AP World History – Unit 4 Vocabulary Project

AP World History – Unit 4 Vocabulary Project

4 G’s of Exploration
a. Gold – they want to find the riches
b. God – explorers wanted to spread the Christianity
c. Gain – they wanted more land and wealth
d. Glory -they wanted to be known and be famous for generations to come
Prince Henry the Navigator
Head of the Portugal Royal family. He and the rest of his family invested greatly and supported highly in sea travel and exploring.
Vasco de Gama
Portugal financed a voyage for in 1497, where he rounded the Cape of Good Hope, explored the east African kingdoms, and then went all the way to India, where he established trade relations.
Bartholomew Dias
In 1492, Portugal financed his trip in which he rounded the tip of Africa. Which became known as the Cape of Good Hope.
Age of Exploration
Exploration before the late 15th century was largely limited to land travel. To be sure ships were used on the Med and Indian Ocean trade routes for centuries, but they were linked up to land routes through Persia, Arabia, northern Africa, or Central Asia on the Silk Road
Transoceanic
situated on the other side of the ocean; crossing the ocean.
Cartographer
a person who makes maps
Caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
Zheng He
AChinese navigator, led fleets throughout SE Asia and the Indian Ocean, all the way to E Africa, a century before the Europeans did the same. 15th century.
Hernan Cortez
In 1519, Cortez landed on the coast of Mexico with a small force of 600 men. He found himself at the heart of the Aztec Empire. Brought horses to the Americas. Montezuma, the Aztec ruler, took Cortez as a god
Jacques Cartier
1491-1557 French explorer who began the first of his voyages to Canada in search of the NorthWest Passage. During his second voyage, 1535-1536, Cartier sailed up the St. Lawrence River as far as the present site of Quebec city. Cartier’s voyages established France’s claims to North America.
Sir Francis Drake
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)
Northwest Passage
A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.
Columbian
transfer of goods,people, and ideas
Commercialization
The transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity.
Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation’s wealth by government regulation of all of the nation’s commercial interests
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages.
Measles
an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash
Influenza
viral infection of the respiratory system characterized by chills, fever, body aches, and fatigue.
Cash crop
a readily salable crop that is grown and gathered for the market (as vegetables or cotton or tobacco)
African slavery
10-15 million people taken from Africa between 1500 and 1870, Several million more people killed in slave raids and forced marches to the coast. Most bought from African slave traders, at least 15% died in horrible conditions aboard slave ships.
Sunni
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Shi’a
Branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali. Mainly found in Iran and a small part of Iraq. It is the state religion of Iran. A member of this group is called a Shi’ite.
Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Vodun
African religious practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti. (Voodoo)
Renaissance
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a ‘rebirth’ of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern Renaissance 1400-1600
Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
Encomienda
a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it.
Hacienda System
similar to the feudal system, Natives got money and had to buy their products from their owners
Creole
Descendants of the Europeans in Latin America, usually implies an upper class status.
Mestizo
person in Spain’s colonies in the Americas who was of Native American and European descent
Zamindar
local officials who received plots of farmland for their temporary use, kept a portion of the taxes paid by peasants in lieu of a salary, expected to forward the rest of the taxes to the central government
Mughal
One of the nomads who invaded the Indian subcontinent in the 16th century and established a powerful empire there
Absolutism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Louis XIV
Was 4 years old when he inherited the crown of France. He became one of the most legendary monarchs of Euro history. Ruled 1643-1715. Believed in Absolute Monarchy.
Henry VIII
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England’s break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Elizabeth I
Queen of England. Succeeded Mary I in 1558 and ruled until 1603. In addition to leading the defeat of the Spanish Armada and developing England into a world power, she strengthened Protestantism. Daughter of Henry VIII. Never married. She proclaimed that she was married to her country.
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Eurasmus
This influential humanist from northern Europe wrote a new edition of the New Testament in Greek as well as other influential works. Thought of the THEORY OF HUMANISM.
Thirty Years War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg’s, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Huguenots
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Cardinal Richelieu
the chief minister of Louis XII who ran the French government from 1624 to 1642. he was a political genius who wanted to make the king supreme in France and France supreme in Europe. he set out to destroy the power of the nobles and the Huguenots who were protected by the Edict of Nantes. He strengthened France economically and appointed intendants. Tried to make France an ABSOLUTE MONARCHY.
Jan Huss
Czech philosopher and reformer. He was the head of a protestant movement called the hussites. he influenced luther. Burned at the stake in 1415.
Plantation farming
A large estate owned by an individual or group organized to sell one or two cash crops using slave labor.
Balance of Trade
the difference in value over a period of time of a country’s imports and exports of merchandise
Versailles
A palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles. Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
Taj Mahal
17th century Indian palace built by a king for his wife, considered to be one of the most beautiful buildings in the world.
Ottomans
Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state’s military and ruling classes.
Divine Righs of Kings
a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God.
Frederick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation.
James I & VI
Scotish cousin of Elizabeth I, was well-educated, although was not interested in personal power and failed to live up to the role that was given to him.
Inquisition
a former tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church (1232-1820) created to discover and suppress heresy.
Catholic Reformation
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
Humanism
the doctrine emphasizing a person’s capacity for self-realization through reason.
Italian city-states
Stronger than other parts of Europe, able to discard and overcome feudalism easily. Weathly, led Rennissance. Included Milan, Florence, Venice, and Naples.
usury
the act of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest.
Edict of Worms
declared Martin Luther an outlaw within the empire and his works were to be burned and luther himself captured and delivered to the emperor.
Anglican Church
the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs). Was created after the authority of the Catholic Church became too powerful.
Edict of Nantes
document that granted religious freedom to the Huguenots.
heretic
a person who holds religious beliefs in conflict with the dogma of the Roman Catholic Church.
Middle Passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade.
Commercial Revolution
the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Treaty of Tordesillas
set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506).
Astrolabe
an instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets.
Compass
navigational instrument for finding direction.
Francisco Pizzaro
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca’s.
Rene Robert de la Salle
followed the Mississippi River all the way to Gulf of Mexico; claimed Louisiana for France.
indigenous
originating where it is found.
joint-stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company’s profits and debts.
Smallpox
a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever and weakness and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs that slough off leaving scars.
endemic
native to or confined to a certain region.
syncretic
traditions that borrow from both the past and present.
Sufi
a Muslim who represents the mystical dimension of Islam.
Sikhism
the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam.
Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for ‘Don Quixote’ which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616).
Indentured servitude
person who agreed to work for a colonial employer for a specified time in exchange for passage to America.
Mulatto
an offspring of a Black and a White parent.
Manchus
Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China’s imperial dynasties.
Songhay
Sucessor of Mali; dominated middle reaches of the Niger valley; capital at Gao.
Peter the Great
Ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, wanted closer ties to Western Europe, to modernize and strengthen Russia.
Prussia
a former kingdom in north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and northern Poland.
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564).
Piracy
robbery on the high seas.
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
95 Theses
Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic Church. They were posted on October 31, 1517.
Johann Gutenburg
German printer; in 1448 he invented a printing press that used movable type.
Michelangelo
Florentine sculptor and painter and architect. Famous for the Statue of David.
indulgences
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
Predestination
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power.
dissenter
a person who does not agree with the beliefs of his or her leaders.
John Wycliffe
English theologian whose objections to Roman Catholic doctrine anticipated the Protestant Reformation (1328-1384).
secularism
a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations.
British East India Company
Government charted joint-stock company that controlled spice trade in the East Indies after the Dutch.