AP World History Unit 1 8,000 – 600 B.C.E

Aristocracy
Definintion- A form of government in which power is held by nobility. The highest class

Significance- Many civilizations has an aristocratic government

Agriculture Revolution
Definition- The development of crops and animal raising as a source among human communities to supplement hunting and gathering

Significance- The agricultural revolution allowed many civil actions adapt from hunter gatherers to agriculturalistic

Barbarian
Definition- A member of a community or tribe not belonging to one of the great civilizations

Significance- There were barbaric groups around the world

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Brahmins
Definition- A member of a social and cultural elite

Significance- The Hindu chief was thought to be Brahmin

Bureaucracy
Definition- A system of government in which most important decisions are made by state officials rather then by elected officials

Significance- The Chinese civilization had a bureaucratic government

Cities vs. Villages
Definition- City- is a place where a large population of people live
Village- A less civilized smaller group of people

Significance- Most early grouping of people lived in small villages but later developed into large cities

Civilizations
Definition- The most advanced stage of human social developement and organization

Significance- Many civilizations formed around bodies of water

Complex Institutions
Definition- The specialization of trade

Significance- Ancient Mesopotamia had complex institutions

Currency
Definition- A system of money in general use

Significance- Many early civilizations used trade and other products as currency

Deity
Definition- A god or goddess

Significance- Many civilizations had deities in their religion

Democracy
Definition- A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

Significance- Civilizations used democracy as government

Dharma
Definition- The principle of cosmic order

Significance- The Indus River Valley civilization believed in dharma

Diffusion
Definition- The spreading or something more widely

Significance- Ideas and traditions spread throughout the world

Diversified Food Supplies
Definition- Large selection of foods

Significance- Early civilizations did not have diversified food supplies

Domesticated Animals
Definition- Any of various animals that have been tamed and made fit for a human environment

Significance- Almost all civilizations domesticated ther animals for more uses

Dynastic Cycle
Definition- An important political theory in China

Significance- Used in chinese civilization when a new empower was added

Egalitarian
Definition- The belief that all people are created equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities

Significance- Civilizations did and did not have egalitarianism

Ethical Codes
Definition- A system of principles governing morality and acceptable conduct

Significance- Mesopotamia had a series of ethical codes dreated by Hammurabi

Frontier
Definition- A border seperating two countries

Significance- The Chinese had physical frontiers

Hunters
Definition- A person who persuses and kills for food

Significance- Very early people hunted their food

Ice Age
Definition- A global episode during a past geological period

Significance- The ice age created land bridges bridges allowed people to come to the America’s

Intensive Cultivation
Definition- An agricultural production system characterized by high inputs or labor

Significance- The Chinese civilization had this type of system

Irrigation System
Definition- An artificial application of water to the soil

Significance- This was a way to bring water to crops used by civilizations to water crops

Karma
Definition- The sum of a persons actions in this and previous states of existence, viewed as their deciding fate

Significance- The Indus River Valley culture included karma

Mandate of Heaven
Definition- A traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy of rules

Significance- The Chinese believed that their emperor had been accepted by the gods

Monogamy
Definition- The practice or state of being married to one person at a time

Significance- Some civilizations believed you could only be married to one person

Pagan
Definition- A person holding religious beliefs other than those of the main world

Significance- Most people that had religious beliefs were all different then around the world

Pastoralism
Definition- The branch of agriculture concerned with racism of live stock

Significance- Many societies in the beginnings of the agricultural revolution were pastoral

Patriarchy
Definition- A system of government in which the father or eldest male is head of the family

Significance- After urbanization the end of equality between women and men began to show

Polygamy
Definition- The practice of having more then one wife or husband

Significance- Some societies believed you could have more then one wife

Record Keeping
Definition- The act of keeping detailed noted about activities and events

Significance- The largest civilizations in general had well kept records of their society especially the Egyptians and the Chinese

Secular
Definition- Denoting attitudes, activities or other things that have no religious basis

Significance- Some civilizations were secular

Sericulture
Definition- The production of raw silk

Significance-The Chinese civilization used the silk

Settled Population
Definition- Populations of people who stayed in their location

Significance- All large civilizations were settled near water

Slavery
Definition- The state of being a slave

Significance- Most civilization had slavery except for China

Specialization of Labor
Definition- The learned skill of a specific job

Significance- With specialized labor people were best at what they worked at

Surplus
Definition- An amount of something left over when requirements have been met

Significance-The civilizations has surpluses of grain

Syncretism
Definition- The amalgamation of different religions, cultures, or schools of thought

Significance- There were multiple religions in the world

Textiles
Definition- The branch of industry involved in manufacturing of cloth

Significance- Civilizations made textiles

Theorcacy
Definition- A system of government in which preists rule in the gnome of god

Significance- Almost all civilizations had gods

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