Apa Style Guide
APA Publication Manual Crib Sheet This document is a summary of rules from the APA Publication Manual 5th Edition. For Further Information visit APA Writing Style at: http://www. apastyle. org June 2008 APA STYLE GUIDE 5th Edition APA requires a hanging indent for its citations. Also, PLEASE BE SURE TO DOUBLE SPACE CITATIONS. For space saving reasons, the citations below are single spaced. APA requires double spacing of citations. Citation Rules A. Books Typical book entry — single author Arnheim, R. (1971). Art and visual perception. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Publishing information – Spell out the publishing names of associations and university presses, but omit superfluous terms such as “Publishers,” “Co. ,” or “Inc. ” If two or more locations are given, give the location listed first or the publisher’s home office. When the publisher is a university and the name of the state (or province) is included in the university name, do not repeat the name of the state/province in the publisher location. When the author and publisher are identical, use the word “Author” as the name of the publisher. American Psychiatric Association. (1994).
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. ). Washington, D. C. : Author Multiple authors When a work has up to (and including) six authors, cite all authors. When a work has more than six authors cite the first six followed by “et al. ” Festinger, L. , Riecken, H. , ; Schachter, S. (1956). When prophecy fails. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Roeder, K. , Howdeshell, J. , Fulton, L. , Lochhead, M. , Craig, K. , Peterson, R. , et. al. (1967). Nerve cells and insect behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Corporate authorship Institute of Financial Education. 1982). Managing personal funds. Chicago: Midwestern. No author identified Experimental psychology. (1938). New York: Holt. Citing items in an anthology/chapter in edited book Rubenstein, J. P. (1967). The effect of television violence on small children. In B. F. Kane (Ed. ), Television and juvenile psychological development (pp. 112-134). New York: American Psychological Society. Reprinted or republished chapter Freud, S. (1961). The ego and the id. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans. ), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19, pp. 3-66). London: Hogarth Press. Original work published 1923) Following the entry, enclose “Original work published” in parentheses, noting the original date. Chapter in a volume in a series Maccoby, E. E. , ; Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Series Ed. ) ; E. M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed. ), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed. , pp. 1-101). New York: Wiley. Citing multivolume works Wilson, J. G. , ; Fraser, F. C. (Eds. ). (1977-1978). Handbook of teratology (Vols. 1-4). New York: Plenum Press.
In listing a multivolume work, the publication dates should be inclusive for all volumes. The volumes should be identified, in parentheses, immediately following the book title. Do not use a period between the title and the parenthetical information; close the entire title, including the volume information, with a period. Edited collections Higgins, J. (Ed. ). (1988). Psychology. New York: Norton. or Grice, H. P. , ; Gregory, R. L. (Eds. ). (1968). Early language development. New York: McGraw-Hill. Citing specific editions of a book Brockett, O. (1987). History of the theatre (5th ed. ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Immediately after the book’s title, note the edition information in parentheses (for example, “5th ed. ” or “rev. ed. “). Do not use a period between the title and the parenthetical information. Translated works Freud, S. (1970) An outline of psychoanalysis (J. Strachey, Trans. ). New York: Norton. (Original work published 1940) The original publication date is the last portion of the entry and should be in parentheses with the note “Original work published” followed by the date. Proceedings Deci, E. L. , & Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. Dienstbier (Ed. , Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 38. Perspectives on motivation (pp. 237-288). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. or Cynx, J. , Williams, H. , & Nottebohm, F. (1992). Hemispheric diffences in avian song discrimation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 89, 1372-1375. B. Journals Citing articles in journals with continuous pagination Passons, W. (1967). Predictive validities of the ACT, SAT, and high school grades for first semester GPA and freshman courses. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 27, 1143-1144. Citing articles in journals with non-continuous pagination
Sawyer, J. (1966). Measurement and prediction, clinical and statistical. Psychological Bulletin, 66 (3), 178-200. Because pagination begins anew with each issue of this journal, it is necessary to include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number. Note that there is a comma between the issue number and the page numbers, but no comma between the italized volume number and the issue number. If the periodical does not use volume numbers, include “pp. ” before the page numbers so the reader will understand that the numbers refer to pagination. Use “p. ” if the source is a page r less long. Citing articles in monthly periodicals Chandler-Crisp, S. (1988, May) “Aerobic writing”: a writing practice model. Writing Lab Newsletter, pp. 9-11. Citing articles in weekly periodicals Kauffmann, S. (1993, October 18). On films: class consciousness. The New Republic, p. 30. Newspaper articles Monson, M. (1993, September 16). Urbana firm obstacle to office project. The Champaign-Urbana News-Gazette, pp. A1,A8. No author identified Clinton puts ‘human face’ on health-care plan. (1993, September 16). The New York Times, p. B1. Reprinted or republished articles Clark, G. & Zimmerman, E. (1988). Professional roles and activities as models for art education. In S. Dobbs (Ed. ), Research readings for discipline-based art education. Reston, VA: NAEA. (Reprinted from Studies in Art Education, 19 (1986), 34-39. ) Following the entry, enclose “Reprinted from” in parentheses, noting the original publication information. Close with a period. ERIC Documents (Report available from the Educational Resources Information Center) Mead, J. V. (1992). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (Report No. NCRTL-RR-92-4).
