AP World History Unit 2 Vocabulary

AP World History Unit 2 Vocabulary

Hinduism
An eastern religion which evolved from an ancient Aryan religion in which followers strive to free their soul from reincarnation until the soul is finally freed. This religion is practiced primarily in India.
Vedas
sacred texts in the Hindu religion, they are a set of four collections of hymns and religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests
Caste system
System in India that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. Individuals may improve the position they inherit in the caste system in their next life through their actions, or karma. After many lives of good karma, they may be relieved from cycle of life and win their place in heaven.
Varna
The four major social divisions in India’s caste system: the Brahmin priest class, the Kshatriya warrior/administrator class, the Vaishya merchant/farmer class, and the Shudra laborer class.
Jati
(Hinduism) a Hindu caste or distinctive social group of which there are thousands throughout India
a special characteristic is often the exclusive occupation of its male members (such as barber or potter)
Ritual Purity
In India, the idea that members of higher castes must adhere to strict regulations limiting or forbidding their contact with objects and members of lower castes to preserve their own caste standing and their relationship with the gods
Buddhism
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Siddhartha Guatama “Buddha”
(563-483 B.C.E.) Hindu prince who achieved enlightenment, founded Buddhism in India, taught followers to end suffering and achieve nirvana by following the Middle Path, and was influential in the spread of Sanskrit dramatic conventions throughout Asia
Confucianism
the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity
high value given to learning and to devotion to family (including ancestors); peace; justice; influenced the traditional culture of China
Filial piety
in Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one’s parents and ancestors
Daosim
Daoism is a belief system that, according to Chinese tradition, was founded by Laozi. It stresses harmony with nature and is not concerned with maintaining social order.
Legalism
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime.
Christianity
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
Monasticism
a way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith
Jesus
a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth
his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC – AD 29)
Apostles/ Disciples
the 12 followers of Jesus who preached and spread his teachings
Judaism
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament (Torah).
Athens
A democratic Greek polis who accomplished many cultural achievements, and who were constantly at war with Sparta.
Pericles
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen’s political and cultural supremacy in Greece
he ordered the construction of the Parthenon (died in 429 BC)
Athenian Democracy
A type of government used in Athens which is sort of a combine of majority rule and democracy.
Greco-Roman culture
an ancient culture that developed from a blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures.
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
The greatest greek thinkers of their time – Greek Rationalists, persistent questioning, secular explanation of nature and human life
Persian Empire
an empire in southern Asia created by Cyrus II the Great in the 6th century BC, brought to the height of its power and glory by Darius I and his son Xerxes, and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and
Zoroastrianism
dual gods of equal power to form early monotheism; Persian; cosmic struggle over good and bad; those that do good go to heaven and bad go to hell; influenced Judaism and Christianity
Greco-Persian Wars
Two major Persian invasions of Greece, 490 and 480 B.C.E., in which the Persians were defeated on both land and sea each time.
Hellenistic Era/ Culture
the time started by Alexander the Great (c. 335 BCE) around the Mediteranian and Middle East. Hellenistic means “imitate greeks”, and it is called this because the Greeks were spreading their culture in the Middle east and other non-greek eras. It was very big on advancement of science; Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian and Indian ideas, as a result of Alexander the Great’s Empire.
Alexander the Great
356-323 b.c., king of Macedonia 336-323: conqueror of Greek city-states and of the Persian empire from Asia Minor and Egypt to India.
Cesar Augustus
First Roman Emperor. And was at rule during Jesus’s birth. Also know as Octavian.
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity enforced on the states throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Constantine
(274 CE – 337 CE) Roman Emperor between 306 CE and 337 CE. After reuniting the Roman Empire, he founded and moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion and issued the Edict of Milan which outlawed the persecution of Christians.
Shamanism
The practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community. Characteristic of the Korean kingdoms of the early medieval period and of early societies of Central Asia.
Animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life/ souls.
Qin Empire
221 – 206 B.C.E.
one of the warring states. Conquered its rivals. China’s 1st empire. Its founder = Shi Huangdi. Unified its states. Road system. Burned books to disconnect from the past. The name of “China” may have come from this word. Legalism (human nature = wicked. Needs strong discipline) Instead of eldest son gaining property, required that it be distributed to all heirs. Targeted aristocracy. Abolished slavery. Created standards which unified (weights, measures, coinage, uniform law code, common system of writing, etc.) Built Great Wall (protect against northern nomads) Died from rebellion (from labor) when founder died.
Shi Huangdi
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire ( 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. (163)
Terra Cotta Warriors
a clay army set up to guard Shi Huangdi’s tomb in the afterlife
Han Empire
A great empire started by Liu Bang in 202 BC, which held Confucianism, censorates in provinces, civil service exams, and expansion; due to land taxes and population increase, aristocracy took over, and soon the empire decayed, and ended in 220 CE, due to wars, power struggles, and peasant revolts
Mauryan Empire
The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C.E. and survived until 184 B.C.E. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes on agriculture, iron mining, and control of trade routes.
Ashoka
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India (r. 270-232 B.C.E.). He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing.
Gupta Empire
Powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture
Pheonicians
were considered to be carriers of civilization because they spread Middle Eastern civilization throughout the many lands to which they sailed.
Teotihuacan
A powerful city-state in central Mexico (100-75 C.E.). Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600., first major metropolis in Mesoamerica, collapsed around 800 CE. It is most remembered for the gigantic “pyramid of the sun”.
Mayans
A Mesoamerican civilization of Central America and southern Mexico. Achievements include mathematics, architecture, and a 365 day a year calendar. They flourished between the 4th and 12th centuries C.E..
Moche
Civilization of north coast of Peru (200-700 C.E.). An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples. (p. 313)
Mound builders/ Cahokia
900-1250 C.E. Cahokia was the capital of the surrounding territory and held the largest population in North America. Cahokia was known for their trade routes and their connections with other civilizations, , Both Demonstrated how large settlements emerged after beginning to plant corn. Sharp class distinctions and high class.
-Most elaborate cultures took place between 200 BCE and 400 CE (known as Hopewell culture). -Striking burial mounds and geometric earthworks. -Various artifacts found. -Mounds were sometimes aligned with lunar objects and usually were focused on burial rituals.
Patriarchy
a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
Slavery
Classical empires saw a rise in it. This form of labor was a major part of the production of food and other goods. Although some civilizations relied greatly on this (like Rome) while in others such as China it was an extremely small percentage of the population.
Silk Road
An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay.
Trans-Saharan routes
Who: Muslim merchants, African peoples What: traded goods from the Mediterranean across the Sahara in exchange for gold When: beginning around 5000BCE Where: North Africa–> Sahara Desert–> Mali/Ghana/ other regional kingdoms Why: The introduction of camels to Africa quickened the pace of Trans-Saharan trade because the camels could cross the desert without needing much water. Significance: connected the Mediterranean with Sub-Saharan African kingdoms, brought wealth to African kingdoms
Qanat System
A traditional system of gravity-fed irrigation that uses gently sloping tunnels to capture groundwater and direct it to low-lying fields
Lateen sails/ dhow ships
Triangle-shaped sails whose design allowed ships to sail against the wind. These sails were perfected by Arab traders., A traditional Arab sailing vessel with one or more lateen sails. It is primarily used to carry heavy items, like fruit, along the coasts pf the Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, India and East Africa.
Royal Road
A road in the Persian Empire, stretching over 1,600 miles from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia.