EDUCATIONAL THEORY AND PRACTICE A (ETP 410S) Discuss the impact that technological development in general had on the apprenticeship system from its original form till today. In your deliberations also refer to the apprenticeship system in Namibia. Also explain the advantages and disadvantages of the Apprenticeship system. In the introduction define the term “apprenticeship system”. In your argumentation answer the question above and also deliberate the question whether the replacement of the apprenticeship system with a trainee system can solve the vocational education and training problems of Namibia.
Conclude your question with a summary of the content. THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM 1. Introduction This assignment serves to discuss about the Apprenticeship system, its origin. I will as well deliberate a bit on the events in history which had an impact on the apprenticeship system and compare the ancient apprenticeship system to the modern type of skills transferring. A few disadvantages and advantages will as be looked at, without derailing from the main focus of the assignment, the deliberations will mainly focus on Namibia in general.
Certain aspects of my argumentations will as well look at the changes to the apprenticeship system and how Industrial revolution or technological development had an effect on the apprenticeship system. Lastly the focus will then be directed at the hot question of whether the replacement of the apprenticeship system with the traineeship system will solve the vocational education and training in Namibia. A conclusion will then be made to sum up the whole topic. According to A.
Du Preez (2012: 13) “The word apprentice is from the Latin word apprentia which means learner”. The word system is a process or structure. The Apprenticeship system can be defined as a system training of training a new generation of apprentices of a structured set of skills and apprenticeships which may save as a gate way for one to enter many different careers. Apprenticeship ranged from craft occupations or trades to those seeking a professional license to practice in a regulated profession.
Most of the apprentice’s training was done while working for the employer who in return helps the apprentice to master their trade and profession, in exchange for their continuing labour for a period agreed on in the indenture after they have achieved the required competency (Apprenticeship and traineeship n. d. ). Apprenticeship is a combination of on-the-job training (OJT) and related classroom instruction under the supervision of a journey-level craft person or trade professional in which the workers learn the practical and theoretical aspects of a highly skilled occupation. The history of Apprenticeship n. d. ). 2. Objectives The objectives of this assignment are to: 1. Discuss the historical impact on the apprenticeship system. 2. Discuss the impact that technological development in general had on the Apprenticeship system as from its origin till today. 3. Discuss notable changes to the early apprenticeship system compared to the modern type of apprenticeship. 4. Deliberate on the apprenticeship system in Namibia. 5. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the apprenticeship system. 6.
Lastly, discuss and or deliberate on the question of whether the replacement of the apprenticeship system with a trainee system can solve the vocational education and training problems of Namibia. 7. Conclusion. 3. DELIBERATIONS/ARGUMENTATIONS Impact of historical events on the apprenticeship system Before we look at the impact that technological development had on the apprenticeship system, there is a need to step a bit back into time and look at the origin and historical impact on the apprenticeship system, being the only recognised and structured form of transferring skills from an expect to a learner.
Human lives revolve around skills and knowledge in order to achieve goals, sculpturing, ploughing and creating of tools, are all some of the skills that have been passed from generation to the other through apprenticeship. Although not documented, apprenticeship has been part of human revolution, where parents or masters would subject young men and women to some form of skills learning in order to be able to perform certain tasks.
Many years ago, the manufacturing of shoes, household utensils, boats, crafts, hunting tools, furniture, clothes, house decorations and bread baking were all produced in families and clans by specialised in doing so. As the need for such homemade items grew for commercial purposes, clan and family members with such skills formed organisations herewith known as guilds with responsibilities of protecting and guarding the exploitation of such skills and to avoid impostors from cheating the consumers and discrediting the master craftsmen.
With time the guilds grew more and more powerful, they became the only authority to certify craftsman to practice the trades. Within the protection and guarding of the apprenticeship, the guilds started to set up rules and conditions of the apprenticeship, such as, suitable working conditions for the apprentice, set of wages for an apprentice who has just completed the apprenticeship and the standard of work (A. Du Preez 2012: 13). Unlike in the beginning of time, contracts were now drafted for both the master craftsman and the apprentice to sign before entering into an apprenticeship.
