AP World History Unit 1

AP World History Unit 1

Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, according to which it was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China and to take away that power if the ruler failed to conduct himself justly and in the best interests of his subjects.
Aryan Migrations
settled in Punjab, est. communities, after 1000BCE began to settle between Himalayan foothills & Ganges River, learned to make iron tools axes with tipped plows, cleared forests est. agriculture communities, gradually lost tribal political organizations & evolved more formal political institutions, est. regional kingdoms as common form of political organization, nomadic/pastoral, 1500BCE, didn’t use writing (AKA Indo-Europeans, crossed Kush Mountains. They are trying to est. Caste System/ India)
Bantu Migration
the movement of the bantu peoples southward throghout africa, (homeland was Cameroon) spreading their language and culture, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000, traveled via canoe, mastered iron metallurgy, cultivation of grains and yams, belief in single divine force that created the world, first to develop language
Book of the Dead
a description of the ancient Egyptian conception of the afterlife and a collection of hymns, spells, and instructions to allow the deceased to pass through obstacles in the afterlife (Egypt/ How they knew to mummify) (Also Indian society- After Life- Rig Veta)
Bronze Age
a period of human culture between the Stone Age and the Iron Age, characterized by the use of weapons and implements made of bronze (China/ Used bronze metallurgy for chariots, farming tools)
Code of Manu
A set of laws codified, or set down in writing, in the first centuries C.E. The code lays down laws relating to the caste system, including the belief that the caste system is divine, and therefore should not be questioned. It required that individuals must only marry in their caste, and that women must submit to the oldest male in the household. The Code of Manu formalizes long held Hindu traditions, and lasted until the 20th century. (India/ Indus River Valley)
Cuneiform
a system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. It originated in Mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of western Asia.
Fertile Cresent
Name given to crescent-shaped area of fertile land strecheding from the lower Nile valley, along the east Mediterranean coast, and into Syria and present day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 8000 B.C
First examples of human slavery
Egypt, Kingdom of Nubia, Exodus (-Moses Prince of Egypt)
Gilgamesh
The epic story of the king, Gilgamesh, who searched for immortality. This is a Sumerian legend and is believed to be the first story (Mesopotamia)
Hammurabi’s Code
A legal code developed by King Hammurabi of Mesopotamia. The code was influential in the establishment of Hebrew and Islamic law and in the U.S. judiciary system. It specified crimes and punishments to help judges impose penalties. “eye for an eye” (Middle East)
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged.
Hebrew Bible
A collection of sacred books containing diverse materials concerning the origins, experiences, beliefs, and practices of the Israelites. Most of the extant text was compiled by members of the priestly class in the fifth century B.C.E. (99)
Hieroglyphics
an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
Hyksos
the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which the Hyksos ( a word meaning “foreigner) ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes; a group of non-Egyptians who came to power in Egypt between 1650 and 1500 B.C.
Judaism
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
Olmec
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between 1300 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. Centered Around Veracruz (Latin America, fishing, cut-off from other civilizations)
Neolithic
New Stone Age, (8,000-5,500 B.C.) Invention of agriculture, permanent cities, population growth, domestication of animals, rise of diseases
Zhou Dynasty
ruled through alliance, lack of strong gov, extended their territory, taking over Yangtzee River Valley, invoke mandate of heaven, Mandarine chinese, Banned human sacrifices, oral epics recorded
Pastoral Society
A human society that relies on domesticated animals rather than plants as the main source of food; pastoral nomads lead their animals to seasonal grazing grounds rather than settling permanently in a single location. (Africa- Bantu)
Sargon of Akkad
an ancient Mesopotamian ruler who reigned approximately 2334-2279 BC, and was one of the earliest of the world’s great empire builders, conquering all of southern Mesopotamia as well as parts of Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (western Iran). He established the region’s first Semitic dynasty and was considered the founder of the Mesopotamian military tradition.
Diffusion
Anywhere, Africa- Bantu -Wheel
Stateless Societies
these did not have a centralized system of power. Authority was balanced among lineages of equal power so that no one family had too much control. (Moved around/ Mesopotamia/ Egypt -Bantu/ Africa/ Middle East)
Indus River Valley/ Harappan
civilization northwestern India and Pakistan, state flouished 4600-3900 B.P, urban planning, social stratification, and early writing system, state collapsed from warfare
Civilization
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations) Most everywhere
Pictographs
pictures that stand for words or ideas; picture writing
Quipo
used by Andean civilizations to keep track of financial records and accounts, knots tied in cords (Mesoamerica- record keeping)
Sumerian
one of the oldest civilizations. Created cuneiform – oldest form of writing. on clay tablets (Mesopotamia- warriors)
Ziggurats
a temple tower of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians, having the form of a terraced pyramid of successively receding stories (Sumerian/ Mesopotamian)
Dynasty
a powerful family or group of rulers that maintains its position or power for some time
Neolithic Revolution
Mesopotamia, Cradle of civilization
Norte Chico/ Caral
Norte Chico is a region along the central coast of Peru, home of a civilization that developed in the period 3000-1800 BCE; Caral was the largest of some 25 urban centers that emerged in the area at that time
Nubians
The people in Eastern Africa south of Egypt who were rivals of the ancient Egyptians and known for their flourishing kingdom between the 400s BC and the 400s CE. They speak their own language and were known by the Egyptians for their darker skin.
Mohenjo-Daro/ Harrapa
India, Indus River Valley
Paleolithic
Old Stone Age (500,000-10,000 B.C.) Simple (stone) tool use, controlled fire, larger brain, Hunters/Gatherers, group of 40-60 individuals, Equality among men and women, animal skin clothing, Humans crossed land bridge
Patriarchy
Mesopotamia, China, India (-Sati-wife killing)
Pheonicians
created alphabet; manufactured purple die and sea glass. A Semitic people from the eastern Mediterranean renowned as traders in later prehistory, erroneously credited with many wondrous exploits around the world. (fishermen/ traded a lot)
Shang Dynasty
First Chinese Dynasty, Lived close to Haung He Valley, Royal families were leaders of society, invke mandate of heaven, Created first chinese writing system, used oracle bones, used bronze for chariots bows and armor