Ap world history unit 1 terms

Agricultural/Neolithic revolution
A period in time in which people’s across the globe again to switch from hunter gatherer societies to farming and domestication that agricultural Revolution seems to have started 9000 years ago and lead to a sharp increase in human populations this led to the development of villages and towns and cities and then beginning of civilization
Animism
Animism is the oldest belief and has resisted since before 10,000 bce it’s the belief in spiritual essences other than human forms , it was used by the indigenous peoples , we care about animism because it is where people first started believing and finding new ways to make life easier .
Aristocracy
Aristocracy is the being of related to a high ranked person or sharing blood relations they posses there titles by heredity. This derived from Ancient Greece, Rome, and India this was accustomed in the times of 9000 bce
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Barbarian
A barbarian usually refers to a person who is uncivilized , being used in approximately 300 bce . This was used primarily in Greece , China , and japan. This is important to civilization to know how people were categorized when they weren’t doing the right things as if people are criminals now they are barbarians in 300 bce
Brahmins
The Brahmins are traditional societies of the Hindu . This refers to the supreme self, Brahmins are the priests in the four pillars of classes. This connects to other people, because if the Brahmins weren’t believed to be a higher power the religion may not have been believed in. We care about the Brahmins because they created the Hindu religion and were said to be made by the mouth parusha
Bureaucracy
The development of the writing system and use of documents was formed back in 3500 bce . Ancient Egypt used bureaucracy to hold ancient scribes for high leading officials. Bureaucracy helps the modern world by organizing nations and countries in ways that are efficient and will help society.
Cities (vs. villages)
Cities and villages were very diverse in the beginning civilizations , they still are very diverse but this showed a social standing of who you were. To live in a city you had more luxuries and easier ways of getting resources they were more of which handed to you as if , you lived in a village you had to find it all on your own. This helps us today by showing how people in villages learned more on what they were doing because they had no help
Civilizations/advanced societies
The beginning civilizations didn’t become advanced into later on, they had strong cultural beliefs , and began to have stronger agricultural traits. This is important because the formation of stronger and more advanced societies led to , the order of people and how things worked in the world and made it what it is today
Chavín
A civilization formed in the Andean highlands of Peru from 900 BC to 200 BC. They were located in the moans valley,and the chavin de huantar is a religious and political center of the chavin people. This is important to us because it is the first successful artistic style humans ever formed.
Collection of revenue
The collection of revenue is when the poor have money collected by higher officials, this is important to us because without collection of revenue the government wouldn’t have any political funds
Complex institutions
Cuneiform
Cuneiform is the first official language which was made by wedge shaped marks on reed or clay tablets , this was formed in the late 4th millennium , and this is important to the modern society because without cuneiform the languages could have been very different . The language would have established much later
Currency
Definition- A system of money in general use

Significance- Many early civilizations used trade and other products as currency

Diety
Definition- A god or goddess

Significance- Many civilizations had deities in their religion

Democracy
A democracy is a society where the people rule , everything depends on the citizens , by voting , protests, this is important today because the first democracies created an image of how the world could be depicted in the future
Demographic shifts
Dharma
Definition- The principle of cosmic order

Significance- The Indus River Valley civilization believed in dharma

Diffusion
Definition- The spreading or something more widely

Significance- Ideas and traditions spread throughout the world

Diversified food supply
Definition- Large selection of foods

Significance- Early civilizations did not have diversified food supplies

Domesticated animals (dogs, horses, pigs, cattle)
Animals were domesticated around 10,000 bce the domestication of animals lowered the responsibility of hunting and gathering because they could find things much easier with them always being in one spot. This is important today because we know how to take animals and have them under human control , if we didn’t the world wouldn’t have urbanized so quickly
Dynastic cycle
Definition- An important political theory in China

Significance- Used in chinese civilization when a new empower was added

Egalitarian
Definition- The belief that all people are created equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities

Significance- Civilizations did and did not have egalitarianism

Ethical/legal codes
Definition- A system of principles governing morality and acceptable conduct

Significance- Mesopotamia had a series of ethical codes dreated by Hammurabi

Epic of gilgamesh
Te epic of Gilgamesh is the greatest work of literature of the 18th millennium bce , the epic consisted of many different poems , and they were all used for a source to combine the epic
Confucius’ analects
The analects are told to be the sayings of Confucius saved , and written by Confucius followers.
Frontier
Definition- A border seperating two countries