Further readings would state that the contractual agreements signed by the two parties had with them rules and conditions for both parties to undertake. Such rules were: Rules and condition for the master craftsman: * Lodge the apprentice * Clothe the apprentice * Feed the apprentice * Teach the apprentice the art and mysteries of the trade. * Responsible for the apprentice’s morals, religion and civic education. * Teach the apprentice how to read and write. * Monitor the apprentice’s progress on a daily basis. Rules and conditions for the apprentice: * Live and stay with the master craftsman. Work for the master craftsman for a period of time. * Obey and respect the wishes of the craftsman * Will not partake in any other apprenticeship, gambling or visit brothels. * Will only serve one master craftsman. * Would create a final masterpiece for his/her master upon completion of his/her apprenticeship as a proof of level of skills acquired (Apprenticeship n. d. ). Impact of technological development on the apprenticeship system For many centuries apprenticeship was the only kind of education a working class youth could get” while staying and working for his/her master.
The apprenticeship system, which has lasted for hundreds of years since middle age has through time, gradually disappeared in its original form of apprentice and master, with the rise of industrial development. (A. Du Preez, 2012). Apprentices usually at tender ages of ten to fifteen years and would live and be fed in the master craftsman’s home (Apprenticeship n. d. ). Age was never a matter of concern in the ancient times, parents would allow their children to be taken away by master craftsman or would give them away due to poverty or could just not simply afford to send them to school.
No education was ever provided for, for these children hence at such a young age they should have been to or attending schools. With contract signed between the craftsman and the apprentice, the young apprentice was only bound to obey their masters and only live by their masters’ wishes. In keeping up with the new era, certain laws had to be put in place to govern and transform the apprenticeship system. One such law is the Constitution of the republic of Namibia in which certain Articles based on human rights and freedoms are enshrined.
We take a look at three Articles, Article 9 Slavery and forced labour, Article 15 Children’s rights and 20 Education. Article 9 Slavery and forced labour states that, no person shall be subjected to any form of slavery or forced labour. Article 15 Children’s rights, clearly states that no child under the age 16 shall be allowed to work or enter into any form of contractual agreement with an adult and most importantly it states that all children shall be cared for by both parents. Article 20 Education, it states that primary education in Namibia shall be free and compulsory.
This is to stop parents from giving away or sending their children to go and work somewhere at tender age due to poverty or unable to pay education fees. (The Constitution of the Republic of Namibia). This law made it impossible for master craftsmen to practice the ancient apprenticeship system in the developing world as it protects the exploitation of humans and children in particular. Impact of industrial revolution on the apprenticeship system In the early 20s industries and technology expanded and there was a drastic demand for more skilled persons in different fields.
Such demands caused the master craftsman to change the apprenticeship approach, from where the learner was attached to the master for a longer period, to a more competent and demand meeting approach and which was as well changed to a more specific skills approach, a lesser or shorter period being implemented. The training of one learner at a time to acquire a wide range of skills over a long period has become a thing of the past. Masters were forced by the industrial revolution to use the on-the –job type of skills transferring and class rooms where not only one person is subjected to learning but a group of apprentices are taught at once.
Vocational Training Centres were established where skills could be transferred to apprentices by different master craftsmen herewith referred to as instructors. The most notable example to this is the Namibian Police training standard. Police recruits immediately after the colonial era were recruited and trained policing in general without specialisation. Some were recruited on grounds of being ex-combatants or being ex police officers in the South West African Police (SWAPOL).
Some of these members were sent out to countries with better police training institutions for longer periods of time to acquire the much needed policing skills and knowledge e. g. nine months police training in Zambia. The whole idea was seemingly to return experience police officers on which the police grounds could be established. According to A. Du Preez (2012: 17) “the apprenticeship system was seen as a highly beneficial method of proving skilled workforce in those trades that demanded skills and of retaining the knowledge and experience of older workers”.
This was praised as a good idea, however the training period became a concern as Namibian people needed a lot of skilled and educated policemen and women. The advanced ways of how crimes were committed and the introduction of computers, the police was forced to take a new direction to curb the crimes and meet its goal of maintaining of law and order. Decent numbers of men and women were recruited and subjected to a more military-like training by experienced skilled police officials.
Trainings continued with the military-like trainings where more military tactics were being taught, mostly the use of fire-arms and drill formations. The public demanded for more skilled and educated police officials to walk the streets. A new map was the drawn on the training to meet the changing needs. The trainings centres were then revamped to an education friendly environment. A different learning approach was adopted from that of more skills training to a 50/50 practically and theoretically oriented training.
