AP World History Unit 3 Study Guide

AP World History Unit 3 Study Guide

One new industry that resulted directly from Silk Road trade was…?
The knowledge of gunpowder
During the 13th century, long-distance trade in Eurasia increased primarily because…?
The Mongols worked to secure trade routes and ensure safety of merchants passing through their vast territories
What was the role of Mongol women in politics?
Women from prestigious families were often powerful in negotiation and management
Which of the following was not one of the techniques employed by the mongols to defeat the armies they faced?
Diplomacy
What was the religoius policy of the Mongol empire under Chinggis Khan?
He followed the shamanistic beliefs of his ancestors, but all religions were tolerated in his empire
Following Chinggis Khan’s death, what was the provision for the administration of the empire?
It was divided into four regional kingdoms, or khanates, ruled by his sons and grandsons
What was the political organization of Russia at the time of the Mongol invasion in the first half of the thirteenth century?
Russia was divided into numerous petty kingdoms centered on trading cities
Which military innovation did the Mongols expose Europeans to for the first time?
Catapult
What tactic on the field of battle was employed most frequently by Chinggis Khan’s forces?
Pretended flight to draw the enemy out followed by heavy cavalry attacks on the flanks
Which of the following was NOT one of the positive aspects of Chinggis Khan’s imperial rule?
He ordered the creation of huge pastures in northern China for the use of the Mongol clans
The Mongol domination resulted in the destruction of…?
The Mongols discontinued the use of the examination system to keep the scholar-gentry from gaining too much power
The political and social structure of the Mongols in the years preceeding their conquests was based primarily on…?
Kinship ties; powerful clans dominated weaker families
An advantage of Mongol rule was that…?
It prompted the spread of ideas and movement of people in Eurasia
The Greek historian Herodotus portrayed steppe nomads as…?
Superb horsemen, herdsmen, and hunters
The Mongol leader, the Khan…?
Had his decisions ratified by a council
The religion of Central Asian nomads was…?
A diverse mixture of various religions
What metal was crucially important to the Central Asian nomads?
Iron
The first Monol conquests under Genghis Khan were in…?
China
Why did Mongols refrain from attacking Central Europe in 1241?
The death of the Great Khan
Narratives such as Marco Polo’s created a European…?
Ambition to find easier routes to Asia
The Mongol expansion…?
Created a flow of disease via the trade routes
The conflict between Il-Khan and the Golden Horde originated in…?
Religious differences
In 1295 the Il-Khan ruler Ghazan converted to which religion?
Islam
Tax farming is…?
The sale of tax collecting contracts to small corporations
Who is Juvaini?
The first to write the history of the Mongols
Why was there a central flowering in Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia under the Timurids?
Iran and China shared artistic trends and political ideas
Who attempted to write the first world history?
Rashid al-Din
Islamic mathematician Nasir al-Din strongly influenced…?
Copernicus
The Timurids supported the advancement of astronomical observation particularly the discovery of…?
Eclipse prediction
How did the Mongol control impact Russia’s Orthodox church?
They were granted great privileges
Which city became Russia’s dominant political center under the Mongols?
Moscow
Mongol rule of Russia was overthrown by…?
Ivan III
As in Anatolia and the states of Eastern Europe, the Teutonic knights fought…?
The Mongols
Mongol armies often consisted of…?
A multinational force with Mongol leaders
Which of the following did the Europeans not learn about form the Mongols?
Porcelain
In 1453, the Ottomans conquered which important Christian city?
Constantinople
The Mongols were influenced by religious leaders from…?
Tibet
Why didn’t China as we think of it today exist before the Mongols?
The Mongols reunited China permanently
The Yuan tax administration relied on…?
Persian, Arab, and Uighur administrators
Much to the distress of the Confucians, the Mongols elevated the status of the…?
Merchants
To solve the problem of credit, the Mongols provided…?
Paper money and copper coins
One impact of the rise of cities under Mongol rule was…?
Increased influence of Mandarin
Which of the following is not one of the aspects for Mongol rules that created hardship and sharp population decrease?
Their insistance that the Chinese practice agriculture rather than trade
The Mongols encouraged the sharing and exchange of all of the following except for…?
Confucianism
In 1368 the Yuan Empire was overthrown and replaced by the…?
Ming Kingdom
To demonstrate their rejection of the Mongols, the Ming emperor…?
Severed relations with the Middle East, Central Asia, and closed their borders to foreigners
The Emperor Yongle improved the imperial complex built by the Mongols called the…?
Forbidden City
Emperor Yongle restored commercial links with the Middle East by…?
Exploring maritime connections and encouraged the voyages of Zheng He
Zheng He’s primary accomplishment was…?
Acquiring Ming tributary states
Why didn’t Ming China develop seafaring for commercial and military gain?
The Mongol threat from the North took priority over seafaring
How did the Byzantines differ from their western counterparts?
They continued the pattern of Roman rule
By the end of the 12th century, the Byzantine Empire had lost a great deal of territory to…?
Muslim invaders from the Arabian Peninsula
The 6th century plague of Justinian was…?
An outbreak of bubonic plague during Justinian’s rule
After the 7th century, Byzantine women…?
Won increased rights to property and inheritance
Among the Byzantine cultural achievements are…?
Their architectural tradition and cyrillic writing
After the fall of Rome in the 5th century, the Western Roman Empire…?
