The European explorers who followed Columbus to North America continued to view themselves as
The colonists who ultimately embraced the vision of America as an independent nation had in common all of the following characteristics
a. The desire to create an agricultural society.
b. Learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of royal authority.
c. Learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of official religion.
d. Learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of social hierarchies.
The ideals that the colonists cherished as synonymous with American life included reverence for all of the following
a. Individual liberty.
c. Religious tolerance.
d. Economic opportunity.
By the 1770s, trade restrictions helped bring about
a crisis of imperial authority
The existence of a single original continent has been proved by
the presence of the discovery of nearly identical species of fish in long-separated freshwater lakes of various continents.
The Appalachian mountain range was probably created before the continental separation approximately
350 million years ago
The Great Ice Age accounted for the origins of North America’s human history because
it exposed a land bridge connecting Eurasia with North America.
Most likely the first Americans were people who
crossed the land bridge from Eurasia to North America
In 1492, when Europeans arrived in the Americas, the total of the two continents’ populations was
Some of the more advanced Native American cultures did all of the following
a. Establish large, bustling cities.
b. Make strikingly accurate astronomical observations.
c. Study mathematics.
d. Carry on commerce.
The size and sophistication of Native American civilizations in Mexico and South America can be attributed to
the development of agriculture
All of the following are true of the Inca, Mayan, and Aztec civilizations
a. They had advanced agricultural practices based primarily on the cultivation of maize.
b. They lacked the technology of the wheel.
c. They built elaborate cities and carried on far-flung commerce.
d. They had talented mathematicians, which allowed them to make accurate astronomical observations.
The crop that became the staple of life in Mexico and South America was
Native American (Indian) civilization was least highly developed in
One of the main factors that enabled Europeans to conquer native North Americans with relative ease was
the absence of dense concentrations of population or complex nation-states in North America.
At the time of the European colonization of North America the number of Indian tribes was estimated at
The development of “three sister” farming on the southeast Atlantic seaboard produced
a rich diet that led to high population densities
Before the arrival of Columbus, most native peoples in North America lived in
small, scattered, and impermanent settlements
The Iroquois Confederacy was able to menace its Native American and European neighbors because of its
military alliance, sustained by political and organizational skills
All of the following were original territories of North American Indian populations within the current borders of the United States
c. Great Plains.
d. Great Basin.
Men in the more settled agricultural groups in North America performed all of the following tasks
b. Gathering fuel.
c. Clearing fields for planting.
The early voyages of the Scandinavian seafarers did not result in permanent settlement in North America because
no nation-state yearning to expand supported these ventures
The Christian crusaders were indirectly responsible for the discovery of America because
they brought back news of valuable Far Eastern spices, drugs, and silk
Europeans wanted to discover a new, shorter route to eastern Asia in order to
a. Break the hold that Muslim merchants had on trade with Asia.
b. Reduce the price of goods from Asia.
c. Gain more profits for themselves.
d. Reduce the time it took to transport goods
Before the middle of the fifteenth century, sub-Saharan Africa had remained remost and mysterious to Europeans because
sea travel down the African coast had been virtually impossible
The Arabs and Africans were responsible for slaving trading in Africa
long before the Europeans had arrived
some forty thousand Africans were forced into slavery by Portugal and Spain to work on plantations on the Atlantic sugar islands
In the last half of the fifteenth century
The origins of the modern plantation system can be found in
the Portuguese slave trade
Spain was united into a single nation-state when
the African Moors were expelled from the Iberian Peninsula
The stage was set for a cataclysmic shift in the course of history when
a. Europeans clamored for more and cheaper products from Asia.
b. Africa was established as a source of slave labor.
c. The Portuguese demonstrated the feasibility of long range ocean navigation.
d. The Renaissance nurtured a spirit of optimism and adventure
In an effort to reach the Indies, Spain looked
westward because Portugal controlled the African coast
After his first voyage, Christopher Columbus believed that he had sailed to
the outskirts of the East Indies
Columbus called the native people in the “New World” Indians because
he believed that he had skirted the rim of the “Indies.”
