AP World History Unit 4

AP World History Unit 4

Humanism
the cultural movement of the Renaissance, shift of focus to life on Earth and celebrating human achievements in the scholarly, artistic, and political realms
Medici
Showcased architecture and beauty by acting as patrons for some of the greatest artists
Michelangelo
Florentine sculptor and painter and architect, This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Brunelleschi
Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance (1377-1446)
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist, as a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
Donatello
Italian sculptor, such as the bronze statue David.
printing press
invented by Gutenburg. made producing books cheaper and faster
vernacular
native language
Machiavelli
Published The Prince, how to book for monarchs who wanted to maintain their power. suggested that monarchy on basis of vague moral tenets: ruler should be ruthlessly selfish, scheming and manipulative.
Erasmus
counseled kings and popes, wrote In Praise of Folly: satirized what he though were foolish political moves
Sir Thomas More
Utopia: ideal society, everyone shared the wealth and needs were met. expressed Christian moral guidelines
William Shakespeare
European writer, focused on character strengths and flaws, comedy, tragedy (Julius Caesar)
indulgences
piece of paper that the faithful could purchase to reduce time in purgatory (place Catholics believed they go to after death, middle between heaven and hell), there they amend their sins and go to heaven
Martin Luther
German monk, nailed 95 theses on church door, message spread because of printing press. had a problem with indulgences, translate and hold services not in latin but a language that everyone can understand, suggested that the Bible teaches people that they can appeal directly to God for forgiveness for sins and salvation, reduced role of church (pope) as middleman between God and man
Pope Leo X
ordered Luther to recant, which he refused. lead to Pope excommunicating him.
Lutherans
Martin Luther’s followers began to separate from Catholic church (N Germany and Scandinavia)
John Calvin
(Huguenots) Spread Protestant in France, God had predetermined ultimate destiny for everyone (France, S Germany, Scotland, and pockets of central England)
King Henry VIII
denied by pope to divorce his wife, converted all of England into Protestant Anglican
Church of England
Anglican Church, Henry was the leader and he never had a sun. daughter Elizabeth ruled over all of England
Protestant Reformation
prevailed theological based challenges and directed pope’s religious role, only necessary thing for interaction with god is the Bible no pope needed, paved way for revolutions in education, politics, and science
Catholic Reformation
(counter reformation) won back some Protestants, began to institute reforms (led by Spain), banned sale of indulgences, consulting more frequently with bishops and parishes, training its priests to live Catholic life instead of just preaching it, not bowing to Protestant demands but clarifying position (reclaimed Italy, Spain, Portugal)
Ignatius Loyola
former Spanish soldier, founded society that influenced in restoring faith in teachings of Jesus as interpreted by Catholic Church
Jesuits
practice self control and moderation, believed that praying and good works led to salvation. stricter training system and higher expectations of morality for the clergy
Council of Trent
group of church officials presided over the counter reform
Nicolaus Copernicus
mathematical theory that asserted that the earth and rest of solar system revolved around the sun, and earth rotated on axis daily (heliocentric theory), published The Revolution of the Heavenly Bodies to prove his point
Galileo
Published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World (wrote in Italian so people understand and defeat Ptolemy who said earth was center), forced to recant his words
The Index
list that banned heretical works, included Galileo’s book
Tycho Brahe
built an observatory and recorded his observations. provided evidence for Copernicus’s theory
Francis Bacon
asserted scientist should prove all dta through experimentation and observation
Johannes Kepler
developed laws of planetary motion based on observation and mathematics, elliptical orbits
Sir Isaac Newton
The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, invented calculus, and law of gravity
Scientific Revolution
together these men used observation, reason, experiement, mathematics to prove with instruments (telescope and microscope). made as big of an impact as Protestant Reformation in science and math
atheists
who believe that no god exists
deists
who believe that God exists but plays a passive role in life, set up the world, gave it natural laws by which to operate, and then let it run by itself
The Enlightenment
role of mankind in relation to government,
divine right