East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED346082) C. Dissertations Dissertation obtained from Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI) Bower, D. L. (1993). Employee assistant programs supervisory referrals: Characteristics of referring and non-referring supervisors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (01), 534B. (UMI No. 9315947) Dissertation obtained from the university: Ross, D. F. (1990). Unconscious transference and mistaken identity: When a witness misidentifies a familiar but innocent person from a lineup (Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University, 1990).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 417. Give the university and year of the dissertation as well as the volume and page numbers from the Dissertation Abstract International. D. Other Media Citing interviews Archer, N. (1993). [Interview with Helen Burns, author of Sense and Perception]. Journal of Sensory Studies, 21, 211-216. In this example, the interview lacks a title, so a description of the interview is given in brackets. If the interview has a title, include the title (without quotation marks) after the year, and then give a further description in brackets if necessary.
Unpublished interviews do not need a reference page entry because they are what the Publication Manual of the APA calls “personal communications” and so “do not provide recoverable data. ” Here, the entry consists of the first initial and last name of the interviewee, the type of communication, and the date of the interview. (N. Archer, personal interview, October 11, 1993) Citing films or videotapes [Motion picture] replaces Film and Videotape as a bracketed descriptor. Weir, P. B. (Producer), & Harrison, B. F. (Director). (1992). Levels of consciousness [Motion picture]. Boston, MA: Filmways.
Here, the main people responsible for the videotape are given, with their roles identified in parentheses after their names. After the title, the medium is identified (here, a motion picture). The distributor’s name and location comprises the last part of the entry. Citing recordings Writer, A. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc. ]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different than copyright) McFerrin, Bobby (Vocalist). (1990). Medicine music [Cassette Recording]. Hollywood, CA: EMI-USA.
E. Electronic Information The type of medium can be, but is not limited to the following: aggregated databases, online journals, Web sites or Web pages, newsgoups, Web- or e-mail based discussion groups or Web or e-mail based newsletters. Pagination in electronic references is unavailable in many cases, thus left out of the citation. The APA Manual has a short section demonstrating the format for electronic references on pp. 268-281. For other examples, visit http://www. apastyle. org/elecref. html Citing computer software Arend, Dominic N. (1993). Choices (Version 4. 0) [Computer software].
Champaign, IL: U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Research Laboratory. (CERL Report No. CH7-22510) If an individual(s) has proprietary rights to the software, their name(s) are listed at the head of the entry, last names first, followed by a period. Otherwise, treat such references as unauthored. Do not italize the title. Specify in brackets that the source is computer software, program or language. List the location and the organization’s name that produced the program. Add any other necessary information for identifying the program (in this example, the report number) in parentheses at the entry’s conclusion.