All of the following contributed to the emergence of a new interdependent global economic system
a. Europe providing the market and capital.
b. Africa providing the labor.
c. New World providing its raw materials.
d. The advancement and improvement of technology
Know the following New World plants that revolutionized the international economy
The introduction of American plants around the world resulted in
rapid population growth in Europe
European contact with Native Americans led to
the deaths of millions of Native Americans, who had little resistance to European diseases
Within a century after Columbus’s landfall in the New World, the Native American population was reduced by
nearly 90 percent
European explorers introduced __________ into the New World
The flood of precious metal from the New World to Europe resulted in
the growth of capitalism
The institution of encomienda allowed the European governments to
give Indians to colonists if they promised to Christianize them
Men became conquistadores because they wanted to
a. Gain God’s favor by spreading Christianity.
b. Escape dubious pasts.
c. Seek adventure, as the heroes of classical antiquity had done.
d. Satisfy their desire for gold.
The Aztec chief Moctezuma allowed Cortes to enter the capital of Tenochtitlan because
Montezuma believed that Cortes was the god Quetzalcoatl.
Know the following explorers to the area they explored
a. Coronado-New Mexico and Arizona
d. Columbus-Caribbean islands
Spain began to fortify and settle its North American border lands in order to
protect its Central and South American domains from encroachments by England and France
As a result of Pope’s Rebellion in 1680, the Pueblo Indians
destroyed every Catholic Church in the province of New Mexico
The treatment of the Native Americans by the Spanish conquistadores can be described as
at times brutal and exploitative
Role/impact of corn
-the Incas and Aztecs based their practices on the cultivation of corn, which fed large populations, as many as 20 million in Mexico alone. Corn growing accounted for the size and sophistication of the Native American civilizations in Mexico and South America.
– about 5000 BC is when corn was developed.
-corn began to transform nomadic hunting bands into settled agricultural villagers`
-essentially people who live in villages, they were dwelling in villages of multistoried, terraced buildings when Spanish explorers made contact with them
– The Pueblo peoples in the Rio Grande valley constructed intricate irrigation systems to water their cornfields because corn planting influenced their culture so much.
-agricultural system employed by North American Indians as early as 1000 AD; maize, beans, and squash were grown together to maximize yields.
-This process helped retain moisture in the soil. The rich diet provided by this environmentally clever farming technique produced some of the highest population densities on the continent, among them the Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee peoples
-The Iroquois in the northeastern woodlands who were inspired by a legendary leader named Hiawatha. The Confederacy developed the political and organizational skills to sustain a robust military alliance that menaced its neighbors.
-a small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails, they were ships that could more closely into the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the Western shores to Africa.
– about 1450 was when the Portuguese mariners developed the caravel.
-large scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crops and usually employing slave labor.
– Plantations were established in Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and the American South.
– this kind of plantation economy would shape the destiny of much of the New World
-edging cautiously down the African coast, he rounded the southernmost tip of the “Dark Continent” in 1488.
Vasco de Gama
-In 1498, he finally reached India and returned home with a small but tantalizing cargo of jewels and spices
– a skilled Italian seafarer who persuaded the Spanish monarchs to outfit him with three tiny but seaworthy ships, manned by a motley crew. (1451-1506)
– He is famous for discovering America on October 12, 1492. His sensational achievement obscures the fact that he was one of the most successful failures in history. Seeking a new water route to the fables Indies, he in fact bumped into an enormous land barrier blocking the ocean pathway.
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
-two sovereigns married who united the kingdom of Spain.
– the outstripped their Portuguese rivals in the race to tap the wealth of the Indies.
-the transfer of goods, crops, and diseases between New and Old World societies after 1492.
-it introduced Old World crops and animals to the Americas
Treaty of Tordesillas
-when Spain secured its claim to Columbus’s discovery, dividing with Portugal the “heathen lands” of the New World. Spain received the bulk of the territory in the Americas, compensating Portugal with titles to lands in Africa and Asia.
-happened in 1494
-Sixteenth century Spaniard who fanned out across the Americas, from Colorado to Argentina, eventually conquering the Aztec and Incan empires.
-between 1519 and 1540 is when the conquistadores swept through America.
– they achieved a kind of immortality though.
Vasco Nunez Balboa
-a Spanish Conquistador who was hailed as the discoverer of the Pacific Ocean, waded into the foaming waves off Panama in 1513 and boldly claimed for his king all the lands washed by that sea.
-another Spanish explorer who started from Spain in 1519 with five tiny ships
– He was famous for his one remaining vessel creaked home in 1522, completing the first circumnaviagation of the globe.
Juan Ponce de Leon
-another ambitious Spaniard who ventured into North America.
