AP World Unit 4

AP World Unit 4

Population growth chart- continents and causes by time period pg. 339.
1000-1700
Europe (grew): better agriculture technology (3 field system, moldboard, better metallurgy), relative peace between and within the countries, end of the plague, columbian exchange, global warming, sea trade
Asia (grew): peace, end of plague, bigger urban populations (less people in rurality), political stability (mongols), trade
Africa(grew): settled by the Muslims
Americas(fell): spanish disease, war, political turmoil
Oceania(grew): British came, polynesia exploration, unifed
1800-1900
Europe (grew): industrial revolution, peace, 2 world wars had no effect
Asia (grew): lessening of the mortality rate by improved sanitation and medical advances, massive increase in agricultural productivity attributed to the Green Revolution
Africa: grew
Americas (grew): Industrial Revolution, immigration
Oceania: grew
1900-1975
Europe (grew): medicines
Asia: grew
Africa: grew
Americas (grew): vaccines
Oceania: grewq
Detail notes on causes, technology, animals, plants, and locations of the Polynesian migrations.
-Key theme from 7th century to 1400 was expansions, migration and concourse
-One channel of migration pointed northward to Hawaii; first reached with great war canoes, cut off from polynesia from 1400 to 1778; polynesians in hawaii spread widely across the islands in ag clusters and fishing villages, used local vegetation (weaved fabrics and materials/ fish nets from grass), imported pigs (meat but devastation of unique plants)
-Maori: went to New Zealand as early as 8th century, adapted to the cold and harsh environment, developed elaborate art, 200,000 pop,
Explain the connection between the Crusades and the Renaissance.
During the Crusades, the Europeans brought back works written by many of the great Greek philosophers, as well as books written by the Arabs. The Crusades also brought Western Europe Eastern medicine and learning, as well as Eastern culture, and luxuries like silks, spices, and oranges. Another important thing that helped lead to the Renaissance was a shift in trade. The Italian cities became major merchants in the Mediterranean. This commercial power became the base of the Renaissance.
In comparison to medieval culture, how was Renaissance culture fundamentally different?
The subject matter of art moved toward nature and people. In architecture, favor shifted away from the Gothic to a classicism derived from the styles of greece and rome. Vivid, realistic statues complemented the new palaces.
Along with Italy, what was the key center for political change in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries? (country or peninsula)
the Iberian peninsula
According to Pomeranz, what motivates Isabella to fund Columbus’ unlikely venture? How does her faith play a role?
Columbus had miscalculated the circumference because he based it on the calculations in the bible. Queen Isabel asked him to return to court. Enthused by her just
completed victory over Muslim Granada and swayed by her husband, King Ferdinand, who argued that the amount
Columbus required was relatively small, Isabel consented to financing most of the expedition despite her doubts of its
success.
Why can ethnocentrism complicate interpretations of world history?
Ethnocentrism causes a judgmental system on another person’s culture, so world history would not be accurate it if was used. People would be biased and would be more likely to support their own cultures and traditions, therefore trying to make their own culture more significant than it actually was. Also, the real facts about different cultures would get lost in different opinions if ethnocentrism was used, since people would defend their own side in a time of conflict and stretch the truth.
How can one balance disapproval and understanding in dealing with practices such as female infanticide?
What are some nonethnocentric ways to interpret initial European expansion?
They had money, they wanted money, accidental
How was the global trade network of the fifteenth century different from that of previous eras in terms of size and scope?
New areas of the world were for the first time brought into the global complex. The rate of global trade also increased in some portions of the Old World. Global trade became so significant that it forged different relationships between key societies, based on the kind of goods and amount of control contributed to the surging world economy.
The initiative for Western exploration and conquest came from the kingdom of…
Portugal whose atlantic location made it well suited for new initiatives
In what way were the early Dutch and British exploration and trade projects different from those of the Iberian nations in terms of financing, organization and leadership?
Dutch and British exploration owed much to private initiative of merchant groups and the formation of chartered trading companies. In the Iberian peninsula, new governments with a special sense of religious mission and religious support developed.
What British commercial institution ruled India for much of the eighteenth century?
The British East India Company
What were the major results of Europe’s maritime dominance in terms of goods, disease, and economic domination?
Native Americans were victims of diseases such as smallpox and measles.Some estimates are that 80% of the population died. Whole island populations in the West Indies were wiped out. New World crops were spread rapidly. American corn and sweet potatoes spread to China, the Mediterranean, and parts of africa. These productive crops and local ag improvements triggered large population increases.
Western Europe dominated a great deal of oceanic shipping. This greatly increased Europe’s overall profits, and disproportionate control by the great merchant companies increased the Euro ability to determine the framework for international trade.