To reference a manual, follow the same as above but add “manual” as the source in the bracketed information. Do not add a period at the end of a citation if it ends in a web address. Full-Text Database (i. e. , book, magazine, newspaper article or report) The second date which follows is the date the user retrieved the material. No period follows an Internet Web address. Schneiderman, R. A. (1997). Librarians can make sense of the Net. San Antonio Business Journal, 11, 58+. Retrieved January 27, 1999, from EBSCO Masterfile database. Article in an Internet-only journal Kawasaki, J. L. , ; Raven, M. R. 1995). Computer-administered surveys in extension. Journal of Extension, 33, 252-255. Retrieved June 2, 1999, from http://joe. org/joe/index. html Article in an Internet-only newsletter Waufton, K. K. (1999, April). Dealing with anthrax. Telehealth News, 3(2). Retrieved December 16, 2000, from http://www. telehearlth. net/subscribe/newslettr_5b. html#1 Internet technical or research reports University of California, San Francisco, Institute for Health and Aging. (1996, November). Chronic care in America: A 21st century challenge. Retrieved September 9, 2000, from the Robert Wood Foundation Web site: http://www. wjf. org/library/chrcare Document created by private organization, no page numbers, no date Greater Hattiesburg Civic Awareness Group, Task Force on Sheltered Programs. (n. d. ). Fund-raising efforts. Retrieved November 10, 2001, from http://www. hattiesburgcag. org Sometimes authors are not identified, and there is no date showing for the document. Date website was accessed should be used and efforts should be made to identify the sponsoring author/organization of the website. If none is found, do not list an author. Document from university program or department McNeese, M. N. (2001).
Using technology in educational settings. Retrieved October 13, 2001, from University of Southern Mississippi, Educational Leadership and Research Web site: http://www-dept. usm. edu/~eda/ E-Mail, newsgroups, online forums, discussion groups and electronic mailing lists Personal communications, which are not archived, should not included in reference lists and cited within the text only: Smith, Fred (“personal communication,” January 21, 1999) Citations Within Text Use of Authors’ Names In APA style, only the author’s last name is used in the document as a whole and within in-text citations in particular.
If the author’s name is mentioned in the text Most often, an author’s last name appears in the text with the date of publication immediately following in parentheses: Bolles (2000) provides a practical, detailed approach to job hunting. If the author’s name is not mentioned in the text When the author’s name does not appear in the text itself, it appears in the parenthetical citation followed by a comma and the date of publication: Interactive fiction permits readers to move freely through a text and to participate in its authorship (Bolter, 2001).
Note: If you cite the same source a second time within a paragraph, the year of publication may be omitted. If there are two authors When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the source is cited in the text: Katzenbach and Smith (1993) define a team as “a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable” (p. 45).
If the authors’ names appear in the text itself, connect the names with the word and; however, if the authors’ names appear parenthetically, connect the names with an ampersand (;): A team is defined as “a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable” (Katzenbach ; Smith, 1993, p. 45). If there are three, four, or five authors
When you cite for the first time a work with three, four, or five authors, cite all authors: Cogdill, Fanderclai, Kilborn, and Williams (2001) argue that “making backchannel overtly available for study would require making its presence and content visible and its content persist, affecting the nature of the backchannel and raising social and ethical issues” (p. 109). (Again, if the authors’ names appear parenthetically rather than in the text itself, connect the final two names with a comma and an ampersand). In all subsequent citations, include only the name of the first author followed by et al. the abbreviation for the Latin phrase meaning “and others”): Cogdill et al. (2001) assert that “backchannel is multithreaded, substantial, and governed by many social conventions” (p. 109). Again, if the authors’ names appear parenthetically rather than in the text itself, connect the final two names with a comma and an ampersand. If there are six or more authors If a work has six or more authors, cite the last name of the first author followed by et al. in all citations: Adkins et al. (2001) studied the use of collaborative technology during a multinational, civil-military exercise. If two authors have the same last name
If a document includes sources by two authors with the same last name, include the first and middle initial of each author in all text citations: R. P. Allen (1994) and D. N. Allen (1998) have both studied the effects of email monitoring in the workplace. If two or more sources are cited When citing two or more sources by different authors within the same citation, place the authors’ names in parentheses in alphabetical order, followed by the year of publication and separated by a semicolon: Hypertext significantly changes the process of information retrieval (Bolter 2001; Bush, 1945; Landow 1997).
If no author is identified If no author is identified, use an abbreviated title instead, followed by the date. Use quotation marks around article or chapter titles, and underline book, periodical, brochure, and report titles: The use of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems has grown substantially over the past five years as companies attempt to adapt to customer needs and to improve their profitability (“Making CRM Work”). Placement of Citations for Quoted Material
Specific page numbers for paraphrased or quoted material appear within the parenthetical citation following the abbreviation for page (p. ). The location of the parenthetical citation for a quote depends upon the placement of quoted material within the sentence: * If the quotation appears in midsentence, insert the final quotation mark, followed by the parenthetical citation; then complete the sentence. Branscomb (1998) argues that “it’s a good idea to lurk (i. e. read all the messages without contributing anything) for a few weeks, to ensure that you don’t break any of the rules of netiquette” (p. 7) when you join a listserv. * If the quotation appears at the end of the sentence, insert the final quotation mark, followed by the parenthetical citation and the end punctuation: Branscomb (1998) argues that when you join a listserv, “it’s a good idea to lurk (i. e. , read all the messages without contributing anything) for a few weeks, to ensure that you don’t break any of the rules of netiquette” (p. 7). If the quotation is long (40 words or more), it should be formatted as a block quotation, and the parentheses should appear after the final punctuation mark: Bolles (2000) argues that the most effective job hunting method is what he calls the creative job hunting approach: figuring out your best skills, and favorite knowledges, and then researching any employer that interests you, before approaching that organization and arranging, through your contacts, to see the person there who has the power to hire you for the position you are interested in.
