AP World History Unit 5 Vocab Terms (Part 1)

AP World History Unit 5 Vocab Terms (Part 1)

Urbanization
The social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Classical Liberalism
A term given to the philosophy of John Locke and other 17th and 18th century advocates of the protection of individual rights and liberties by limiting government power.
Laissez-Faire Capitalism
This was the style of capitalism in which the government had no interference with the economy
Utopian Socialism
Philosophy introduced by the Frenchman Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century. Utopian socialists hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively
Marxism
The economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Anarchism
Opposition to any form of government; the theory that all governments should be abolished
Second Industrial Revolution
(1871-1914) Involved development of chemical, electrical, oil, and steel industries. Mass production of consumer goods also developed at this time through the mechanization of the manufacture of food and clothing. It saw the popularization of cinema and radio. Provided widespread employment and increased production
Stock Markets
A market in which shares of stock of a company are bought and sold by investors
Limited Liability Corporations
Groups of investors pooled their capitals; they only risked the amount they put in, thus making corporations more appealing
Insurance
Promise of reimbursement in the case of loss
Gold Standard
A monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold
State Pensions
is an arrangement for the government to provide people with an income when they are no longer earning a regular income from employment
Transnational Corporations
Large corporations that are headquartered in one country but sell and produce goods and services in many countries
Suffrage
A legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution, gave women the right to vote
The Duma
The elected representative assembly grudgingly created in Russia by Tsar Nicholas II in a response to the 1905 revolution
Unionism
Labor union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are organized into the same union
The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700’s and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God
Declaration of Independence
The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
A Vindication of the Rights of Women
An essay published by Mary wollstonecraft. She argued that women, like men, need an education to become vitruous and useful, and encouraged women to enter male dominated fields such as medicine and politics
Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen
Written by Olympe de Gouge, this declared that women should have the same rights as were given to men in the new constitution
Seneca Falls Conference
The first major meeting to discuss equal rights for women in the US, wrote Declaration of Sentiments-drafted after the Declaration of Independence, laid out womens’ demands. Reactions: some women felt empowered, others were very critical
Maroon Societies
Communities of runaway slaves, survival of african traditions such as house designs, community organizations and language in caribbean
Abolitionism
The doctrine that calls for the abolition of slavery
Gens de Couleur
Free men and women of color in Haiti. They sought greater political rights and later supported the Haitian Revolution
Petit Blancs
Native born whites who were usually local traders and merchants. They felt prejudice by the French whites and could not hold many positions of power besides being clerks
Grand Blancs
White plantation owners. Top of the social hierarchy. The grand blancs were the primary opposition to equal right and the abolishment of slavery. They were the primary targets of the revolution
Reign of Terror
The historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Feminism
The movement aimed at equal rights for women
Caudillo
Military dictator in Latin America
Estates General
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime
Mass Production
The production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)