-In 1513 and 1521, he was famous for exploring Florida, which at first he thought was an island. He was seeking for gold, but instead found the “fountain of youth”
-another ambitious Spaniard who in 1540-1542 wandered with a clanking cavalcade through Arizona and New Mexico in quest of fabled golden cities that turned out to be adobe pueblos.
– He is famous for discovering two awesome natural wonders, the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River and enormous herds of buffalo (bison).
Hernando de Soto
-with six hundred armor-plated men, undertook a fantastic gold seeking expedition during 1539-1542. He discovered and crossed the majestic Mississippi River just north of its junction with the Arkansas River. After brutally mistreating the Indians with iron collars and fierce dogs, he at length died of fever and wounds.
-the ironfisted conqueror who crushed the Incas of Peru in 1532 and added a huge hoard of booty to Spanish coffers.
-Spanish government’s policy to “commend” or give the Indians to certain colinists in return for the promise to Christianize them. Part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on North American mainland.
Bartolome de Las Casas
-the Spanish missionary and a reform-minded Dominican friar who was appalled at the encomienda system in Hispaniola , called it a “moral pestilence invented by Satan.”
– He wrote the Destruction of the Indies in 1542 to chronicle the awful fate of the Native Americans and to protest Spanish policies to the New World. He was especially horrified at the catastrophic effects of disease on the native peoples. He said
“Who of those in future centuries will believe this? I myself who am writing this and saw it and know the most about it can hardly believe that such was possible.”
-in 1519 he set sail from Cuba with sixteen fresh horses and several hundred men aboard eleven ships, bound for Mexico and for destiny. He rescued a Spanish castaway who had been enslaved for several years by the Mayan-speaking Indians
– the Aztec Chiefman who sent ambassadors bearing fabulous gifts to welcome the approaching Spaniards. He believed that Cortes was the god Quetzalcoatl, whose return from the eastern sea was predicted in Aztec legends. He allowed the conquistadores to approach his capital unopposed.
-people of mixed Indian and European heritage, notably in Mexico, it became a culture of living.
Giovanni Cobato (John Cabot)
-the French king that explored the northwestern coast of North America in 1497 and 1498
Giovanni de Verrazano
-an Italian mariner who was dispatched by the French king to probe the eastern seaboard in 1524
-the Frenchman who journeyed hundreds of miles up the St. Lawrence River
Don Juan de Onate
-led the Spaniards to cruelly abuse the Pueblo peoples they encountered in 1598
Battle of Acoma
-In 1599, the Spanish severed one foot of each survivor. They proclaimed the area to be the province of New Mexico in 1609 and founded its capital at Sante Fe the following year.
-Pueblo Indian rebellion which drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico in 1680. the Pueblo rebels destroyed every Catholic church in the province and killed a score or priests and hundreds of Spanish settlers.
Robert de La Salle
-down the Mississippi River, he held an expedition that the French had sent in the 1680s.
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo
-explored the California coast in 1542, but he failed to find San Francisco bay or anything else of much interest
– a priest who led the Spanish missionaries in 1769 founded at San Diego the first of a chain of twenty-one missions that wound up the coast as far as Sonoma, north of San Francisco Bay.
-His Franciscan friars toiled with zealous devotion to Christianize the three hundred thousand native Californians
-the misdeeds of the Spanish in the New World obscured their substantial achievements and helped give birth to the Black Legend. It was a false oncept held that the conquerors merely tortured and butchered the Indians, stole there gold, infected them with smallpox, and left little but misery behind.
Pre-Colombian people did/did not invent wheeled vehicles.
What was the most important and powerful native American political alliance?
What role did European diseases play in the Spanish conquest?
They made takeover easier by killing off a bunch of hostile Indians.
What does the Colombian exchange refer to?
The exchange of plants and animals between Europe and the New World
Why did the Pueblo drive the Spaniards out of New Mexico for a time?
Because the Spanish exploited the Indians. Forced labor.
Which of the following describes Pre-Colombian Americans?
A. Domesticated corn,tomatoes, and potatoes
B. Created a mathematically based calendar
C. Constructed irrigation systems
D. Built Multi-family dwellings
E. Lived in cities inhabited by 100,000 or more people
F. Practiced a division of labor based upon gender
G. All of the above
All of the above
Which of the following does NOT describe Pre-colombian americans?
