The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.
Factors: 1) Weak leaders after Suleyman. 2) Ottoman economy built on conquest and expansion; once this stopped, the economy couldn’t adapt. 3) Bloated bureaucracy and corruption. 4) Reasons 2 and 3 led to increased taxation, feeding resentment. 5) Nationalist uprisings in Eastern Europe and Greece, fueled by number 4. 5) Complacency and lack of curiosity about outsiders. 6) Geographical position left Ottomans with little opportunity for overseas expansion
“Sick Man of Europe” 1700’s-1800’s. Falls during WWI, gives rise to Turkey
“Sick Man of Europe” 1700’s-1800’s. Falls during WWI, gives rise to Turkey
Called the “powder keg of Europe” because of the tensions there pre-WWI. These were known as a collection of states of Slavic people
This Egyptian leader kept his country thriving and somewhat independent while all his neighbors were being dominated by Europeans.
Ottoman sultan; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents
Series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876; established Western-style universities, state postal system, railways, extensive legal reforms; resulted in creation of new constitution in 1876
group of revolutionary and nationalistic Turks who revolted against Ottoman empire in 1908 attempting to make reforms and then sided with the central powers in WWI
A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. RUssia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed
(r. 1855-1881) Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.
emancipation of serfs
the decision made by Czar Alexander II to free the serfs, a move which allowed Russia to begin to undergo industrialization
intellectuals; members of the educated elite (often used derogatorily)
people who speak out against the government (objecting to the czar reform)
n. the political belief that there should be no government and that ordinary people should work together to improve society
organized campaigns of violence against Jews permitted by Russian government officials; spread the persecution of Jews
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.(Japan Wins)
In Russia 1905 Russian soldiers inadvertently opened fire on demonstrators, turning them against the tsar. Possibly the start of the Revolution.
This was a legislative parliament in Russia with real political power
british east india company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government’s refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
queen of Great Britain and Ireland and empress of India from 1837 to 1901 (1819-1901)
treaties between China and the Western powers after the Opium War that vastly favored the Western powers….West gets trade benefits…
Foreign residents in a country living under the laws of their native country, disregarding the laws of the host country. 19th/Early 20th Centuries: European and US nationals in certain areas of Chinese and Ottoman cities were granted this right. (682)
treaty of nanjing
1842, ended Opium war, said the western nations would determine who would trade with china, not china, so it set up the unequal treaty system which allowed western nations to own a part of chinese territory and conduct trading business in china under their own laws. This treaty set up 5 treaty ports where westerners could live, work, and be treated under their own laws. One of these were Hong Kong.
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries
A late nineteenth century movement in which the Chinese modernized their army and encouraged Western investment in factories and railways
Belief that end of the world was at hand and Anabaptists would usher in the kingdom of God with Munster as the New Jerusalem
spheres of influence
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
empress dowager cixi
Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported antiforeign movements, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces. (p. 721)
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the “foreign devils”. The rebellion was ended by British troops (the rebellion people lost)
A powerful family in Japan that ruled as shoguns, 1603-1867, characterized by a samurai ruling class, urbanization, and the growth of a merchant class. Top-down approaches worked to solve environmental problems. Isolated Japan during rule.
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might.
a legislative assembly in Japan
The large family-controlled banking and industrial groups that owned many companies in Japan before World War II.
the domination of one state over its allies
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with with Bantus
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Independent but less developed nations controlled by private business interests rather than by other governments
(1864-1936) English writer and poet; defined the “white man’s burden” as the duty of European and Euro-American peoples to bring order and enlightenment to distant lands
The notion that colonialism was a duty for Europeans and a benefit for the colonized.
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746)
a republic in northeastern Africa on the Red Sea…British first started to colonize here.
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs in India against the Brisith; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.
(DDE) a French colony that included Vietnam , Laos, and Cambodia, but Vietminh captured the fRench fortress of Dien Bien Phy, North was a Communist State, south independent, they wanted to resist of Communism
(reigned 1865-1909) King of Belgium who employed Henry Morton Stanley to help develop commercial ventures and establish a colony called the Congo Free State in the basin of the Congo River
city at the southern tip of Africa; became the first permanent European settlement in Africa in 1652; built by Dutch immigrants to supply ships sailing to or from the East Indies.
scramble for africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts. (p. 731)
dutch east india company
a company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia
remained independent despite French invasion…former name for Thailand.
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910.
(1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the Boers(Dutch) in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.
Dutch settlers in south Africa
English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779)
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba’s independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Colonies, such as those in South Africa, New Zealand, Algeria, Kenya, and Hawaii, where minority European populations lived among majority indigenous peoples.
indentured labor migration
a sudden rise in indentured servitude. factors such as the possibily of better living conditions encouraged people to become indentured. whereas, the need for laborers in the sugar plantations (since slaves were freed) caused europeans (esp british) to encourage people to serve them.
maji maji rebellion
Bloody conflict in which the Yao and Herero tribes fought against the Germans. They believed they were magically protected from the German bullets and were mowed down by their machine guns. They finally were starved into surrender after the Germans burned their crops
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)
the use of scientific theories to support or validate racist attitudes or worldviews; also, to support classification of human beings into distinct biological races…give scientific reasonign as to why some races were better than others….
The application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
indian national congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor. (p. 663)