AP World History Unit #1 Vocabulary #1

AP World History Unit #1 Vocabulary #1

Agricultural Revolution
The transition from foraging to the cultivation of food occurring about 8000-2000 B.C.E; also known as the Neolithic Revolution
Artifact
An object made by human hands
Alexander the Great
King of Macedon (336-323), the son of Philip II. He was a pupil of Aristotle. After his succession he invaded Persia, liberating the Greek cities in Asia Minor, and then defeating the Persians in Egypt, Syria, and Mesopotamia. While in Egypt he founded Alexandria (332 BC), his first and best-known city
Aristocracy
Rule by a privileged hereditary class or nobility
Aristotle
Greek philosopher and scientist. A pupil of Plato and tutor to Alexander the Great, in 335 BC he founded a school and library (the Lyceum) outside Athens. His surviving written works constitute a vast system of analysis, including logic, physical science, zoology, psychology, metaphysics, ethics, politics, and rhetoric. He established the inductive method of reasoning and proposed a system for the classification of plants and animals.
artisan
a craftsman
Civilization
A cultural group with advanced cities, complex institutions, skilled workers, advanced technology, and a system of recordkeeping
climate
The pattern of temperature and precipitation over a period of time
Cultural Diffusion
The transmission of ideas and products from one culture to another
Cuneiform
A system of writing originating in Mesopotamia in which a wedge-shaped stylus was used to press symbols into clay tablets
Democracy
A political system in which the people rule
Dynasty
A series of rulers from the same family
Foraging
A term for hunting and gathering
Geocentric Theory
The belief held by many before the Scientific Revolution that the earth is the center of the universe
Hieroglyphics
A system of picture writing used in Egypt
Hellenistic Age
The era (c. 323-30 B.C.E) in which Greek culture blended with Persian and other Eastern influences spread throughout the former empire of Alexander the Great
Independent Invention
The development of innovation or technology independent of cultural diffusion
Indo-Europeans
A group pf semi-nomadic peoples who, around 2000 B.C.E., began to migrate from central Asia to India, Europe, and the Middle East
Jati
One of the many sub-castes in the Hindu caste system
Monsoon
A seasonal wind
Mandate of Heaven
The concept developed by the Zhou dynasty that the deity granted a dynasty the right to rule and took away that right if the dynasty did not rule wisely
Matrilineal
Referring to a social system in which descent and inheritance are traced through their mother
Mystery Religion
During the Hellenistic Age, religions that promised their faithful followers eternity in a state of bliss
Neolithic Age
Final stage of technological development or cultural evolution among prehistoric humans. It is characterized by the use of stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding, the domestication of plants or animals, the establishment of permanent villages, and the practice of such crafts as pottery and weaving.
Neolithic Revolution
The discovery of farming and the domestication of animals brought an end to the slow development of the hunting societies of the PALAEOLITHIC and MESOLITHIC periods and initiated a time of rapid change that soon produced metal-working, cities, states, and empires.
Oracle Bones
Animal bones or shells used by the Chinese priests to receive messages from the gods
Patriarchal
Pertaining to a social system in which the father is the head of the family
Pharaoh
An Egyptian monarch
Polytheism
The belief in many gods
Pax Romana
The Roman Peace; the period of prosperity and stability throughout the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E.
Paterfamilias
the head of Roman family life; the oldest living male who looked after the family’s business affairs and property and could perform religious rites on their behalf; he had absolute rule over his household and children. If they angered him, he had the legal right to disown his children, sell them into slavery or even kill them.
Steppe
A dry grassland
Slash and Burn Agriculture
A agricultural method in which farmers clear fields by cutting and burning trees, then use the ashes as fertilizer
Specialization of Labor
The division of labor that aids the development of skills in a particular type of work
Ziggurat
A multilayered pyramid constructed by Mesopotamians