church allied with strong monarchs: got power from centralizing authority, uniting people under common banner of nationalism, forming empires by promoting colonization and exploration, ruling with absolute authority. Monarchs convinced god ordained their right to govern people had moral and religious obligation to obey them (King Louis XIII : Sun King)
Mandate of Heaven
emperors believed that they were divinely chosen, only given authority to rule as long as they pleased heaven. if they did not rule justly or with responsibility then they would fall
Social Contract
governments were formed not to be divine decree but to meet the social and economic needs of the people being governed
Thomas Hobbes
wrote Leviathan, people were by nature greedy and prone to violent welfare, government should preserve peace and stability at all cost advocated powerful ruler (absolute monarchs)
John Locke
Two Treatises on Government, mankind for most part was good, all men born equal to one another and natural and unalienable rights to life, liberty, and property. primary responsibility of government was to secure and guarantee natural rights. people justified to revolt if government broke rules
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
all men were equal and society should be organized to the general will, wrote Social Contract. people are good at will and corrupted by society
Voltaire
idea of religious toleration
Montesquieu
argued for separation of power among the branches of the government: executive, legislative, and judicial
Enlightened Monarchs
ideals of tolerance, justice, and improvements of people’s lifestyles= guidelines (Joseph II of Austria or Frederick II of Prussia)
Prince Henry the Navigator
started off the profitable long distance over sea trade routes for Portugal
Vasco de Gama
rounded the Cape of Good Hope and explored east African kingdoms and went all the way to India to establish trade relations
Bartholomew Dias
rounded the tip of Africa first one to do so
Christopher Columbus
supported by Isabella and Ferdinand, convinced there was a shorter route to Asia from the west. landed in the West Indies and explorations of Americas underway
Treaty of Tordesillas
drew a longitudinal line (north to south) everything east of the line was Portugals (only got Brazil) and west was for Spain.
Amerigo Vespucci
explored South America on several trips, continent was huge and not part of Asia
Ponce de Leon
explored Floria for Spain
Vasco de Balboa
explored Central America for Spain
Ferdinand Magellan
sailed around tip of South America to Pacific Ocean of Portugal, died in Philippines, but his crew became the first to circumnavigate the globe
Giovanni de Verrazone
explored North America for France
Sir Francis Drake
first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe
John Cabot
explored coast of North America for England
Henry Hudson
sailed for Dutch looking for northwest passage to Asia, explored Hudson River
Sternpost Rudder
invented by Chinese (Han) allowed for better navigation and control of ships of increasing size
Lateen Sails
allowed ships to sail in any direction regardless of the winds, advantage for ships who were depended on winds (Indian Ocean: monsoon)
Astrolabe
portable navigation device to help them find their way, measuring distance of the sun and stars = latitude
Magnetic Compass
allowed sailors to determine directions
Three-Masted Caravels
large ships employed significantly larger sails and could hold provisions for longer journeys
Hernan Cortes
landed on Mexican coast with 600 men, won support of neighboring states who loathed the Aztecs,
Montezuma
mistook Hernan for god, and gifted him gold. only fueled the spanish because motive for exploring was to acquire gold and spices
Francisco Pizarro
defeated the Incans with any army of 200 men
Peninsulares
group of Spanish officials sent to govern the colonies
creoles
people born in the colonies to Spanish parents, looked down by monarchy because they were not born in Spain but were educated and wealthy
Mestizos
people with European and Native American ancestry
Mulattos
European and African ancestry
Native Americans/Slaves
little or no freedom and worked on estates or in mines
viceroys
appointed governors of each of the five regions of New Spain
Encomienda System
like feudal system, provided peninsulares with land and specified number of laborers, in return peninsulares expected to protect natives and convert to Christianity, missionaries called for better treatment,
Demographic Shifts
huge cities depopulated, Europeans moved by the thousands, africans migrate by millions, cities in Europe swelled as the feudal system evaporated and urban middle class lines up as merchants
Columbian Exchange
new food, animals, and resources were transferred between Europe and the Americans. E to A: horses, pigs, goats, chili peppers, and sugar cane. A to E: squash, beans, corn, potatoes, and cacao. along with disease, weapons, ideas, and people. american food crops increased population in the east
Key Products of Columbian Exchange
Sugar and Silver ( most wanted by Spanish and Portuguese)
Age of Exploration
Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.