This method, faithfully followed, leads to a job for 86 out of every 100 job-hunters who try it. (57) Citing Electronic Sources See http://www. apastyle. org for additional information * Sample reference Page (Next Page) | The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed. , 2001) provides a comprehensive reference guide to writing using APA style, organization, and content. To order a copy of the Publication Manual online, go to http://www. apa. org/books/4200060. html. To view “PDF” documents referenced on this APA Style Essentials page, you need Adobe Acrobat Reader.
To download the free Acrobat Reader, go to http://www. adobe. com/products/acrobat/readstep2. html. | The purpose of this document is to provide a common core of elements of APA style that all members of an academic department can adopt as minimal standards for any assignment that specifies APA style. This Web document is itself not a model of APA style. For an example of a complete article formatted according to APA style, go to http://www. vanguard. edu/uploadedfiles/faculty/ddegelman/prayer. pdf. For an example of an undergraduate research proposal, go to http://www. anguard. edu/uploadedfiles/faculty/ddegelman/psychproposal. pdf. To download a Microsoft Word template of an APA-style paper, go to http://www. vanguard. edu/uploadedFiles/Faculty/DDegelman/psychapa. doc I. General Document Guidelines A. Margins: One inch on all sides (top, bottom, left, right) B. Font Size and Type: 12-pt. font (Times Roman or Courier are acceptable typefaces) C. Line Spacing: Double-space throughout the paper, including the title page, abstract, body of the document, references, appendixes, footnotes, tables, and figure captions. D.
Spacing after Punctuation: Space once after all punctuation. This includes using one space (not two! ) following punctuation marks at the ends of sentences. E. Alignment: Flush left (creating uneven right margin) F. Paragraph Indentation: 5-7 spaces G. Pagination: The page number appears one inch from the right edge of the paper on the first line of every page (except Figures), beginning with the title page H. Manuscript Page Header: The first two or three words of the paper title appear five spaces to the left of the page number on every page (except Figures), beginning with the title page.
Manuscript page headers are used to identify manuscript pages during the editorial process. Using most word processors, the manuscript page header and page number can be inserted into a header, which then automatically appears on all pages. I. Active voice: As a general rule, use the active voice rather than the passive voice. For example, use “We predicted that … ” rather than “It was predicted that … ” J. Order of Pages: Title Page, Abstract, Body, References, Appendixes, Footnotes, Tables, Figure Captions, Figures II. Title Page K. Pagination: The Title Page is page 1.
L. Key Elements: Paper title, author(s), author affiliation(s), and running head. M. Paper Title: Uppercase and lowercase letters, centered on the page. N. Author(s): Uppercase and lowercase letters, centered on the line following the title. O. Institutional affiliation: Uppercase and lowercase letters, centered on the line following the author(s). P. Running head: The running head is typed flush left (all uppercase) following the words “Running head:” on the line below the manuscript page header. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing.
The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. Q. Example of APA-formatted Title Page: http://www. vanguard. edu/uploadedFiles/psychology/titlepage. pdf III. Abstract: The abstract is a one-paragraph, self-contained summary of the most important elements of the paper. R. Pagination: The abstract begins on a new page (page 2). S. Heading: Abstract (centered on the first line below the manuscript page header) T. Format: The abstract (in block format) begins on the line following the Abstract heading. The abstract should not exceed 120 words.
All numbers in the abstract (except those beginning a sentence) should be typed as digits rather than words. U. Example of APA-formatted Abstract: http://www. vanguard. edu/uploadedFiles/psychology/abstract. pdf IV. Body V. Pagination: The body of the paper begins on a new page (page 3). Subsections of the body of the paper do not begin on new pages. W. Title: The title of the paper (in uppercase and lowercase letters) is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. X. Introduction: The introduction (which is not labeled) begins on the line following the paper title.
