AP World History-Unit 4 (1450-1750), Section 5

Absolutism
~The acceptance of or belief in absolute principles in political, philosophical, ethical, or theological matters
~A monarchical form of government in which the monarch exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state and head of government
Constitutional monarch
A monarchical form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the guidelines of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified, or blended constitution
Divine Right of Kings
A political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy which asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God
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Henry VIII
June 28, 1491-January 28, 1547
The second English monarch from the Tudor family who married 6 times, created his own church, and had three children
Cardinal Richelieu
September 9, 1585-December 4, 1642
A French clergyman, noble and statesman who assisted Louis XIII during his reign
Philip II
May 21, 1527-September 13, 1598
A ruler of Spain who was the son of Charles V, experienced the Spanish Golden Age, married the first child of King Henry VIII, and lost the battle of the Spanish Armada against the English Navy
Louis XIV
September 5, 1638-September 1, 1715
A Bourbon monarch who ruled as the king of France and Navarre, was considered to be the most powerful French king, moved of the palace from Paris to Versailles, and taxed the people heavily which increased wealth
“Sun King”
Peter the Great
June 9, 1672-February 8, 1725
A ruler of the Tsardom of Russia who modernized Russia, encouraged the arts and learning, fought a war to gain a Swedish seaport to the Black Sea, established a navy, and outlawed beards
Catherine the Great
May 2, 1729-November 17, 1796
The longest-reigning and most famous empress of Russia who wanted to make social change but was unable to, improved the cultural image, and expanded the Russian Empire both westward and southward
Spanish Armada
1588
The Spanish fleet of ships that sailed with the intention of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England but failed to defeat the English Navy
Boyar
c. 900 CE-c. 1600
A highly ranked member in the Eastern European social hierarchy, below princes

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