AP World Review Items for Mr. M period 4- 1450 to 1750 CE

AP World Review Items for Mr. M period 4- 1450 to 1750 CE

1. We are still missing None 🙂 . YAY!!!!!
Thanks!
who scored the most goals in one full year?
Lionel Messi
Whatt are the school colors
Orange & White
40 *a. Astrolabe
This helped sailors tell latitude. With this tool they were able to travel farther and find their way home. It also made traveling by sea safer leading to an increase in exploration and trade.
40 *b. Revised maps
With these sailors could know where things where and could know how to get home. This promoted sailing. They made it easier to travel to the correct destination.
41.a Caravels
The new type of ship allowed for faster easier travel through the deeper parts of the oceans. This meant that Portugal was able to go faster to places like India to trade spices, allowing them to bypass the more expensive trade routes and make a profit.
42. a Potatoes
By the eighteenth century potatoes had spread from the Americas to Europe by way of the Columbian Exchange and influenced the European diet since potatoes became the main crop to be consumed in the eastern hemisphere. Potatoes were extremely important to the poor and peasants since they were easy to harvest and contained good amounts of carbohydrates to satisfy ones hunger. Potatoes were significant because they led to population growth.
42. b Maize
In the beginning of the global trade, maize was one of the most consumed products brought from the Americas to the eastern hemisphere, but eventually maize was used to feed livestock or to make bread. Either way maize was important to diets which contributed to the growth of population.
42. c Manioc
Manioc was most significant to the populations of sub-Saharan Africa because it supplemented other crops such as bananas, yams, and rice. Since the soil in Africa was suitable for the cultivation of manioc, the crop became one of the most staple foods in Africa.
43.a Sugar
When European landed in the Americas, they set up mills and plantations called engenhos. They forced natives into slavery to work on the plantations, and death rates were so high that they needed to import slaves from Africa, promoting the slave trade. Sugar became a commodity in Europe, and those who owned sugar plantations were the ones who had the power because they gained wealth and status. It became the most important exported good for Europeans.
43.b Tobacco
Europeans were introduced to tobacco by the Native Americans, and it was introduced to Europe, many people tried it for medicinal purposes. When it was found to be addictive and with little health benefits, Europeans used it for leisure. To keep up with demand, large tobacco plantations were established in the New World, and exported thousands of pounds every year. Not only did the tobacco trade stimulate the economy, it also stimulated the need for laborers. The workers were slaves imported from Africa, and the massive numbers helped stimulate the slave trade.
44a. *Horses
These were brought to America by Europeans and were used for travel and to help in agricultural production. They were faster than oxen.
44b. *Pigs
These were brought to America by Spanish settlers and used for food sources in America.
44c. *Cattle
These were also, you guessed it, brought to America by European settlers, also they were used as a major export in Argentina meat industry. They were used for meat and dairy products.
45. A okra
Okra was brought by African slaves to the Caribbean and the Americas. They would mix okra with European vegetables and fish from the Americas to make a hybrid dish called gumbo which appeared on the Euro-American and African American dinner tables. this is syncretism between African and American culture.
45. B rice
Slaves brought rice to South Carolina, georgia, and Louisiana. Rice added a variety to meals and also made meals “hardy”, giving all the people on the plantation a better meal. this is an example of syncretism between African and the American culture.
46. a Voodoo in the Caribbean
The origin of this religion was through a syncretic blend
of traditional West African mystical practices and Christianity,
which slaves in the colonies in the Caribbean were forced to convert to. The religion became very popular amongst slaves in the Caribbean.This signifies the changes and adaptations to a western society that African slaves were forced to make.
46. b The cults of saints in Latin America
The Native Americans thought that old gods abandoned them. Basically replaced their old gods with the saints of Christianity whom they saw to be holy. In Mexico Christianity
became very popular as the mestizo society took the
Virgin of Guadalupe as their national symbol. Signifies the disruption of culture and the blending of beliefs that was caused by the arrival of Europeans to America.
46. c Sikhism in South Asia
This religion blended Hinduism and Islamic beliefs in a land divided between Hindus and Muslims. Sikhism was one of the main religions that Akbar combined into his divine faith that was created to please all people in India whether they be Hindu or
Muslim, Sunni or Shia. Represents the attempts to unite a land that is divided by two main groups of people.
47 a. Renaissance Art in Europe
Define: The Renaissance was an art and intellectual movement in the 14th-16th centuries inspired by classical Greek and Roman works.
Significance: The Renaissance was able to come about due to the growing prosperity and sophistication of western Europe during this time. Renaissance thought and ideals supported an increasing European interest in the larger world, promoting exploration.
47 b. Miniature Paintings in the Middle East and South Asia
Define: These small paintings were popular in the Middle East and South Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries, often depicting scenes from the Qu’ran.
Significance: Because these paintings were only meant to be viewed by the owners and whomever they decided to share them with, these paintings could be more artistically free in their renditions.