A. Developed wheeled vehicles
B. Developed water wheels
C. Had a tradition of private property rights
D. All of the above
All of the above
How did the Eastern Woodland tribes live (i.e. dwelling arrangement), and what was their primary form of sustenance?
Village communities; corn
By banding together into the ‘Iroquois Confederacy’, what ceased?
Generations of tribal warfare.
Who were the people who built pueblos?
The Anasazis, an agricultural, sedentary people.
What did Christopher Columbus hope to do?
Find a new trade route to Asia.
What did Mr. Columbus do, in actuality?
Find a New World and set the pattern for future Spanish explorers. Columbus was ethnocentric. He wanted to ‘christianize’ the indigenous peoples of the New world, exploit their labor, and teach them to speak Spanish.
Hernan Cortes conquered the ______.
Francisco Pizarro; the ______.
Cortes and Pizarro overthrew ______ governments.
What enabled the conquistadores to, well, conquiste (I mean conquer) the Indians?
Advanced weapons, horses, ruthless tactics, and diseases.
After the Aztec empire collapsed, what was the region named?
New Spain (obviously)
What were the Spanish objectives in New Spain?
-enriching their national treasury
-enhancing Spanish prestige
-Getting precious metals
Did the Spanish discover and mine deposits of gold and silver in the New World?
Who began the columbian exchange?
Give an example of the columbian exchange.
The Spanish first introduced horses and gunpowder to the New World. The New World introduced crops like corn, potatoes, and tomatoes.
What was the ‘encomienda’ system?
The system of Spanish rule over the Indians–and fellow spaniards. Spanish ruler were autocratic monarchs determined to maintain tight personal control over their American possessions (including slaves). This practice exploited the Indians.
What did Bartolome de Las Casas say about the encomienda system?
He said it was “a moral pestilence invented by Satan.”
Were missionaries sent from Spain to the New World?
yes, Catholic ones.
Why did the people of New Spain demonstrate more tolerance than the English colonies of racial differences?
Because of the frequency of intermarriage between the colonists and natives.
By the middle of the 16th century, what had the Spanish accomplished?
They had built flourishing cities and towns and totally dominated millions of Native Americans. They had built universities in Mexico City and Peru (far before the English did).
Who were the first to colonize Florida?
How did the Spaniards use religion as a tool in the southwest (america)?
They used religion as a tool to exercise colonial control of the Indians.
What were the Pueblos forced to do by the Spanish?
Pay tribute, work on encomiendas, and convert to Christianity.
What was the Pueblo Revolt and what did it do?
It was a widespread rebellion, lead by Popé, of the Indians against the Spanish.
It killed over 400 Spanish and destroyed all the churches. It drove the Spanish out of the American Southwest.
When did the Spanish re-conquer the Pueblos, and what did they do differently?
In 1692; they worked to create a mixed Indian and Spanish culture in order to keep the Indians in line.
• 1. The European explorers who followed Columbus to North America
• A) intended to found a new nation.
• B) continued to view themselves as Europeans.
• C) did not consider America as the western rim of the European world.
• D) no longer saw themselves as subjects of European kings.
• E) saw little difference in their lives in America and their lives in Europe.
• 2. The colonists who ultimately embraced the vision of America as an independent nation had in common all of the following characteristics except
• A) the desire to create an agricultural society.
• B) learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of royal authority.
• C) learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of official religion.
• D) an unwillingness to subjugate others.
• E) learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of social hierarchies.
• 3. The ideals that the colonists cherished as synonymous with American life included reverence for all of the following except
• A) individual liberty.
• B) self-government.
• C) opposition to slavery.
• D) religious tolerance.
• E) economic opportunity.
• 4. By the 1770s which of the following issues helped bring about a crisis of imperial authority?
• A) trade restrictions
• B) slavery
• C) few colonists clung to any hope of accommodation with Great Britain
• D) the coronation of a new king
• E) the rise to power of radical patriots in the American colonies
• 5. The existence of a single original continent has been proved by the presence of
• A) similar mountain ranges on the various continents.
• B) the discovery of nearly identical species of fish in long-separated freshwater lakes of various continents.
• C) the discovery of marsupials on the various continents.
• D) the continued shifting of the earth’s crust.
• E) all of the above.
• 6. Which of the following mountain ranges was probably created before the continental separation approximately 350 million years ago?
