APES Chapter 10, 12, 16

About 80% of the ocean’s water exists in the
Deep zone
Ocean water is saltiest
where there is high evaporation and low precipitation
Water in the surface zone of the ocean is, for the most part
well mixed
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APES Chapter 10, 12, 16
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of currents
always rapid and powerful
The area that underlies the shallow water bordering continents is called the
continental shelf
The oil protection act of 1990
required that by 2015 all oil tankers in the US be double hulled
what does the term groundfish refer to
various species that live in benthic habits such as haddock and flounder
Sea otters act as keystone species in the
kelp forests
Zooxanthelle are
symbiotic algae that provide coral reefs with energy via their photosynthetic activity
Which of the following is true of eutrophication in marine systems
it can lead to algae blooms that kills fish
Currently, the greatest ecological crisis facing marine systems is
overharvesting
Hpyoxia and euthropication in the Chesapeke Bay may be in part atributed to
harvesting of oysters that previously would have filtered nutrients
A 2003 study reported that ____ % of large bodied fish and sharks were lost in the first decade of industrialized fishing
90
Upwelling
of ocean water results in areas of high primary productivity at the ocean surface
Downwelling
occurs in areas where surface currents converge, or flow towards each other
Bathmtery is best defined as the study of
ocean depths
Hydrothermal vents
provide nutrients to symboiotic bacteria that support ecosystems at the ocean floor
Kelp are
large algae that protect shorelines from erosion, and supply shelter and food for invertebrates and fish
Salt Marshes
occur mostly in temperate areas
It is estimated that ___% of the worlds marine fish populations are fully exploited
50
In 1992, the Canadian government
ordered a complete ban on cod fishing
By-catch
refers to the capture of animals not meant to be caught
Most marine protected areas
are along the coastlines of developed nations
Marine reserves are
‘no take” areas in oceans
Red tides are caused by
nutrient pollution leading in marine algae blooms
_____ will hopefully reduce the among of solid waste garbage in oceans
Marine Debris Research, Prevention and Redirection act
Fire history in an open pine woodland ecosystem would best be determined by
tree ring scars
If forests are strictly managed according to the maximum substainable yield model, some biodiversity would still be lost because
species whose habitat depends on mature trees in the top canopy layer will be excluded
The first national park was
Yellowstone
Which of the following gave the president authority to declare selected public lands as national monuments
The Anitques Act
Land trusts are
private nonprofit groups
the SLOSS dillema involves controversy over
habitat fragmentation and preserve design
Rotation time is
intended use of wood
Research done in Oregon and California suggests that savage logging
decreases long-term timber yield by more than 60%
The program Reading Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degration (REDD)
gives wealthy nations carbon offsts if they pay poorer nations to observe forests
The UN Faos Global forest resources assesment of 2010 concluded that
deforestation has slowed but we still lose forests at the rate of 5.2 million per year
Ecosystem based timber harvesting uses mehtods that
leave seed producing or mature trees uncut to provide for future forests
The National forest managemnt Act _____ national forest land
was passed in 1975 with the intent to ensure multiple use and substainable yield of
The healthy forests restoration Act ___ national forest land
directs timber companies to remove small trees, underbrush, and dead trees to reduce fire threat
Wilderness Areas
are off limits to development of any kind but are open to low impact recreation
Paper parks are
areas protected on paper but not in reality due to lack of funding
Second growth forests are
forests that establish themselves after virgin timber has been removed from an area
Approximatley _____ % of Earths land area is currently covered by forest
30 %
Since the 1990s, ____ have killed an estimated 30 billion conifers in the western United States
bark beetles
Deforestation
has the greatest impacts in tropical areas and arid regions
Why do developing nations impose few or no restrictions on logging
They are desperate for economic development
Clear cutting
removes all trees from an area
Most of the worlds forests are
Boreal forest and rainforest
Which of the following is a consequence of clearing forests for agricultural purposes
soil erosion is increased
The “roadless rule”
prohibits road construction in national forests
“edge effects” are a particular problem when
formerly large habitats are reduced to small fragments
Monoculture
is an agricultural practice of growing large strands of a single species
In Queensland, Australia, a cactus moth
effectivley cleared non-native prickley pear cactus from rangeland
Recombiant DNA
is the merging of Dna from unrelated organisms to create new genetic varities
What is true about GM Crops
The united states leads the world in land area dedicated to GM crops
Raising ______ requires the most land and water
beef cattle
Researchers have demonstrated that organic farming
decreased organic soil losses while giving yields comparable to conventional farming
Bt crops
have been given a bacterial gene that gives chemical protection against pests
Which of the following requires the least ammount of land to produce 1k of protein
Chicken
Oaxaca, Mexico
is a world center of biodiversity for maize
Green revolution techniques
have increased crop yields but may not be substainable
____ % of the food we consume comes from ____ crop species
90;15
Since 1960, pesticide use has risen
fourfold
Which of the following best describes integrated pest managemtn
biocontrol measures, crop rotation, habitat diversification
Relative to agriculture, insects are usually
essential pollinators and predators for substainable systems
Plants with showey flowers typically
are pollinated by animals
Aquaculture
can bring economic benefits and food security to many developing regions
Organic Farming
has increased in the United States, Canada and Europe in recent years
The Cartagena protocol on biosaftey
outlines regulations on international trade of GM foods
Seed banks are important for
protecting genetic diversity
It is more energetically efficent for us to eat more
plant based food
Why did the Indonesian government support IPM for agricultre in 1986
pesticide subsides were costing money, causing pollution, and decreasing yields
In order for livestock to be considered organic
animals must be fed 100% agricultural feed
during the past half century, global food production has ____ world popluation growth
grown at a faster rate than
recent investigations about the impact of Gm crops on biodiversity indicate that
some GM sites had increased biodiversity, while in others it decreased
Normal Boralug, who passed away in 2009, pioneered the development of
high-yield wheat
in japan, the presecne of duks and the aquatic farm Azolla in rice cultivation has shown that
restoring portions of the biodversity of a natural ecosystem increasess crop yields and profits

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