Columbian exchange- disease, food, animals, and humans/percentages. See Diamond packet for a refresher.
To the old world: corn, potatoes, beans, tobacco, peanuts, squash, pepper, tomatoes, pumpkins, pineapples, cacao, chicle, papayas, maniot, guavas, avocados
To the new world: rice, wheat, barley, oats, coffee, sugarcane, bananas, melons, olives, dandelions, daisies, clover, ragweed, kentucky bluegrass, smallpox (killed an estimated 90%), measles, cowpox, typhus, cholera,
the continents of the Americas were virtually emptied of their native inhabitants – some academics estimate that approximately 20 million people may have died in the years following the European invasion – up to 95% of the population of the Americas.
A Spanish fleet defeated the Ottoman Empire in 1571 at the battle of …
Lepanto in 1571
Colonial dependence in the world economy and the consequent need to produce unprocessed goods cheaply led to the development of __________ labor systems
coercive
What is the trade relationship between Eastern Europe and Western Europe?
Eastern Europe joined world economic activity by exporting grain, mainly produced by serfs working on large estates, from Prussia, Poland, and Russia, to the West.
In characterizing the period from 1450 to 1750 in the West, describe the changes in science and intellectual life, military techniques, government powers, and family life.
-printing was introduced in the 15th century (Johannes Gutenberg)
-European-style family:late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, a large minority who never married
-Interest in military conquest increased
-Feudal political forms remained strong.
– new instruments allowed advances in biology and astronomy
-Witchcraft hysteria declined and a belief grew that people could control their environment, New attitudes toward religion resulted (Deism argued that God did not regulate natural laws etc)
-revolution in science spread quickly among the educated.

-new political forms and functions that justified rule not on hereditary or divinity
-professional armies, new military tactics and training

Describe the impact of the Renaissance on new political organization
Describe the focus of humanism with regard to intellectual and artistic endeavors.
Religion was no longer attacked, but its principles were no longer predominant. Greek and Roman literature and art were imitated.
Reformation. Causes, leaders, and responses.
1517: Martin Luther: only faith could gain salvation, picked up support during the mid16th (germans, saw opportunity to gain power w/o pope) (ordinary: sanction for own social rebellion against landlords)
Henry VIII: anglican church (divorce)
Jean Calvin: predestination, participation of all believers in local church (church councils; came to america: democracy)
Response: Catholic Reformation: council of treat: revived catholic doctrine and refuted protestant tenets
List social groups and their reasons for joining or avoiding Lutheranism.
German princes: support: saw opportunity to gain more power because the holy roman emperor was catholic and they could increase their independence and seize church lands
Ordinary people: saw his attack on authority as a sanction for their own social rebellion against landlords
Twonspeople: drawn to apporval of work in the world
What was the political impact of Calvinism
Calvinists sought the participation of all believers in local church administration which promoted the idea of a wider access to government. Calvinists thenwent to americas and eventually set up democracy
What is the impact of The Edict of Nantes, issued in France in 1598
tolerance to Protestants (calvinists)
What are the major results of the Thirty Years War
reduced German power and prosperity for a century and cut population by about 60%
territorial tolerance concept
settled a rebellion of the protestant netherlands against giving the former full independence
Describe the impact on prices due to the commercial revolution of the 16th century
The massive import of gold and silver from latin america forced prices up. the availability of more money generated this price rise. New wealth heightened demand for products to sell
Who used astronomical observation and mathematical calculation to disprove the Hellenistic belief that the earth was the center of the universe
copernicus
What was Isaac Newton’s work published in 1687 that drew various theories together into a framework of natural laws?
Principia Mathematica
Summarize the view of Deists (Voltaire-the guy most associated with Deism)
although there might be a divinity, its role was simply to set natural laws in motion, not regulate them
Define the role of government in mercantilist theory (encourage what, discourage what, and how
urged that a nationastate not import goods from outside its own empire but sell exports widely as possible tariff policies discouraged manufacturing in colonial areas and stimulated it in homelands
What did Adam Smith’s economic theory advocate and explain how it is a basis for our economic system in the US.
People act according to their self-interest but through competition promote general economic advance. He believed that govt should avoid regulation in favor of the individual initiative and market forces
What are the basic principles of the Enlightenment thinkers.
Continued to support scientific advance, applied scientific methods to the study of human society, attacked Catholic church , society’s goals should center on improving material and social life
Summarize the nature of manufacturing in the later eighteenth century? How did it work from raw good to finished product.