Instead of training being done in fields, classes became the song of training where educated and better qualified police official undertook to train new police recruits with more theory than practice. As time went by, training was then divided into three phases: mainly Basic recruit training for six months, six months probation on the job practices and then a choice of specialisation in any field of choice, be it investigation or traffic policing. With the adoption of technology, a lot of things changed.
The way how skills are currently being transferred compared to the early apprenticeship, the use of computers to give classes, the use of visual and audio materials where the master is never personally in contact with the apprentices, unlike the early form, where the master was on a daily basis present with the apprentice, monitored and guided him/her throughout the entire learning process. Take for example the telecommunication system, in the 19th century, for one to make a call; you have to be connected to an operator who then has to connect you to an operator who then has to connect you to the numbers or number of choice.
These persons working at switch-board were only skilled persons trained by a craftsman which has all changed to the use of computers. The whole process where the operator connects the caller to the next intended receiver changed in the 20th century with the use of computers. The fate of all operators is unknown as their services were no more needed. According to A. Du Preez (2012:24) “Focused training was needed to satisfy the demands of a fast growing industrial environment”. The differences between the ancient and modern apprenticeship system ANCIENT APPRENTICESHIP| MODERN APPRENTICESHIP| . Anyone could sign an indenture with the master craftsman. (A. Du Preez 2012)| 1. Only persons meeting the required entry standards are registered. | 2. Age was never part of the requirements for anyone to undergo apprenticeship by a master craftsman. | 2. Only persons above the age of 16can be admitted as apprentices. | 3. The apprenticeship ran for many years. | 3. It runs on a more manageable period of time. | 4. The skills taught were not specific and were only based mostly on crafts. | 4. Each apprenticeship has its own craftsman with his/her students/learners| 5.
There was a very low output of skilled apprentices. | 5. Since the apprenticeship is done in classrooms, they are a lot of graduates annually. | 6. The apprentice stayed and lived with the master craftsman during the entire apprenticeship process. | 6. The apprentices do not stay with masters, they their own homes. | 7. The apprentice could not engage in any other activity or change the field of study. | 7. The apprentice is likely to engage in other apprentices, depending on personal wishes. | 8. It was only a one- on-one type of skills transferring. 8. The presentations are done by one master to a group of people at once. | 9. After the completion of the apprenticeship, the apprentice was required to make and present a masterpiece to the master craftsman, which would the be presented to the guild, and only after the guild’s approval would the apprentice be certified as a journey’s man and later a craftsman (A. Du Preez 2012: 15)| 9. The final year concentrates more on practices in workshop and on the job trainings after which theoretical and practical examinations are done.
Success in the examination would amount to a Certificate, diploma or degree and higher. | 10. Done at the residence of the master. | 10. Done in classrooms, in industries and in workshops. | This clearly indicates just how much has the apprenticeship system being modernised and transformed to meet the social, economic, industrial and political pressure. The apprenticeship system in Namibia The apprenticeship system in Namibia has in years focused mostly on the psychomotor domain learning approach, other that the cognitive domain as a learning style.
The psychomotor domain is the system being used in the vocational training centres as Namibia is driving towards the direction of competency, efficiency and effectiveness in skills acquiring. For a learner to be able to go and work, one has to firstly complete all vocational requirements and lastly graduate (A. Du Preez 2012:19). We take a look at the police force once again, all police cadet or police recruits would firstly undergo a six months training programme with both theoretical and practical examinations and test being done.
Those who do not excel in shooting practices would be recommended never to carry an official service firearm and as for those who do not make it academically, their fate is in the streets or recommendations for retraining and would remain cadet constable (students) until such time they qualify. Namibia’s development plan of vision 2030 is the driving force behind the current state of the apprenticeship system with the aim of meeting the target of a better and developed nation.
Some Namibian may have used the ancient and colonial form of apprenticeship where a learner was attached to the master for a period of time while acquiring skills, but have changed to a vocational and on the job kind of apprenticeship. The much thought after example to this is the Namibian Police Force, franchise shops and institutions known as vocational training centres. Let us look at the vocational training centres, skills are not passed from professionals or qualified persons in the form of practices only but theory is as well included and that goes for the police trainings.