Fragmented into a handful of Germanic kingdoms
The decline of the Roman Empire resulted in the development of linguistic zones of…?
Romance, Germanic, and Slavic languages
What Scandanavian raiders built kingdoms in Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland?
Vikings
The primary centers for agricultural production were…?
Self-suficient farming estates known as manors
Agricultural workers who belonged to the major and were obligated to the lord were…?
Serfs
Why is the traditional description of Europe from 300-1200 as “feudal” an oversimplification?
The relations between land owners and serfs varied from region to region
The division of the Muslim community grew because some believed that…?
Ali was the legitamate religious leader after Muhammad
What are the names of the two sects of Islam that resulted from the division of the Muslim community?
Sunni and Shi’a
The Sasanid Empire was centered in the area that is present day…?
Iran
Mecca is an important city because it…?
Is a caravan city and pilgrimage site of the Ka’ba
Muhammad conceived Islam after…?
Experiencing revelations
Muslim means…?
One who makes submission to God
Islam means…?
Surrender to the will of God
Muhammad’s teachings seem to be in agreement with…?
Judaism and Christianity
Meccan leaders felt threatened by Muhammad’s popularity and threatened his followers. This led to Muhammad fleeing Mecca, his flight was known as…?
Hijra
The unified community accepting Islam and believing that Muhammad was known as the “Messenger of God” was called the…?
Umma
After the city of Mecca surrendered to Muhammad, he established a new state based on a…?
Loose coalition of Arab city states
After Muhammad’s death, the Muslim community…?
Chose a caliph, Abu Bakr
Muslim religious practice is based on the…?
Five Pillars
Muhammad’s revelations from the Angel are compiled in a book called the…?
Quran
According to the chapter, how does the Quran differ from the Bible?
It contains the unalterable word of God
The Muslims fought the Battle of the Camel in a dispute over the…?
Legitimacy of Ali as caliph
Why is the martyrdom of Husayn a significant event in Muslim history?
It marks the beginning of the sect of Shi’ism
Muslims who believe that the first three caliphs were properly selected are called…?
Sunnis
Pre-Islamic Arab Society was characterized as…?
Pastoral nomadic
Which of the following statements about women in early Islam is true?
Women had the right to control their own property
What does not belong in a list describing the status of Muslim women in the early Islamic period?
Females and males both were allowed multiple spouses
What was a reason for the rapid expansion of the Islamic/Arab Empire in the century following the death of Muhammad?
The weakened condition of the Byzantine and Persian Empires
What area was not under Muslim control under the leadership of the caliphs?
Eastern Europe
What statement is not true about Arab armies in their empire?
They wanted to convert as many people as possible to Islam
The decline of the Umayyad dynasty was due to…?
Growing unrest among non-Arab Muslims who demanded access to political power
Why is the Abbasid rule considered a “golden age?”
It created a refined and cosmopolitan culture in Baghdad
Despite the fact that conversions ot Islam were at their peak, Abbasid power declined because of the…?
Empires becoming too big to rule effectively
The caliphs acquired a standing army of Turkish mercenaries called…?
Mamluks
After failing to reform their government and military, the Abbasid caliphate fell under the influence of the…?
Buyid family of Northern Iran
Umayyad Spain developed a distinctive Islamic culture because of the…?
Blending of Roman, Germanic, Jewish, Arab, and Berber traditions
Under Islamic leadership, the Jewish people of Spain…?
Contributed to the cultural growth of Spain as great thinkers and writers
The Ulama were…?
Religous scholars
What is not true about the rule of the Seljuk Empire?
Mesopotamia grew in population and influence
The Muslim leader who successfully fought the European Crusades was…?
Saladin
The foundation of Islamic civilization of the Shari’a or…?
Law
The great vision of the Shari’a is an umma with…?
Common moral values, minimizing ethnic, and politics
What is hadith?
A collection of Muhammad’s words and deeds
Conversion to Islam was primarily a result of…?
Gradually learning about Islam
What about Muslim women is not true?
They often played a role in public life
Sufism is significant in being…?
A quest for direct union with God through rituals and training
What well-traveled Muslim scholar left a journal that has become a valuable historical source?
Ibn Battuta
The rainy and dry seasons of the Indian Ocean reflect the influence of…?
The monsoons
To accomodate the uneven distribution of rainfall, the south Indian farmers…?
Constructed elaborate irrigation canals
The most abundant metal worked in the tropics was…?
Iron
Africa exported large quantities of what mineral across the Red Sea, Sahara, and Indian Ocean?
Copper
The empires of Mali in West Africa and Delhi in Southern Asia both utilized…?
Islamic administration
The spread of Islam to lands south of the Sahara came about through…?
A gradual and peaceful process of conversion
In contrast to the kingdom of Ghana that preceeded it, what cannot be said about Mali?
It was smaller
Mansa Musa made a famous pilgrimage that…?
Served to demonstrate the enormous wealth of his country
In addition to fulfilling his personal religoius obligations, Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage resulted in the…?
Construction of new mosques and Quranic schools in Mali
The Turkish invaders successfully invaded India due to…?
The division of India into small states
The Turkish conquest of Northern India was aided by…?
Iron Stirrups
Sultan Iltutmish passed his empire to Raziya, his…?
Daughter
The Delhi Sultans controlled their empire in India by…?
Terror and high taxes