Colonies sent raw materials to Europe where manufactured and sold back to colonies at higher price
How was the global trade network of the fifteenth century different from that of previous eras in terms of size and scope (compare the existence of regional trade networks to real “global” trade)?
New areas of the world were for the first time brought into the global complex. The rate of global trade also increased in some portions of the Old World. Global trade became so significant that it forged different relationships between key societies, based on the kind of goods and amount of control contributed to the surging world economy.
Why did the initiative in early conquest and exploration pass to northern European nations in the later sixteenth century?
The Dutch and British improved the design of oceanic vessels, producing faster ships than their Catholic rivals.
What was the impact of the introduction of American crops into Europe?
Major population increases.
What economic factors account for the Spanish failure to hold a position of dominance in world trade?
Their economy and banking system could not meet the new demands. They were trading unprocessed goods for expensive ones. Leaving a big difference in value.
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the impact of the development of core-dependent economic zones on state formation (the Atlantic zone is a good example, how does trade impact America and Africa. How does it impact political power in Europe)?
Core-dependent economic zones provide regions with additional resources to trade and increased income. It also leads to bigger populations, bigger labor forces, increased specialization, etc.
Describe the ability of European nations to dictate terms of trade in East Asia. What is the major reason for this position.
Trading companies. Establishing tariffs. ?
What was the impact of the development of colonies on western European consumer culture? What major European import radically changes consumer behavior?
spain brought in gold and silver which forced the prices up. The availabilty of more money generated this price rise. New wealth heightened demand for products to sell both in the colonies and in europe, but western production could not keep pace (inflation) this encouraged merchants to take new risks. infaltion and the new colonial opportunities led to the formation of the great trading companies often w government backing
Why did the southern colonies of the Atlantic seaboard (US) win importance before those farther north?
Better climate, farming, & land.
Compare the relationship of settlers to Native Americans in British North America versus the rest of the Americas.
Continuing settler arrival occurred as Indian populations declined through disease and warfare. Indians and Europeans did not form new cultural groups as they did in Latin America; Indians instead moved westward where they developed a culture based on the imported European horse.
How did Ivan IV, called Ivan the Terrible, confirm tsarist autocracy?
Attacking the authority of boyars and killing them
Why did the Russian expansion policy initially (under the Ivans) focus particularly on central Asia?
The Russians were motivated by a desire to push the former Mongol overlords farther back to prevent renewed invasion
What was the impact of early Russian expansion on central Asia?
• New minority groups (multicultural empire)
• Large Muslim minority
What ways did Russia become exposed to Western technology, culture, etc. under the Ivans?
British merchants traded with Russia to get furs, western merchants established outposts in Moscow and other cities. Tsars imported Italian artists and architects to design church buildings and the magnificient royal palace in the Kremlin. Foreign architects modified renaissance styles to take Russian building traditions into account, producing the ornate, onion shaped domes that became characteristic of Russian churches
• Ivan III launched diplomatic missions to the leading Western states
• Ivan IV(terrible)
o Italian architects and artists brought in and created ornate churches
Modified onion shaped dome
Following the death of Ivan IV, Russian boyars attempted to limit tsarist autocracy and gain governing rights for themselves during the…
Time of Troubles
What tsar was responsible for the abolition of the assemblies of the nobles and reform of the Orthodox Church?
Alexis Romanov
Politically, what aspects of Western culture did Peter the Great emulate in Russia?
More well defined military hierarchy while developing functionally specialized bureaucratic departments, improved army’s weaponry and created the first Russian Navy. Got rid of the old noble councils and created a set of advisors under his control, appointed provincial governers from St. Petersburg, systematized law codes to extend through the whole empire and revised the tax system, with taxes on peasants increasing, new training institutes est. for aspiring bureaucrats and officers-a way to bring talented non-nobles into the system
• Autocracy
• Military organization
o Specially trained fighting force that put down local militias
o Secret police (Chancery of Secret Police)
In what way did Peter the Great shift the foreign policy interests of Russia (geographically)?
Wars with Ottoman Empire and Sweden indicated a western shift
• Westward
o Took control of Sweden and other Baltic territory after attacks on Ottoman Empire
o Moved capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg
List all of Peter the Great’s political reforms?
• Navy
• Systematic law codes
• Revised the tax system
• Built industries (metallurgical and mining- iron holdings)
• Rewarded landlords for use of serfs
• Upper-class women made to be like Western counterparts
What was the purpose (ultimate goal) of Peter the Great’s policy of economic development?
To avoid the need of importing military armaments.
Make Russia respectable in the eyes of the West
What was Catherine the Great’s attitude/actions toward the program of Westernization?
Flirted with the ideas of the French Enlightenment, but failed to take the steps to abolish serfdom.