Significance- The Chinese had physical frontiers

Hammurabi’s code
Hammurabi’s code was just the legal system of Mesopotamia , during the early times. There was a statue in the ground with Hammurabi on top saying the codes/laws of the region.
Hieroglyphics
A system of writing in which pictorial symbols represented sounds , syllables, or concepts. It was used for official and monumental inscriptions I ancient Egypt. Because of the long period of study required to master this system, literacy in hieroglyphics was confined to a relatively small group of scribes and administrators. Cursive symbol forms were developed for rapid composition on other media, such as papyrus. This has been around since about 2500 bce when they used the pictorial scripts. This Is relevant to people of today because it was the first and earliest establishment of this writing
Hunters and gatherers/foraging/nomadic
Definition- A person who persuses and kills for food

Significance- Very early people hunted their food

Ice age
Definition- A global episode during a past geological period

Significance- The ice age created land bridges bridges allowed people to come to the America’s

Intensive cultivation
Definition- An agricultural production system characterized by high inputs or labor

Significance- The Chinese civilization had this type of system

Irrigation systems
Definition- An artificial application of water to the soil

Significance- This was a way to bring water to crops used by civilizations to water crops

Karma
Definition- The sum of a persons actions in this and previous states of existence, viewed as their deciding fate

Significance- The Indus River Valley culture included karma

Mandate of heaven
Definition- A traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy of rules

Significance- The Chinese believed that their emperor had been accepted by the gods

Mesopotamia
Definition- The practice or state of being married to one person at a time

Significance- Some civilizations believed you could only be married to one person

Metallurgy- bronze, iron, steel
Definition-Metallurgy is the art of crafting metal and turning it into a useful piece of art ,

significance-for using the crafted metals helped in battles and wars throughout time

Monogamy
Definition- The practice or state of being married to one person at a time

Significance- Some civilizations believed you could only be married to one person

Olmec
The Olmec were the settlers of the meso-american region. They were developing quickly bringing new technologies/inventions for use.
Pagan
Definition- A person holding religious beliefs other than those of the main world

Significance- Most people that had religious beliefs were all different then around the world

Pastoral/pastoralism
Definition- The branch of agriculture concerned with racism of live stock

Significance- Many societies in the beginnings of the agricultural revolution were pastoral

Patriarchy/patriarchal systems
Definition- A system of government in which the father or eldest male is head of the family

Significance- After urbanization the end of equality between women and men began to show

Polygamy
Definition- The practice of having more then one wife or husband

Significance- Some societies believed you could have more then one wife

Pottery
Pyramids
Pyramids were the temples of praise for the Egyptians from the times 1550 bce. The pyramids are where the entire civilization would go to have peace with there gods
Quipu
Quipu is the form of record keeping/writing for the chavin people. They tied strings together, to make knots as markers
Record keeping
Definition- The act of keeping detailed noted about activities and events

Significance- The largest civilizations in general had well kept records of their society especially the Egyptians and the Chinese

Secular
Definition- Denoting attitudes, activities or other things that have no religious basis

Significance- Some civilizations were secular

Sericulture
Definition- The production of raw silk

Significance-The Chinese civilization used the silk

Settled populations
Definition- Populations of people who stayed in their location

Significance- All large civilizations were settled near water

Shang
The Shang is a civilization in china , and was established in 1600 bce.
Specialization of labor
Definition- The learned skill of a specific job

Significance- With specialized labor people were best at what they worked at

Surplus
Definition- An amount of something left over when requirements have been met

Significance-The civilizations has surpluses of grain

Syncretism
Definition- The amalgamation of different religions, cultures, or schools of thought

Significance- There were multiple religions in the world

Textiles
Definition- The branch of industry involved in manufacturing of cloth

Significance- Civilizations made textiles

Theocracy
Definition- A system of government in which preists rule in the gnome of god

Significance- Almost all civilizations had gods

Ziggurats
Definition- ziggurats were used by the chavin for the religious worship of there god

Significance- the ziggurats were served as the purpose of a place of privacy as did other religions such as pyramids

Zhou
Definition- the Shang dynasty lasted between 1045-221 bce

Significance- the wen and wu rulers introduced Mandate of Heaven, dynastic cycle, and they replaced bronze with iron.

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