AP World History-Unit 4 (1450-1750), Section 2B

AP World History-Unit 4 (1450-1750), Section 2B

Columbian Exchange
A dramatically widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations, communicable disease, and ideas between the American, African, and Eurasian continents following the Christopher Columbus’ voyage to America
Joint-Stock Company
A business entity which is owned by shareholders, each shareholder owning a portion of the company in proportion to his or her ownership of the company’s shares, allowing for unequal ownership of a business with some shareholders owning a larger proportion of a company than others
Mercantilism
1500s-late 1700s
The economic doctrine stating that government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance
Capitalism
An economic system that is based on the private ownership of the means of production and the creation of goods or services for profit
Manila Galleons
Spanish trading ships that sailed once or twice a year across the Pacific Ocean between Manila in the Spanish East Indies, present day-Philippines, and Acapulco, New Spain, present-day Mexico
Seven Years’ War
1754-1763
A world war that took place between, involving most of the great powers of the time and affecting Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines
East India Company
1600-June 31, 1874
An English, and later British, joint-stock company and mega-corporation formed for pursuing trade with the East Indies but ended up trading mainly cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpeter, tea and opium with the Indian subcontinent
Olaudah Equiano
c. 1745-March 31, 1797
A prominent African involved in the British movement for the abolition of the slave trade who was enslaved as a child, purchased his freedom, and worked as an author, merchant, and explorer in South America, the Caribbean, the Arctic, the American colonies, and the United Kingdom
Manumission
The act of a slave owner freeing their slaves
Middle Passage
The stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade
Triangular Trade
~A historical term indicating trade among three areas
~1500s-1800s: The enslavement and transportation of primarily African people to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean
~”Atlantic Slave Trade”
creole
A multiracial person of European or African descent
Antonianism
1704-1706
A syncretic Christian movement, founded by Beatriz Kimpa Vita, formed in the Kingdom of Kongo as a development within the Roman Catholic Church in Kongo
Sunni Ali
1464-1492
The first king of the Songhai Empire, located in West Africa, and the fifteenth ruler of the Sonni Dynasty
Queen Nzinga
c. 1583-December 17, 1663
A queen of the Ndongo and Matamba Kingdoms, of the Mbundu people, in Southwestern Africa
King Alfonso
c. 1456-1542
A ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo and of the first of a line of Portuguese vassal kings