• Not as strong as it was thought to be
o Liked the ideas of French Enlightenment and patronized West art/architect, but she cut off cultural influence during Fr. Revolution and to keep economy from dropping she established the serfs in a position much lower than the West viewpoint
The Russian radical and nobleman who, inspired by the philosophies of the West, urged the abolition of serfdom during the reign of Catherine the Great was…
Pugachev
What was the only industry that Russia could do as well as the other European powers?
Agriculture
What percentage of the Russian population remained rural in the eighteenth century?
95%
What was the limitation of Peter the Great’s policies of cultural Westernization with regards to the different classes in Russia?
Limited to the nobility
Describe the power of the Russian nobility with regard to central power, taxation, and serfs.
• Completely autocratic- would kill of anyone who stood in their way
• Taxes peasants heavily, but not afraid to tax landlords and nobles
• Serfs were basically slaves
What was one of the primary differences between the social organization of the West and Russia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries?
• Urban centers were lacking in Russia, thus there was also no merchant class
What percentage of the Russian population remained rural in the eighteenth century?
95%
Who led the Russian peasant rebellion of the 1770s?
Emelian Pugachev
Compared to Western governments, how great a role did the Russian government play in economic development?
• A BIG role, There implantation of the serfs, enforcement of iron industry, giving of land to landlords was much different from the practices in the Scientific Revolution that suggested hands off rather than the implantation of mercantilism through the colonies but even those were run largely by trading monopolies
What was the primary limitation on the expansion of the agricultural economy?
• Agricultural methods highly traditional
• Little motivation among peasantry for improvements
In what ways was Western Europe in 1750 different from the medieval West?
After 1450, western Europe became commercially active and established the foundations of industrialization. Science and technology were more advanced than previously. More centralized governments developed. In areas of popular beliefs and family structure, the West was developing concepts not seen in other civilizations.
How would you contrast the Renaissance and the scientific revolution?
the renissance was more focused on God and artwork (not realistic looking at all) and the scientific revolution brought in scientific thinking, realistic drawings (usually humans, because of the whole humanitarianism thing) and attacks on the church
In what ways did the commercial revolution of the sixteenth century change the social structure of the West?
The prosperity was shared by all classes in western Europe. Commercialization created a new rural and urban proletariat that suffered from increased food prices. For the more prosperous, commercialization supported a more elaborate family life and demystification of nature. Witchcraft hysteria reflected economic and religious uncertainties; women were the most common targets.
How was the absolute monarchy of the seventeenth century different from the political forms of the Middle Ages?
Middle Ages – feudal monarchy. Nobles had more power.
How did the Enlightenment effect changes in popular outlook?
They believed that rational laws could describe both physical and social behavior. the Enlightenment produced a basic set of principles concerning human affairs: humans are naturally good, reason was the key to truth, intolerant or blind religion was wrong. Methodism demonstrated the continuing power of spiritual faith. Attitudes toward children changed to favor less harsh discipline, a sign of a general new affection between family members.
What was the nature of the “Colombian Exchange”?
the Columbian Exchange was the transfer of newly discovered flora and fauna unknown in the Old World from the New World, and flora and Fauna from the Old World that was not naturally occurring in the New World to there.Thus, food crops such as tomatoes, maize, potatoes came from the Americas to Europe. Oranges, apples, went te other way because the settlers, soldiers, administrators and so in the Americas liked them. Horses were transported to the New World because they were a domesticated work animal, cattle and sheep for food.Tobacco and cocoa (to make chocolate) went from New to Old World as luxury goods.
Prior to 1600, what areas of the world remained outside the global trading network? What areas were then incorporated into the network after 1600?
most places were part of the trade network in 1600.
What was the nature of early Russian expansion under the Ivans?
Focus on C. Asia (keep Mongols away); Cossacks to colonize; Ivan III married niece of last Byzantine emporer and gained control over all Orthodox churches.
In what way did Peter the Great reform the economy and government of Russia through Westernization?
Systematized law codes; increased taxes; training system for bureaucrats & officers; metallurgical & mining industries; rewards for serf albor on new manuf. operations; imitated military organization; move capital to St. Petersburg.
In what ways were the policies of Westernization undertaken by Peter the Great and Catherine the Great more appearance than substance?
while they made many changes to the elite upper class, the lower class were ignored, and serfs were treated even more worse than before, which was not like the west at all. although they seemed to be culturally infused with the west on the outside, at the end of the day they really only cared about the people they actually interacted with.
What were the primary differences by the eighteenth century between Russia and the West?
Russia saw a progressive intensification of serfdom while the West was relaxing this institution in favor of other labor systems