AP World History Vocab

adaptation
A changing to fit new conditions
administrative
Consists of those rules and procedures established by regulatory agencies.
Afro-Eurasia
The largest landmass on earth. Consist of Africa and Europe and parts of Asia.
Africa, Europe, Asia, also known as the Old World
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Agrarian
Concerning farms, farmers, or the use of land
animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
array
1. A large group of people or things. 2. An orderly arrangement or display. 3. To place in order. 4. To dress up.
artisan
A person who is skillful with his/her hands
A skilled craftsperson
austerity
Condition of lacking pleasure or luxury
Great self-denial, economy, discipline; lack of adornment
autocracy
A system of government in which the power to rule is in the hands of a single individual
buoyed
float on surface of water
bureaucracy
A system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
caesaropapism
Concept relating to the mixing of political and religious authority, as with the Roman emperors, that was central to the church versus state controversy in medieval Europe.
caravan
A group of traders traveling together
cartography
science or art of making maps
cash crop
a readily salable crop that is grown and gathered for the market (as vegetables or cotton or tobacco)
caste
A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life
chattel slavery
Ownership of human beings; a system of bondage in which a slave has the legal status of property and so can be bought as sold like property.
civilization
A society with cities, a central government, job specialization, and social classes
classical period
codification
The act or process of rendering laws in written form
coerced
to compel by force, intimidation, or authority
coercive labor
Any labor system that involves force (slavery, serfdom, and indentured labor)
colonial
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Columbian exchange
An exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.
Commercial
A dramatic change in the economy of Europe at the end of the Middle Ages. It is characterized by an increase in towns and trade, the use of banks and credit, and the establishment of guilds to regulate quality and price.
Commodities
Exports
conduit
A means of transmitting information
Consequences
Effects that follow a response
consolidation
Combined and improve efficiency
continuity
Emphasizes gradual and quantitative changes
convergence
Coming together
corporal punishment
Any type of pain inflicted short of death; common methods include crucifixion, whipping, torture, mutilation, branding, and caning. Many tortures were used to extract a “confession” from the accused.
cross-cultural
investigates the similarities and differences in psychological functioning in and across various cultures and ethnic groups
Crusades
1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
cultivation
(agriculture) production of food by preparing the land to grow crops
dar al-Islam
an Arabic term that means the “house of Islam” and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
decentralized
To distribute the administrative functions or powers of (a central authority) among several local authorities
demographic
THE STATISTICAL STUDY OF HUMAN POPULATIONS WITH RESPECT TO THEIR SIZE, DENSITY, DISTRIBUTION, COMPOSITION, AND INCOME.
depletion
Process of allocating the cost of natural resources to periods when they are consumed and sold.
diaspora
A Greek word meaning ‘dispersal,’ used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland. Jews, for example, spread from Israel to western Asia and Mediterranean lands in antiquity and today can be found in other places.
diffusion
Is the process by which a characteristic spreads
dispersed
distributed or spread over a considerable extent
dissemination
The act of spreading widely; scattering
distinctive
of a feature that helps to distinguish a person or thing
diversity
(n.) difference, variety; a condition of having many different types of forms
divine
Of, or pertaining to, God.
divinity
a god or goddess; a divine being
domestic
not international
domesticated
brought under human control; tamed or cultivated
economic revolution
growth of towns and the rise of a class of wealthy merchants in Europe; population remains mostly rural and poor; increased wealth of nation; creation of national identity
egalitarian
Affirming, promoting, or characterized by belief in equal political, economic, social, and civil rights for all people.
egalitarianism
A belief in the equality of all people
elite
(n.) the choice part of a group of people or things; (adj.) superior
empire
A group of states or territories controlled by one ruler
empirical
of an empire
enclave
(n.) an enclosed district, region, or area inhabited by a particular group of people or having a special character
endemic
belonging to a particular area; inherent
epidemic
A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease.
ethical
(adj.) Having to do with morals, values, right and wrong; in accordance with standards of right conduct; requiring a prescription for purchase
exalt
to raise high; glorify
exemplify
To illustrate by example; to serve as a good example
exploit
(v.) to make use of, develop; to make improper use of for personal profit; (n.) a feat, deed
facilitated
feudalism
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
filial
Having to do with a son
filial piety
In Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one’s parents and ancestors
financial
Fiscal
flora and fauna
all vegetation and animal life
flourish
N. AN EMBELLISHMENT OR ORNAMENTATION, V. MEANING TO GROW VIGOROUSLY, OR TO THRIVE
fluctuate
To change continually; to move up and down
foraging
the act of searching for food and provisions
fortification
A term used generally to describe the process of adding nutrients to foods, such as the addition of vitamin D to milk.
globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
governance
divided government
hegemony
the domination of one state or group over its allies
Hellenistic
A cultural blend, under Alexander’s policies, of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian. Koine was the popular spoken language used in these cities.
hemisphere
Half of a sphere
hierarchical
A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples.