47 c. Wood Block Prints in Japan
Define: Wood block prints were used to print information quickly and more efficiently than hand-writing.
Significance: Because of the quicker production of books, pamphlets, and information provided by wood block prints , information and literacy became more widespread.
47 d. Post-conquest codices in Mesoamerica
Define: Ancient books written on bark materials using mostly pictures. Codices were mostly used by Maya and Aztecs. (singular form-Codex, yeah I didn’t know that either.)
Significance: Many codices were destroyed by conquistadors, but some were created and preserved after the Europeans came, provided insight to Mesoamerican thought, history, and culture. They were examples of Mesoamerican use of pictographs rather than a written language.
48. A Shakespeare
He was an English Playwright in the 1500’s. His plays were not only influential for future playwrights in the Western World but his plays also effected peoples’ political views and morals.
48. B Cervantes
He was a Spanish author who wrote the novel “Don Quixote”. It is considered to be the first modern text of the Western World and it influenced many other future novels. The Spanish Language was so influenced by him, it is sometimes called “la lengua de Cervantes”(The Language of Cervantes)
48. C Sundiata
He was a Mali king in the 1200’s. However, the Epic of Sundiata. It is a story of the people’s hero, Sundiata. Although Sundiata died in the 1200’s, his story lives on through people passing it down from generation from generation. It shows the Western African traditions of the time.
48. D Journey to the West
It was a very important work of literature of the Chinese Culture during the age of exploration. It shows insight on how a Chinese Buddhists lives because it is about a Chinese Buddist’s journey to India.
48. E Kabuki
It is a Japanese Theater that showed very interesting and bizarre plays. This shows insight on how the Japanese lived their lives from day to day.
49.a The Development of Frontier Settlements in Russian Siberia
Russia began to colonize Siberia around 1581 to access fur. Fur allowed Russia to participate in the global trade of valuable luxuries.
49.b Cotton Textile Production in India
Indian textiles were renown for being the best of the best, and were in high demand throughout Eurasia. The textile industry became one of India’s largest, especially under later British rule.
49.c Silk Textile Production in China
Along with porcelain and tea, silk was China’s largest and most profitable export from the 1400s through the 1700s.
50. a Chattel Slavery
the original form of forced labor where people are bought and sold as property which set the world up for imperialism and racial segregation.
50. b Indentured Servitude
A signed contract forcing a person to work for a number of years in order to pay off debt. It enabled migration of the poor or persecuted throughout lands in search of better lives.
50. c Encomienda and Hacienda Systems
Granted natives to conquerors to be used however they wanted, which brought about decline of native societies in the Americas.
50. d Spanish adoption of the Incan “mita”
A drafting of native populations for labor which messed with settlement patterns and family lives of natives.
51.a The Manchus in China
People who lived north of China and ended up conquering and creating the Qing dynasty after the collapse of the Mongolian presence. By doing so they unified the whole region even though the Chinese and Manchus didn’t like each other.
51.b Creole elites in Spanish America
There are the individuals born in the Americas and are of Spanish or Portuguese roots. They controlled and dominated the social hierarchy after they got rid of the peninsulares; didn’t allow any public participation.
51.c European Gentry
One of the higher social classes in Europe, usually it refers to the nobles in England or France as well as some other European countries. Owned most of property and so they gained lots of political influence in which they used to manipulate politics and also to increase their wealth.
51.d Urban commercial entrepreneurs in all major port cities in the world
Commercial ports that were greatly important in the trade monopoly for the influential imperial states, these ports increased trans-regional trade and global trade networks and also facilitated the spread of religion.
52 a. The Zamindars
A Zamindar was an Indian noble, who ruled large tracts of land. Took care of India under the British Era, so the Brits didn’t have too, and payed them taxes. A relatively stable system in it’s time.
52 *b. Nobility in Europe
These were the most privileged classes in Europe, they were rich and had lots of political power.
52 *c. Daimyo in Japan
They were territorial lords who ruled most of the country form their vast land holdings and hired the samurai for protection.
53.a Dependence of European Men on Southeast Asian Women for Conducting Trade
Europeans began and continued to force natives in Southeast Asia to labor on their plantations, leaving only the women and children at home. It was left to them to sell crafted items and other surpluses to the merchants that passed through their villages so that they could support their families.
53.b The Smaller Size of European Families
Since the work of men and the work of women often occurred separately and independently, smaller family sizes were easier to maintain. They also stressed picking a suitable spouse, so that they could bear living and working together.
54.a Mestizo
Meaning mixed, Having Spanish and native parentage. This was important because this usually made up most of the non-elite population. Showed a type of social class.
54 b. Mulatto
Having half black and European parentage. This usually meant that those with mixed parentage with a black parent tended to be at the bottom of the social standings
54 c. Creole
Having European parentage. The importance of this is that having European parentage usually meant higher social standing in Latin American societies
55 a. Monumental Architecture
These were large man-made structures that were usually made of stone or earth and usually in a public place. It displayed political power usually due to its sheer size.