• A) the Rockies
• B) the Sierra Nevada
• C) the Cascades
• D) the Coast Range
• E) the Appalachians
• 7. Which of the following was not a feature created in North America ten thousand years ago when the glaciers retreated?
• A) the Great Lakes
• B) the Great Salt Lake
• C) a mineral-rich desert
• D) thousands of shallow depressions which formed lakes
• E) the Grand Canyon
• 8. The Great Ice Age accounted for the origins of North America’s human history because
• A) it exposed a land bridge connecting Eurasia with North America.
• B) the glacial withdrawal allowed migration from South America.
• C) the glacial withdrawal formed freshwater lakes that supported life.
• D) when it ended European migration to the west became possible.
• E) it prevented the migration of dangerous animals from the Bering isthmus.
• 9. Most likely the first Americans were
• A) Vikings from Scandinavia.
• B) Spanish explorers of the fifteenth century.
• C) people who crossed the land bridge from Eurasia to North America.
• D) Portuguese sailors of Prince Henry the Navigator.
• E) refugees from Africa.
• 10. In 1492, when Europeans arrived in the Americas, the total of the two continents’ populations was perhaps
• A) 20 million.
• B) 54 million.
• C) 50 million.
• D) 4 million.
• E) 200 million.
• 11. Some of the more advanced Native American cultures did all of the following except
• A) engage in significant ocean voyages of discovery.
• B) establish large, bustling cities.
• C) make strikingly accurate astronomical observations.
• D) study mathematics.
• E) carry on commerce.
• 12. The size and sophistication of Native American civilizations in Mexico and South America can be attributed to
• A) Spanish influences.
• B) their way of life based on hunting and gathering.
• C) the development of agriculture.
• D) influences brought by early settlers from Siberia.
• E) their use of draft animals and the wheel.
• 13. All of the following are true of the Inca, Mayan, and Aztec civilizations except
• A) they had advanced agricultural practices based primarily on the cultivation of maize.
• B) they lacked the technology of the wheel.
• C) they had the use of large draft animals such as the horse and oxen.
• D) they built elaborate cities and carried on far-flung commerce.
• E) they had talented mathematicians, which allowed them to make accurate astronomical observations.
• 14. The crop that became the staple of life in Mexico and South America was
• A) wheat.
• B) potatoes.
• C) tobacco.
• D) corn.
• E) beans.
• 15. Native American (Indian) civilization was least highly developed in
• A) North America.
• B) Mexico.
• C) Central America.
• D) Peru.
• E) Latin America.
• 16. One of the main factors that enabled Europeans to conquer native North Americans with relative ease was
• A) the pacifistic nature of the native North Americans.
• B) the settled agricultural societies of North America.
• C) the absence of dense concentrations of population or complex nation-states in North America.
• D) the use of native guides.
• E) all of the above.
• 17. At the time of the European colonization of North America the number of Indian tribes was estimated at approximately
• A) 100.
• B) 500.
• C) 1,000.
• D) 50.
• E) 200.
• 18. The development of “three sister” farming on the southeast Atlantic seaboard
• A) led to the dominance of the potato.
• B) enabled the Anasazis to prosper.
• C) ultimately failed to produce adequate amounts of food.
• D) was attributed to three young women of the Cherokee peoples.
• E) produced a rich diet that led to high population densities.
• 19. Before the arrival of Columbus, most native peoples in North America
• A) lived in large communities.
• B) were more advanced than those in South America.
• C) lived in small, scattered, and impermanent settlements.
• D) populated the greater part of the continent.
• E) relied on horses for transportation.
• 20. The Iroquois Confederacy was able to menace its Native American and European neighbors because of
• A) its military alliance, sustained by political and organizational skills.
• B) the Iroquois warriors’ skill with the Europeans’ muskets.
• C) the scattered nature of the Iroquois settlements, which made it difficult for their enemies to defeat them.
• D) the alliance with the Aztecs and Incas.
• E) its use of new weapons.
• 21. All of the following were original territories of North American Indian populations within the current borders of the United States except
• A) Mesoamerica.
• B) Northeast.
• C) Southeast.
• D) Great Plains.
• E) Great Basin.
• 22. Men in the more settled agricultural groups in North America performed all of the following tasks except
• A) hunting.
• B) gathering fuel.
• C) tending crops.
• D) clearing fields for planting.
• E) fishing.
• 23. The early voyages of the Scandinavian seafarers did not result in permanent settlement in North America because
• A) the Native Americans drove them out.
