ap world test 7 (chapter 27)
(1592-1666) He was the Mughal Emperor who constructed the Peacock Throne, and built the Taj Mahal in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. His reign led to the golden age of Mughal art and architecture.
significance- His sponsorship of the creation of the Peacock Throne and the Taj Mahal demonstrates the wealth of the Mughal Empire as well as the fundamental importance of Islamic beliefs in the Mughal government.
The founder of the Ottoman Empire. He was the chief, bey, of a group of semi-nomadic Turks who migrated to Anatolia in the thirteenth century. Osman and his people sought to become ghazi (“warriors of the faith”)
significance- He established the ruling dynasty of the Ottoman Empire that lasted from 1298 to its dissolution in 1923.
This term was used to describe the Muslim religious warriors who believed themselves to be the sword of God. They believed that it was duty to rid the world of polytheism and if they died serving Allah, they would live eternally with God.
significance- they used religion to fuel their successful holy war against they Byzantine Empire
This was an Ottoman institution, which required the Christian population of the Balkans to supply the sultan with young boys to become slaves. The boys converted to Islam, were taught Turkish, and received special training. Depending on their skill, they would either join the army or the Ottoman government administration. Those who became soliders were known as Janissaries and were not allowed to marry or have families of their own.
significance- This practice was a successful way to create Islamic converts and reduce the Christian population under Ottoman control. Sultans relied on the devoted individuals recruited under this policy for administration, expansion, and defense of the Ottoman Empire.
the Ottomans required the Christian population of the Balkans to contribute young boys to become slaves of the sultan. The boys received special training, learned Turkish, and converted to Islam. Those who became soliders were known as Janissaries, from the Turkish “yeni chari” which means “new troops”
significance- The Janissaries quickly gained a reputation for esprit de corps, loyalty to the sultan, and readiness to employ new military technology. The Janissaries helped to strengthen the Ottoman military forces.
(reigned 1451-1481) He was the Ottoman ruler who laid the foundations fora tightly centralized, absolute monarchy. He conquered most of Serbia, moed into southern Greece and Albania, eliminated the last Byzantine outpost at Trebizond, captured Genoese ports in the Crimea, and initiated a naval war with Venice in the Mediterranean.
significance- he captured Constantinople in 1453, renaming it Istanbul and was known as Mehmed the Conqueror.
Suleyman the Magnificent
(reigned 1520-1560) He was the sultan who presided over the Ottoman Empire at its peak. During his reign it became a major naval power with fleets in Aegean, Black, Mediterranean, and Red Seas. His fleets also challenged Portuguese dominance in the Indian Ocean. His conquests included Mesopotamia, most of Hungary, the island of Rhodes, and the remainder of Serbia. He laid siege to Vienna but was unable to take the city.
Suleyman the Magnificent
significance- He vigorously promoted Ottoman expansion, both in southwest Asia and in Europe.
Shah Ismai I
(reigned 1501-1524) He was the founder of the Safavid Dynasty in Persia who seized control of the Iranian plateau and launched expeditions into the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and central Asia
Shah Ismai I
significance- Ismail adopted Twelver Shiism which he forced upon his subjects. This religion held that there had been twelve infallible imams after Muhammad, and that he himself was the twelfth “hidden imam”. Some Shiites came to believe that he was an incarnation of Allah.
Turkish followers of Shah Ismail who ruled the Safavid Empire from 1501-1524. They distinguished themselves by wearing a red hat with twelve pleats, in memory of the twelve Shiite imams. qizilbash= “red heads”
significance- They accepted that Ismail was the hidden imam, or the incarnation of Allah himself. Most Muslims believed these ideas were blasphemous. The Ottoman sultan Selim the Grim feared that nomadic Turks in the Ottoman Empire would join this group so he persecuted Shiites in the Ottoman Empire and launched a successful attack on the Safavid Empire.
This was a Muslim belief that there had been twelve infallible imams (religious leaders) after Muhammad. These imams began with Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law Ali. The twelfth “hidden” imam had gone into hiding to escape persecution in 874.
significance- The twelfth imam was supposed to return to take power and spread his true religion. Shiite Muslims subscribe to this belief. Sunni Muslims generally do not do that.
(1514) Key battle of the Ottoman invasion of Safavid territories. The Savafids lost this battle in part because they refused to use any gunpowder weapons, which they believed to be unmanly or unreliable. As a result of their victory, the Ottomans temporarily took over Ismail’s capital at Tabriz.
significance- Because Ottoman Empire lacked the resources to completely sack the Safavid Empire, the Safavids were able to regain control of Persia. The two empires remained in conflict for the next two centuries.
Shah Abbas the Great
(ruled 1588-1629) He moved the Safavid capital to Isfahan, encouraged trade with other nations, and increased the use of gunpowder weapons. He reformed the administrative and military institutions of the empire.
Shah Abbas the Great
significance- He revitalized the Safavid Empire. His campaigns brought most of the Caucasus Mesopotamia, and northwest Iran under his rule.
Babur “The Tiger”
He was originally Zahir al-Din Muhammad, a Chagatai Turk who claimed descent from both Chinggis Khan and Tamerlane. He conquered much of northern India and perceived himself to be more of a soldier and an adventurer than an empire builder or religious crusader.
Babur “The Tiger”
significance- He started the Mughal dynasty in India.
(reigned 1556-1605) He was Babur’s grandson who was the real builder of the Mughal Empire. His conquests included Malwa, Gujarat, Bengal, Kabul, Kashmir, and Kandesh.
significance- He instituted a policy of religious toleration in the Mughul Empire and tried to create a religion that would combine elements of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam.
(reigned 1659-1707) The Mughal Empire controlled the most territory under his rule after he pushed his control into Southern India.
significance- He reversed Akbar’s policy of religious toleration. He sponsored the destruction of many Hindu temples and the construction of mosques on the sites of these destroyed temples. Because of his religious attitudes and the large territory under his control, rebellions were common during his reign.
This is a syncretic faith that combines elements of Islam and Hinduism. It became especially prominent in the regions of Punjab and Kashmir. Their most sacred site is the Golden Temple of Amritsar.
significance- Except for brief periods of toleration, The Sikhs have been required to fight against control from Islamic and Hindu powers. Most Sikhs live in India today. Many support the creation of an independent state of Punjab
This was a tax imposed on non-Muslims in a Muslim state, in order to compensate the state for the protection given to non-Muslims (dhimmi) who are not permitted to serve in the military.
significance- The dhimmi (protected people) retained their personal freedom, kept their property, practiced their religion, and handled their own legal affairs.
these were autonomous religious communities in the Ottoman empire which retained their won civil laws, traditions, and languages; they also usually assumed social and administrative functions in matters concerning birth, marriage, death, health, and education
significance- These communities were able to help non-Muslims stay in touch with their culture and religion; the jizya made this possible.
(1489-1588) He was an architectural genius who was responsible for the construction of a vast religious complex called the Suleymaniye. This project combined tall, slender minarets with large domed buildings supported by half domes in the style of the Byzantine church Hagia Sofia.
significance- He was able to blend Islamic and Byzantine architectural elements in his building of the Suleymaniye which is one of the most celebrated monuments in Istabul.
This is a religious movement started by Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab in Arabia in the 1740s. Their theology treats the Qur’an and Hadith as fundamental texts. They became closely associated with the Saud family in Arabia and denounce the Ottomans as dangerous religious innovators who were unfit to rule.
significance- They objected to the growing influence of Western European ideas in Islamic lands. Some examples of their reluctance to embrace Western ideas include their protests against the construction of an astronomical observatory in Istanbul and their campaign to shut down the Ottoman printing press.