55 b. Urban Design
This refers to how towns or villages are shaped and designed, addressing how the whole area looks, including building design and layout.
55 c. Courtly Literature
Usually linked to “courtly texts” or works written and read by people that share a culture. It is a romantic style of writing that wasn’t generally found to far from its place of origin.
55 d. The Visual Arts
A type of art that is seen, like ceramics, paintings or plays. This type of art showed a change in what was accepted as art.
56 a. European notions of divine right
The European rulers of this time had ruled under this, which gave them full authority and was believed they were given the right to rule by their god
56 b. Safavid use of Shiism
Twelver Shiism was imposed on the Safavids by Shah Ismail to be the new religion. It created a identity in the Regime but also created enemies.
56 c. Mexica or Aztec practice of human sacrifice
The Mexica and Aztecs used the human sacrifice rituals as offering to their gods to bring moisture to bear their crops. The blood flow honored the deities and was preformed as self-sacrifice.
56 d. Songhay promotion of Islam
All the emperors were Muslim and supporters of Islam. It was valued as a cultural foundation and cooperation with Muslim merchants but was not forced upon its people.
56 e. Chinese emperor’s public performance of Confucian Rituals
It was demonstrated in Confucianism being in the heart of Chinese education. Ming and Qing emperors supported schools of Confucian values and was used to maintain order in government.
57.a Ottoman treatment of non- Muslim subjects
Non-Mulisms who lived in the Ottoman Empire were called Dhimmi(second-class citizens).Lacked rights to freedom of movement/settlement, access to all occupations, enjoyed a great deal of religious tolerance but were forced to pay higher taxes. It led to Ottomans’ policy of devshirme, where Christian families was forced to give up their children to be trained to be the elite Janissary Core and be converted to Islam.
57. b Manchu policies toward Chinese
Manchu wanted to reflect a policy of separating the civic functions of the empire, carried out by Chinese officials.The emperor is viewed as a military figure more than as the Son of Heaven. In his court Chinese scholars as well as Jesuits, bring Western science and technology in addition to a new religion.
57.c Spanish creation of a separate “Republica de Indios”
Which was a corporate society of native people who would pay tribute and service in labor drafts. They’re considered legal minors subject to the protection of the crown. They had distinct rights, privileges, and obligations that formed the basis of the Spanish colonial system.
58.a Ottoman Devshirme
This practice was used by the emperor because he didn’t trust the Janissaries. The emperor created this new elite that would be made out of slaves and be very obedient to him. They were very important to the emperor. They went on special tasks and were the emperor’s bodyguard. Even though they were considered slaves, they became very powerful and wealthy.
58.b Chinese Examination System
It was a big long test and lots of Chinese students took it at one time and it made all the best of the best students shine. But only 300 students can pass, and out of the 300 who passed, only few are able to find a job.
58.c Salaried samurai
The samurai were skilled in archery and combat and were used mostly to put down rebellions. Even though they were considered a low military class, the samurai rose in political power and became a threatening ruling power. They formed clans, established themselves as military nobility and became a strong and difficult resistance for any foreign invasion.
59.a Omani-European Rivalry in the Indian Ocean
The competition between the Ottomans and the technologically advanced Europeans led to European dominance over trade in the Indian Ocean, essentially stealing money right from Ottoman merchants. The Europeans could now just trade directly with India, increasing European wealth and causing the poorer growing Ottomans to shrink in size.
59.b Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Caribbean stole from the Spanish Silver Galleons, but the Pirates would also plunder any ship they saw in the sea, including settlers. Piracy discouraged the colonization of the Americas around the Caribbean do to the raiding of settler ships being a threat to wannabe settlers.
60.a Thirty Years War
a religious war between Protestant and Catholic hostility, the most destructive war in Europe before the twentieth century due to violence and cruelties by undiciplined soldiers.The Peace of Westphalia (1648) ended this war.
60.b Ottoman-Safavid Conflict
For two centuries the Sunni Ottomans and Shiite Safavids, both of Turkish decent, warred in sporadic conflict the most notable conflict was the Battle of Chaldiran (1514). However, the Ottomans lacked resources to fully destroy the Safavid Empire.
61. A Food Riots
The Ming Dynasty restored Chinese Traditional rule from the Mongols. The huge peasant famines and revolts caused cities to withdraw from the Ming Dynasty. This factor and the Manchus attacking ended the Ming dynasty and again foreign rule was back in China.
61. B Samurai revolts
The Samurai were basically kicked out of their jobs by the Tokugawa government because they wanted to reduce numbers of professional warriors. The Samurai lost their jobs, social standing, money and honor. The Samurais became indebted and a huge part of Japanese history and culture was ended.
61. C Peasant Uprisings
The Songhay Empire fell when it was attacked by the Moroccans, but the native people took that as an opportunity to rebel and helped weaken the empire for its final defeat. The people’s uprisings show the discontent and eagerness for the Songhay Empire to end.