns
Who were the Dasas?
Conquered, darker people.
What did the Aryans and Indus religions combine to form?
Hinduism
What are the 5 major beliefs in Hinduism?
– Brahman (ultimate god)
– Polytheism (multiple gods)
– Dharma (sacrad duty, promotes peace)
– Karma (good and bad actions affect the future)
– Samsara (continues cycle of birth, death, and rebirth)

The goal in life was to achieve MOKSHA

What were the Varna and Caste system
Caste: social system where you were born into a Varna (class / color) and could not change your Varna.

Varna: the different class levels in the caste system.

What did aesthetics do?
Went into the forest , attempted yoga, meditation, and fasting to achieve moksha
Who were janists?
People who believed in salvation through starvation, inquiry, and they often practiced nudity.
Who were the three most important Hindu gods? And wish god was said to be made of everything, or everything is part of that god.
– Shiva, Brahman, & Vishnu
– Brahman
Who founded Buddhism and what was his story?
Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha “enlightened one”).
He was born as a prince, rich. He became an aesthetic and searched for an end to human suffering.
He was enlightened with the “Four Noble Truths”
What are the Four Noble Truths, who founded them, and what religion is it part of?
4 Noble Truths:
– All people suffer
– We suffer because of our desires
– end desir = end suffering
– can end suffering by following the eight for path

Founder: Siddhartha Gautma

Religion: Buddhism

What is the Eightfold Path? (Not the who list, just the meaning)
Used to end suffering, its basicly a group of moral to live by.
What is the goal of Buddhism?
Nirvana – release from suffering and the cycle of rebirth (can happen in one life).
Upon whose ideas were the Persian techniques of administration based?
Mesopotamia
Who succeeded Alexander in ruling Persia?
Selucid
Who were the Parthians?
Lords of Iran, no central gout, skillful warriors, federation.
Who took over the Parthians and recreated much of the Achaemenid Empire?
Sasanids
What are qanats and who build them?
underground canals, the Persians
Who is Ahura Maza?
Supreme god in Zoroastrian beliefs
Who is Sima Quian?
Historian who is responsible for most information of imperial china. He was castrated.
Who were Eunuchs?
appointed officials who were not from a distinguished birth, they castrated themselves for credibility to the rich
Who is Ban Zhao?
author of “Lessons for Women”, she was the most famous woman in Chinese History. Argued that girls should receive an education, yet that women’ virtues were what the Chinese believes.
What are guilds?
corporate body that supervised prices and wages in a give industry.
What is Jati?
Sub-castes based on occupation
What is Ahisma?
way to undergo purification by non-violence.
What new political class began to undermine the position of warrior-elites in the classical civilizations?
Bureaucrats
Persian Imperial survival depended on what type of literate bureaucrats?
Translators
Who made up the bulk in Persian society?
non-privileged free people like craftsmen, merchants, ext.
What was the economic foundation for all classical civilazations?
Agriculture
What religions did Zoroastrianism influence later on?
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
What are some Zoroastrianism beliefs?
– Good prevails or evil
– People will be judges
– Supreme god (Ahura Mazda)
– heaven or hell