Y. Headings: Headings are used to organize the document and reflect the relative importance of sections. For example, many empirical research articles utilize Method, Results, Discussion, and References headings. In turn, the Method section often has subheadings of Participants, Apparatus, and Procedure. For an example of APA-formatted headings, go to http://www. vanguard. edu/uploadedFiles/psychology/headings. pdf 1. Main headings (when the paper has either one or two levels of headings) use centered uppercase and lowercase letters (e. g. , Method, Results, Discussion, nd References). 2. Subheadings (when the paper has two levels of headings) are italicized and use flush left, uppercase and lowercase letters (e. g. , Participants, Apparatus, and Procedure as subsections of the Method section). V. Text citations: Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the author(s) and date(s) of the sources. The underlying principle is that ideas and words of others must be formally acknowledged. The reader can obtain the full source citation from the list of references that follows the body of the paper.
Z. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors. Consider the following example: Wirth and Mitchell (1994) found that although there was a reduction in insulin dosage over a period of two weeks in the treatment condition compared to the control condition, the difference was not statistically significant. [Note: and is used when multiple authors are identified as part of the formal structure of the sentence.
Compare this to the example in the following section. ] [. When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and year of publication appear in parentheses. Consider the following example: Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Gartner, Larson, & Allen, 1991; Koenig, 1990; Levin & Vanderpool, 1991; Maton & Pargament, 1987; Paloma & Pendleton, 1991; Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991). Note: & is used when multiple authors are identified in parenthetical material. Note also that when several sources are cited parenthetically, they are ordered alphabetically by first authors’ surnames and separated by semicolons. ] . When a source that has two authors is cited, both authors are included every time the source is cited. ]. When a source that has three, four, or five authors is cited, all authors are included the first time the source is cited. When that source is cited again, the first author’s surname and “et al. are used. Consider the following example: Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991). Payne et al. (1991) showed that … ^. When a source that has six or more authors is cited, the first author’s surname and “et al. ” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). _. Every effort should be made to cite only sources that you have actually read.
When it is necessary to cite a source that you have not read (“Grayson” in the following example) that is cited in a source that you have read (“Murzynski & Degelman” in the following example), use the following format for the text citation and list only the source you have read in the References list: Grayson (as cited in Murzynski ; Degelman, 1996) identified four components of body language that were related to judgments of vulnerability. `. To cite a personal communication (including letters, emails, and telephone interviews), include initials, surname, and as exact a date as possible.
Because a personal communication is not “recoverable” information, it is not included in the References section. For the text citation, use the following format: B. F. Skinner (personal communication, February 12, 1978) claimed … a. To cite a Web document, use the author-date format. If no author is identified, use the first few words of the title in place of the author. If no date is provided, use “n. d. ” in place of the date. Consider the following examples: Degelman and Harris (2000) provide guidelines for the use of APA writing style.
Changes in Americans’ views of gender status differences have been documented (Gender and Society, n. d. ). b. To cite the Bible, provide the book, chapter, and verse. The first time the Bible is cited in the text, identify the version used. Consider the following example: “You are forgiving and good, O Lord, abounding in love to all who call to you” (Psalm 86:5, New International Version). [Note: No entry in the References list is needed for the Bible. ] VI. Quotations: When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page number as part of the citation. c.
A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence. Example: Patients receiving prayer had “less congestive heart failure, required less diuretic and antibiotic therapy, had fewer episodes of pneumonia, had fewer cardiac arrests, and were less frequently intubated and ventilated” (Byrd, 1988, p. 829). d. A lengthier quotation of 40 or more words should appear (without quotation marks) apart from the surrounding text, in block format, with each line indented five spaces from the left margin.
VII. References: All sources included in the References section must be cited in the body of the paper (and all sources cited in the paper must be included in the References section). e. Pagination: The References section begins on a new page. f. Heading: References (centered on the first line below the manuscript page header) g. Format: The references (with hanging indent) begin on the line following the References heading. Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors. Most reference entries have three components: 3.
Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors. When there are seven or more authors, list the first six and then use “et al. ” for remaining authors. If no author is identified, the title of the document begins the reference. 4. Year of Publication: In parentheses following authors, with a period following the closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identified, use “n. d. ” in parentheses following the authors. 5. Source Reference: Includes title, journal, volume, pages (for journal article) or title, city of publication, publisher (for book).
