AP World History Unit 4 1750- 1914

cash crops
any crop that is considered easily marketable.
coerced labor systems
a system where the workers were forced to work based on threats, pressure, or intimidation.
colonialism
exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one; the use of the weaker country’s resources to strengthen and enrich the stronger country.
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concessions in colonies
Colonies yielding the argument against them. conceding for the imperialists
diasporas
any religious group living as a minority among people of the prevailing religion; the scattering of the Jews to countries outside of Palestine after the Babylonian captivity.
“effective occupation”
The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 sought to regulate the competition between the powers by defining “effective occupation” as the criterion for international recognition of territorial claims.
epidemic disease
any infectious disease that develops and spreads rapidly to many people.
extraterrioriality
privilege of immunity from local law enforcement enjoyed by certain aliens. Although physically present upon the territory of a foreign nation, those aliens possessing extraterritoriality are considered by customary international law or treaty to be under the legal jurisdiction of their home country.
feudal
the social and economic arrangement under which people are paid for protection and farming privleges by giving goods and services to an overlord.
ideology
the body of doctrine, myth, belief, etc., that guides an individual, social movement, institution, class, or large group.
imperial
characterizing the rule or authority of a sovereign state over its dependencies.
imperialism
the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
indentured servants
agreed to work for a certain period of time to pay off a debt of some kind or for exchange of travel expenses.
industrialization
the development of industry on an extensive scale.
labor union
Organization of workers for the purpose of increased lobbying power for benefits and wages
laissez- faire capitalism
the idea that the economy could run itself w/o influence from the government.
liberalism
a broad class of political philosophies that considers individual liberty and equality to be the most important political goals.
manumission
the act of freeing slaves, done at the will of the owner.
marxism
is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxism holds at its core a critical analysis of capitalism and a theory of social change.
mercantilism
an economic theory that holds that the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon its supply of capital, and that the global volume of international trade is “unchangeable”.
middle class
the group of people in contemporary society who are between the working class and upper class.
missionaries
a person sent by a church to spread their religion and help others.
modernization
to make modern; give a new or modern character or appearance to.
monopoly
exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices.
nation- state
a sovereign state inhabited by a relatively homogeneous group of people who share a feeling of common nationality.
natural rights
any right that exists by virtue of natural law.
patriarchy
a form of social organization in which the father is the supreme authority in the family, clan, or tribe and descent is reckoned in the male line.
joint- stock companies
partnership between two companies.
political reforms
when someone or a group of people tries to change political policies in order to make them better.
revolution
an overthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed.
sanitation systems
system designed to protect public health.
sepoys
(formerly, in India) a native soldier, usually an infantryman, in the service of Europeans, esp. of the British.
social darwinism
“survival of the fittest” – the idea that only the strong survive.
socialism
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
sovereignty
the status, dominion, power, or authority of a sovereign; royalty.
suffrage
the right to vote, esp. in a political election.
syncretism
the attempted reconciliation or union of different or opposing principles, practices, or parties, as in philosophy or religion.
tax revenue
government income due to taxation.
victorian
of or pertaining to Queen Victoria or the period of her reign.
free- trade imperialism
trading with colonies w/o having to pay tax and getting things cheaper.
humanitarian values
values that promote better conditions for people throughout the world.

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