Joint Stock Company
organization created to pool the resources of many merchants, distributing cots and risks of colonization and reducing dangers of individual investors (VOC)
mercantilism
a country actively sought to trade but tired not to import more than it exports, create a favorable balance of trade, caused resentment because colonists were forces to pay taxes on products from Europe
King Ferdinand and Isabeela
from Christian Kingdom and Muslim side. under one house =nation-state most powerful forces, long term impact on cultural world developments ensured survival of spanish language and culture, built naval fleet,
Portugal
small country with limited manpower, middleman of a floating empire, early player in transatlantic slave trade, controlled sea routs, and garrisoned trading posts
Charles V
huge empire that stretched from Austria and Germany to Spain. Grandparents were Hapsburg and Ferdinand and Isabella, emperor of Holy Roman,
Hapsburg
family originated in Austria
Henry IV: Edict of Nantes
environment of tolerations
Cardinal Richelieu
Cathloic, chief advisor to Bourbons, strengthen the French crown, compromised with Protestants, helped them for personal benefits, (noblesse de la robe)
Cardinal Mazarine
prepared France to hold strong positions it would achieve under Louis XIV
Louis XIV
absolute monarch, Sun Kind & The Most Christian King, patronized the arts, revoked Edict of Nantes
Jean Baptist Colbert
strong mercantilist, increase size of French empire = increase opportunity for business transactions and taxes
War of Spanish Succession
disaster for grand plans of France, intermarriages led to one of Louis XIV grandson to inherit Spanish Throne, weaken spain and strengthen france,
Philip V
ruled Spain but couldn’t combine with France, most of territory went to England
Spanish Inquisition
eliminate all Protestant and convert to Catholic
Spanish Armada
the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588, to convert Queen back to Catholic, didn’t work
King Henry VIII
nullified the pope’s authority (Act of Supremacy), head of Church of England,
Elizabeth I
oversaw golden age in the arts
Elizabethan Age
boasted commercial expansion and exploration and colonization in the New World, after Spanish Armada
Muscovy & British East India
joint stock companies
James I
reign that brought together the crowns of England and Scotland, institute reforms to accomodate Catholics and Puritans (Calvinists) –> migrated to Jamestown
Charles I
son of James, desperate for money from Parliament
Petition of Rights
documents limiting taxes and forbidding unlawful imprisonment, ignored by Charles claimed divine right after he got the funds
Long Parliament
limited the absolute powers of monarchy, denies request for money,
Oliver Cromwell
defeated armies of Charles I, executes, rose to power not as monarch but as Lord Protector: religious intolerance and violence against Catholics and Irish.
English Commonwealth
This was the period of time when the Parliament was the head of England, and Declared England a republic
Stuart Restoration
reestablishment of monarchy in the person of Charles II, the son of Charles I, after Cromwell’s death. It temporarily ended England’s troubles.
Habeas Corpus Act
protected people from arrest without due process
Glorious Revolution
James II driven from power by Parliament because they feared he’d convert everyone back to Catholic, replaced by William and Mary (son in law & daughter), ensured future rulers would be Anglicans and limited power
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
Peace of Augsburg
intended to bring an end to constant conflict between Catholic and Protestants
Thirty Years’ War
Protestant challenged Holy Roman, conflict grew bigger into religious and political war,
Peace of Westphalia
independence of small German states, Prussia strongest
Ivan III
refused to pay tribute to Mongols and declared them free,
Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)
absolute rule in Russia, uniting and expanding it, recruited peasants, and offered them freedom from feudal lords if they settle in land in east but they had to get the land first. executed anyone whom perceived as a threat
Cossacks
peasant soldiers expanded territories
czar
russian for caesar, leader
Time of Troubles
one pretender to the throne would be killed by another pretender repeatedly
Michael Romanov
elected czar by feudal lords ruled from 1613-1917 (Romanov Dynasty), consolidated power ruthlessly
Peter the Great
needed to westernize Russia, first navy, St Petersburg home of westernization of Russia
Catherine the Great
more enlightened policies of education and western cultures were implemented, enforced repressive serfdom and limited the growth of the merchant class.