The use of firearms was taught only at shooting ranges but as of recent years, students have to undergo a theoretical approach to the use of firearms and their understanding is tested through written test and examinations after which they are then exposed to the practical shooting exercises at shooting ranges while under the supervision of instructors. The current situation in Namibia is different to that of the ancient times as apprentices are free, they receive a salary and in most times have homes of their own while undergoing training. According to A.
Du Preez (2012: 21) “Namibian’s training system of training takes place in classrooms as well as in workshops and trainees receive tools to work with. Apart from doing practical wok in workshops trainees also receive individual set of writing exercises which they have to carry out and can only go on the job-attachments once they have mastered the skills”. The above practices shows just how much Namibia is striving to achieve its vision for developed Namibia by 2030 by allowing masters to conduct an on the job trainings and the introduction of vocational training centres where skills are acquired to perform or master certain tasks. Nowadays, apprentices are members of a production force as they train on the job and in the classrooms. They are paid wages, work a regular work week, and live in their own homes rather than that of a master. The apprenticeship agreement set out the work processes in which they are to be trained and the hours and wages for each training period. At the end of their apprenticeship, they receive certificates that are similar to diplomas awarded to the engineering graduates of universities (History of apprenticeship n. d. ).
The above quote/ paragraph is in line with what the police is currently doing, where recruited persons undergo basic police training and are paid a probation salary until the completion of another “6” six month on the job probation. Advantages and Disadvantages of the apprenticeship system Every institution or department, entity or environment has its own ups and downs which in most cases we would refer to as the advantages and disadvantages; we will now take a look at some of the advantages and disadvantages of the apprenticeship system. The lack of job or employment opportunities in Namibia currently, has forced a lot of young women and men to seek for employment forth education in a sense of firstly securing a job and then study and without knowing, they enter into apprenticeship systems rather than the educational process. The choice of firstly seeking or getting employed and then study has its own greener grounds and its down falls, this is evident in the Namibian police, when young men and women would prefer to be recruited, get trained and then pursue a career in either policing or other police related fields. Looking at some of the advantages and disadvantages, it will then be a sole choice of an apprentice to decide the direction of learning. Advantages of the apprenticeship system * Acquire skills and knowledge about your career before registering for educational qualification. * You get paid or an apprentice gets paid a salary while learning and under-supervision. * Working or work experience gives an apprentice the courage to take on any task. * Apprenticeship helps an apprentice to gain more knowledge, experience and skills which may be of advantage in or when enrolling for at a tertiary institution. With apprenticeship, less books or studying is at own will as all skills and knowledge are obtained through practice and guidance by or from experience supervisors. * The “master” or leader gets to monitor, guide and correct his/her apprentice through practice as the saying goes “Practice makes Perfect”. * Police officers get recruited and as soon as they are appointed as cadet constables, they start to receive a cadet constable‘s salary or while awaiting to undergo a six month basic training, they are paid a student’s salary (career information & E-Recruitment n. . ). * . Disadvantages of the apprenticeship system * Unlike a university graduate recruit an unqualified recruit gains a lesser salary compared to that of a university graduate recruit. * Sometimes having to work before obtaining a university qualification may cause an apprentice to be lazy to study and obtain such need qualification. * With the revolution of technology, the chances of an apprentice without any tertiary qualification of being retrenched to make way for qualified and certified persons are very high. It may take long for an apprentice to get promoted at work than a university graduate. * An apprentice may in some cases not be able to learn all about the choice of career through practice but tertiary education may be likely cover all aspects. * Persons with tertiary qualifications are likely start at command or senior position to that of an apprentice. * When opting to study, distance learning may be a bit difficult than having to do full time (career information & E-Recruitment n. d. ).
The apprenticeship system may in other words being referred to as a backlog for young persons, as it is a very long route to obtain tertiary qualification. Replacement of the Apprenticeship system with the Trainee-Based system What are apprenticeships and traineeship; Apprenticeships and traineeships combine paid work and structured training. They allow you to learn a trade or workplace skill and receive a nationally accredited qualification. apprenticeships and traineeships can both be undertaken either full-time or part-time (The traineeship). What’s the difference between an apprentice and a trainee?
There is a very thin line of difference between the two; however there are two main differences between an apprentice and a trainee. An apprentice is trained in a skilled trade and upon successful completion will become a qualified tradesperson. Trades such as electrical, plumbing, cabinet-making and automotive mechanics are just a few that are a part of the apprenticeship scheme. A trainee is someone who is being trained in a vocational area. These vocational areas include, but are not limited to, office administration, information technology and hospitality.