Italicize titles of books, titles of periodicals, and periodical volume numbers. h. Example of APA-formatted References: Go to http://www. vanguard. edu/uploadedFiles/psychology/references. pdf i. Official APA “Electronic Reference Formats” document: Go to http://www. apastyle. org/elecref. html j. Examples of sources 6. Journal article Murzynski, J. , & Degelman, D. (1996). Body language of women and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1617-1626. 7. Book Paloutzian, R. F. (1996). Invitation to the psychology of religion (2nd ed. ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 8.
Web document on university program or department Web site Degelman, D. , & Harris, M. L. (2000). APA style essentials. Retrieved May 18, 2000, from Vanguard University, Department of Psychology Web site: http://www. vanguard. edu/faculty/ddegelman/index. aspx? doc_id=796 9. Stand-alone Web document (no date) Nielsen, M. E. (n. d. ). Notable people in psychology of religion. Retrieved August 3, 2001, from http://www. psywww. com/psyrelig/psyrelpr. htm 10. Stand-alone Web document (no author, no date) Gender and society. (n. d. ). Retrieved December 3, 2001, from http://www. trinity. edu/~mkearl/gender. html 11.
Journal article from database Hien, D. , & Honeyman, T. (2000). A closer look at the drug abuse-maternal aggression link. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 503-522. Retrieved May 20, 2000, from ProQuest database. 12. Abstract from secondary database Garrity, K. , & Degelman, D. (1990). Effect of server introduction on restaurant tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 168-172. Abstract retrieved July 23, 2001, from PsycINFO database. 13. Journal article, Internet-only journal Bergen, D. (2002, Spring). The role of pretend play in children’s cognitive development. Early Childhood Research ; Practice, 4(1).
Retrieved February 1, 2004, from http://ecrp. uiuc. edu/v4n1/bergen. html 14. Article or chapter in an edited book Shea, J. D. (1992). Religion and sexual adjustment. In J. F. Schumaker (Ed. ), Religion and mental health (pp. 70-84). New York: Oxford University Press. 15. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. , text revision). Washington, DC: Author. VIII. Appendixes: A common use of appendixes is to present unpublished tests or to describe complex equipment or stimulus materials. k.
Pagination: Each Appendix begins on a separate page. l. Heading:If there is only one appendix, Appendix is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. If there is more than one appendix, use Appendix A (or B or C, etc. ). Double-space and type the appendix title (centered in uppercase and lowercase letters). m. Format: Indent the first line 5-7 spaces. n. Example of APA-formatted Appendix: http://www. vanguard. edu/uploadedFiles/psychology/appendix. pdf IX. Footnotes: Content footnotes are occasionally used to support substantive information in the text.. o. Pagination: Footnotes begin on a separate page. . Heading: Footnotes is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. q. Format: Indent the first line of each footnote 5-7 spaces and number the foonotes (slightly above the line) as they are identified in the text. r. Example of APA-formatted Footnotes: http://www. vanguard. edu/uploadedFiles/psychology/footnote. pdf X. Tables: A common use of tables is to present quantitative data or the results of statistical analyses (such as ANOVA). See the Publication Manual (2001, pp. 147-176) for detailed examples. Tables must be referred to in the text. s. Pagination: Each Table begins on a separate page. . Heading:Table 1 (or 2 or 3, etc. ) is typed flush left on the first line below the manuscript page header. Double-space and type the table title flush left (italicized in uppercase and lowercase letters). u. Example of APA-formatted Tables: http://www. vanguard. edu/uploadedFiles/psychology/table2. pdf XI. Figure Captions and Figures: A common use of Figures is to present graphs, photographs, or other illustrations (other than tables). See the Publication Manual (2001, pp. 176-201) for detailed examples. Figure Captions provide, on a single page, captions for the figures that follow. v.
Pagination: The Figure Captions page is the final numbered page of the paper. The Figures that follow the Figure Captions page do NOT have page numbers or manuscript page headers. w. Heading for Figure Captions: Figure Caption(s) is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. Double-space and type Figure 1. (or 2 or 3, etc. ) italicized and flush left, followed by the caption for the figure (not italicized), capitalizing only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns. x. Example of APA-formatted Figure Caption and Figure: http://www. vanguard. edu/uploadedFiles/Faculty/DDegelman/psychfigure. pdf