imperial
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
implications
Possible conclusions
imposition
An unwelcome demand; a burden
indigenous
Living, growing, or produced naturally in a particular place; native
influx
a mass arrival or incoming
infrastructure
Fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools
innovation
An improvement of an existing technological product, system, or method of doing something.
integrate
To end separation of different races and bring into equal membership in society
intensification
The process of getting more in return for less. For example growing more food on a smaller plot of land.
interactions
All the living and nonliving relationships that exist with an ecosystem
interconnection
-people, countries, and the entire world are interconnected economically (one’s decision to drink a cup of coffee traces back to coffee farmers in Colombia)
intercultural
Communication among people with differing cultural backgrounds
interior
Area away from the coast
Cabinet department responsible for the management of public lands, wildlife, natural resources, and Native American affairs. Established in 1849
interregional
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
kinship
A social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption
legitimize
To give credit or recognition to
lineage
Group claiming a common ancestor
linguistic
Study of Language
literary
appropriate to literature rather than everyday speech or writing
Mamluks
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
manifestation
an indication or sign of a condition
manorialism
An economic system based on the manor and lands including a village and surrounding acreage which were administered by a lord. It developed during the Middle Ages to increase agricultural production.
maritime
A humid air mass that forms over oceans.
mercantile
dealing with trade
mercantalism
Economic system of trading nations; belief that a nation’s power was directly related to its wealth
metallurgy
The science and technology of metals
(part of 1st agricultural rev.) technique or science of working or heating metals so as to give them certain desired shapes or properties. Predates plant and animal domestication (e.g., gold, silver, copper, tin, iron,…).
migration
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
missionary
A person of a particular faith that travels in order to recruit new members into the faith represented
monastic
A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith
monasticism
A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith
monetization
establishing something (e.g. gold or silver) as the legal tender of a country
monogamy
A form of marriage in which one woman and one man are married only to each other.
monopoly
(economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller
monotheism
Belief in one god
monsoon
A regional scale wind system that predictably change direction with the passing of the seasons. These winds blow from land to sea in the winter, and from sea to land in the summer. In summer they are often accompanied with precipitation.
monumental
Massive, very great, very important
nascent
starting to develop; coming into existence
obligation
A legal or moral responsibility or duty
papacy
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head.
pastoralism
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
pathogen
A disease causing agent
patriarchal
Dominated by men
peopling
Immigration and Migration – Changes in birth, marriage, and death rates; life expectancy and family patterns
persist
refusing to give up
plague
(n.) an easily spread disease causing a large number of deaths; a widespread evil; (v.) to annoy or bother
polytheism
Belief in many gods
predate
come before
prestige
High standing; respect earned by accomplishments
proliferation
An increase in number, multiplication
propaganda
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
prosperity
(noun) wealth, success
ravage
(v.) to destroy, lay waste, ruin; (n.) ruinous damage, destruction
reconnaissance
(n.) a survey made for military purposes; any kind of preliminary inspection or examinatio
reconstituted
reconstructed, reorganized
reformation
…, a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
regional
An element in literature that conveys a realistic portrayal of a specific geographical locale, using the locale and its influences as a major part of the plot.
reign
(1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed for “disloyalty”
renaissance
1350-1550
revenue
An increase in owner’s equity resulting from the operation of a business
reverence
Deep respect felt or shown towards a person on account of his or her position or relationship.
schism
(n.) a formal split within a religious organization; any division or separation of a group or organization into hostile factions
secular
Non-religious
Shamanism
A community Faith where the people followed Shaman – small and isolated – traditional religions
Social structure
How human beings are organized in a society. There is often a hierarchy (Rich, Middle Class, Poor as an example or Noble, Freeborn and Peasant as another) which forms layers—the most powerful on top, the less powerful towards the bottom. Feudalism is a social structure, with a King on top, a small layer of Nobles, a layer of Knights, a layer of Clergy (churchmen) and finally a large population of Peasants.
staple crops
Crops that are always needed
stimulated
Gave an incentive to
stratification
A structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society.
stratified
subsequently
later; afterward; next
surplus
A situation in which quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded
syncretic
Traditions that borrow from both the past and present
synthesized
made by bringing together different elements
tax farming
To generate money for territorial expansion rulers used new methods to get money like Tribute systems and _____ _____. Under this system the government hires private individuals to go out and collect taxes for them.
textiles
Fabrics that are woven or knitted; material for clothing
theocracy
A government controlled by religious leaders
trans
movement from one place to another
transformed
Changed in appearance
given a completely different form or appearance
transoceanic
situated on the other side of the ocean; crossing the ocean
trans regional
across several geographic regions
tribute
Money paid for protection
unprecedented
Happening for the first time, never heard of before
urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
vassal
(n.) a person under the protection of a feudal lord to whom he or she owes allegiance; a subordinate or dependent; a servant; (adj.) subservient
veneration
Honor, profound respect
vermin
Any of various small animals or insects that are pests

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