Upon completion of a traineeship you will be eligible to receive a minimum of a certificate II in your chosen vocational area (ApprenticeshipInfo n. d. ). Many people have been fooled into believing that apprenticeships are only about plumbing, mechanics, tailoring or building. There are a lot of apprenticeships out there; it all depends to the choice of an apprentice on what he/she is comfortable with. When the traineeship system was introduced in 1985, it shared many features with the apprenticeship system on which it was based.
Over the years, institutional scopes have reduced some of the differences although traineeship system trainees have not benefited from the strong behavioural norms that have governed the apprenticeship training (Grey et al 1999). Why choose an apprenticeship or traineeship? An apprenticeship or traineeship can enable you to: * Gain valuable work experience * Get paid while you learn * Learn the latest knowledge and skills * Get a qualification that’s recognized across Namibia. Apprentices and trainees complete a qualification while learning skills at work and under the guidance of a training organisation (ApprenticeshipInfo n. . ). When the traineeship system was firstly introduced in the mid eighties, it was introduced with a variety range of characteristics of the apprenticeship system, with the expansion of technology; most of the characteristics which the traineeship system shared with the apprenticeship system were and have been reduced. Therefore, the features that underpin the completion of the traineeship are essentially the same as for an apprenticeship, but their effects are weaker. Traineeship have not benefited from the strong behavioural norms that have governed the apprenticeship training (Grey et al. 999). Many occupations and industries in which traineeships are used have a tradition of a weak attachment between the employer and the employee. The unstructured nature of labour markets means that the gain to a trainee completing is small, and the lower cost to the employers means that they are less concerned recovering this cost from the trainees. However the whole traineeship completion rate changed in the midi-nineties where the system became more popular and more significant, the low completion rate became more visible (NCVER 2005).
Apprenticeships and traineeships are available in a diverse range of industries and across a vast variety of occupation groups. Traineeships and apprenticeships also allow for the training to be done on a full time or part time basis and can vary in their duration. In addition although most trainees and apprentices are engaged in a single contract with one specific employer or the vocation they are training in and so may effectively enter into more than one training contract prior to completing an apprenticeship or traineeship (NCVER 2001).
The successful completion of a traineeship or an apprenticeship requires the achievement of three specific tasks as listed below: * Completion of formal off job requirements of the traineeship or apprenticeship, including completion of the qualification specified in the training contract. * Completion of the indenture period of the contract of training, in addition to satisfying the employer endorsed on the job requirements. Once the above requirements have been met, notification of the successful completion of the training contract by the trainee or apprentice, along with provision of required evidence substantiating the successful completion of the traineeship or apprenticeship must be provided to the relevant training authority. High rates of non completion amongst apprentices has been recognised as being costly for employers who invest significant time and resources into offering such training opportunities but may receive little or no return for their efforts (WADOT 1998).
An apprenticeship or traineeship is a formal contract between an employer and an apprentice or trainee to undertake vocational education and training under the supervision of the employer or trainer. Traineeships and apprenticeships are offered to a variety of workers including those falling into one of the following groups: i) New entrants to the labour market ii) Re-entrants into the labour market iii) Existing workers who are looking to upgrade their skills with a specific employer.
Looking at the above findings, it all comes to one ending, industries are resorting more and more to the traineeship system as it is cheaper and affordable, there are contractual bindings with the trainee and they do not lose a lot in the whole training process. Although the traineeship system appears to be an advantage for the industries, it has however been regarded as a way for companies to score cheap labour without decent consideration of the workers’ needs. The bonus for the trainees is that they do not get to be counted as unemployed, even though they are living on near poverty wages (Google Groups Traineeship are a scam).
Apprenticeships and traineeships are available in a diverse range of industries and across a vast variety of occupational groups. Traineeships and apprenticeships also allow for training to be done on a full time or part time basis and can vary in their duration. In addition although most trainees and apprentices are engaged in a single training contract with a specific employer, some may change employer or the vocation they are training in and so may effectively enter into more than one training contract prior to completing an apprenticeship or traineeship (NCVER 2001). Facts about apprenticeships and traineeships: apprenticeships and traineeships combine work with structured training * traineeships vary in length from 12 months to three years * apprenticeships can take up to four years to complete but many apprenticeships can now be completed more quickly than the traditional four years * apprenticeships and traineeships can be full-time, part-time, or school-based – where some of the training is undertaken while the apprentice or trainee is in high school * existing employees may undertake an apprenticeship or traineeship * apprenticeships and traineeships require employers to enter into a training contract with the apprentice or trainee * Employers work with a training organization and the apprentice or trainee to draw up the training plan (ApprenticeshipInfo n. d. ). Training can be delivered using one or more of the following options: * In an appropriate environment, such as an employer’s premises. * Using flexible delivery methods, such as video link, teleconference, correspondence, work books, online self-paced learning, or an internet classroom link, where training is delivered by the training organization * In the workplace, where training is delivered by the employer (ApprenticeshipInfo n. d. Where can an apprenticeship or traineeship take you? On completion of an apprenticeship or traineeship you will have learnt new skills and gained experience and confidence working in a real job. This puts you in a great place to keep working, to go on to further study or even start your own business (ApprenticeshipInfo n. d. ). The afore-stated argument, if looked at the current direction at which the world is aimed and the use of technology and how much industries requires specialisation in fields and more critical on theoretical knowledge when planning and achieve, the replacement of the apprenticeship system will not solve the vocational education in Namibia.
A trainee graduates with a lower or unrecognized qualification whereas an apprentice graduates and qualifies in his/her field. It would therefore be wise and advisable that the two systems run side by side, where the traineeship prepares trainees for the apprenticeship system. The NYS (national youth service) under the Ministry of Youth runs a traineeship programme, where young men and women from all walks of life undergo a training programme and upon completion they get integrated into apprenticeships. A person who does t he apprenticeship is according to the findings, guaranteed a job unlike the one who goes through the traineedhip. Conclusion The deliberations in the assignment looked at main topic of the apprenticeship system.
The apprenticeship system was an early form of education or transfer of skills from a craftsman to an apprentice or a learner in a number of years, however hence the early apprenticeship system was a one-on-one training, these whole system started to change from a one-on-one transfer of skills to one-on-many form of education and the duration minimised to a more shorter time frame due to industrial revolution and technology. The apprenticeship system has entirely changed from its original form due to historical events and industrial revolution. In the deliberations, an emphasis was made on the advantages and disadvantages of the apprenticeship system.
The other part of the assignment took a focus on the apprenticeship system in Namibia in particular The recruitment of police officers changed from skill training to a 50-50 theory and skills training due to an industrial demand for more educated law enforcement officers. Although Namibia still practices the apprenticeship system, compared to the early apprenticeship system, trainees are not entirely attached to their masters and, they are paid a salary based o the type of work performed. Current apprentices are being trained on job. The point of concern was the question asked, will the replacement of the apprenticeship system with the traineeship system solve the vocational education and training problem in Namibia.
For Namibia to remain competitive to other nations the introduction of the trainee system to replace the apprenticeship system will just diminish the values of the vocational training institutions as they will be forced to enrol unqualified trainees upon the completion of the traineeship. A suggestion is then made that the apprenticeship and the traineeship system runs together as there is a thin line of difference between the two systems. References: * A. Du Preez (2012). Educational Theory and Practice A. Unit 1: 1-26 Published by centre of open and life-long learning, Windhoek, Namibia. * History of apprenticeship (n. d). Retrieved on 14 February 2013 from * http://. Ini. wa. gov/TradesLicensing/Apprenticeship/About/History/default. sp * Advantages and disadvantages of apprenticeship system. (n. d. ) Retrieved on 14 February 2013 from http://www. allaboutcareers. com/careers-advice/apprenticeship/advantages-of-apprenticeship * Traineeship. (n. d. ) Retrieved on 26 February 2013 from http://www. bbc. co. uk/news/education-20961113 * Apprenticeship and traineeship. (n. d. ) Retrieved on 27 February 2013 from http://www. bafensw. edu. au/courses/types/apptrain. htm * Apprenticeship and traineeship. (n. d. ) Retrieved on 27 February 2013 from http;//www. apprenticeshipsInfo. gld. gov. au/apprentices/index. html * Apprenticeship (n. d. ) Retrieved on 27 February 2013 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Apprenticeship