• B) the area in which they landed could not support a large population.
• C) no nation-state yearning to expand supported these ventures.
• D) British adventurers defeated the Scandinavians in 1066.
• E) the settlers died of disease.
• 24. The Christian crusaders were indirectly responsible for the discovery of America because they
• A) were victorious over the Muslims.
• B) brought back news of valuable Far Eastern spices, drugs, and silk.
• C) succeeded in establishing improved business relations between Muslims and Christians.
• D) returned with captured Muslim maps showing the North and South American continents.
• E) developed better navigational devices.
• 25. Europeans wanted to discover a new, shorter route to eastern Asia in order to
• A) break the hold that Muslim merchants had on trade with Asia.
• B) reduce the price of goods from Asia.
• C) gain more profits for themselves.
• D) reduce the time it took to transport goods.
• E) all of the above.
• 26. Before the middle of the fifteenth century, sub-Saharan Africa had remained remote and mysterious to Europeans because
• A) there was little of value there for them.
• B) sea travel down the African coast had been virtually impossible.
• C) Islamic societies prevented Europe from making inroads there.
• D) they did not know that it existed.
• E) they feared the people who lived there.
• 27. Which group was responsible for slave trading in Africa long before the Europeans had arrived
• A) the Portuguese and Spanish.
• B) the English and Scandinavians.
• C) the Incas and Aztecs.
• D) the Arabs and Africans.
• E) the English and Americans.
• 28. In the last half of the fifteenth century some forty thousand Africans were forced into slavery by Portugal and Spain to
• A) work on plantations in Africa.
• B) establish plantations in North America.
• C) establish plantations in South America.
• D) help pay for the gold they took.
• E) work on plantations on the Atlantic sugar islands.
• 29. The origins of the modern plantation system can be found in the
• A) American South.
• B) Arab slave trade.
• C) Portuguese slave trade.
• D) European feudal system.
• E) African slave system.
• 30. Spain was united into a single nation-state when
• A) it was invaded by Portugal in the late fifteenth century.
• B) Christopher Columbus returned with news of his discovery of the New World.
• C) Prince Henry the Navigator came to the throne.
• D) the African Moors were expelled from the Iberian Peninsula.
• E) Ferdinand and Isabella were overthrown.
• 31. The stage was set for a cataclysmic shift in the course of history when
• A) Europeans clamored for more and cheaper products from Asia.
• B) Africa was established as a source of slave labor.
• C) the Portuguese demonstrated the feasibility of long range ocean navigation.
• D) the Renaissance nurtured a spirit of optimism and adventure.
• E) all of the above.
• 32. In an effort to reach the Indies, Spain looked westward because
• A) Portugal controlled the African coast.
• B) the Pope granted Spain the right to sail this route.
• C) Muslims blocked the sea route.
• D) the Moors had convinced them to do so.
• E) all of the above.
• 33. After his first voyage, Christopher Columbus believed that he had
• A) discovered a New World.
• B) failed at what he had set out to do.
• C) sailed to the outskirts of the East Indies.
• D) sailed around the world.
• E) reached the shores of Japan.
• 34. Columbus called the native people in the “New World” Indians because
• A) that was what they called themselves.
• B) he believed that he had skirted the rim of the “Indies.”
• C) it was a form of the Spanish word for heathen.
• D) the Vikings had first called them by that name.
• E) all of the above.
• 35. All of the following contributed to the emergence of a new interdependent global economic system except
• A) Europe providing the market and capital.
• B) Africa providing the labor.
• C) the belief of European explorers to create new cultures.
• D) New World providing its raw materials.
• E) the advancement and improvement of technology.
• 36. Which of the following New World plants revolutionized the international economy?
• A) maize
• B) potatoes
• C) beans
• D) tomatoes
• E) all of the above
• 37. The introduction of American plants around the world resulted in
• A) rapid population growth in Europe.
• B) many illnesses, caused by the new germs contained in these food-stuffs.
• C) an African population decline.
• D) very little change.
• E) an increase in obese people.
• 38. European contact with Native Americans led to
• A) the Europeans’ acceptance of the horse into their culture.
• B) the deaths of millions of Native Americans, who had little resistance to European diseases.
• C) the introduction into the New World of such plants as potatoes, tomatoes, and beans.
• D) an increase in the Native American population.
• E) the use of tobacco by Native Americans.
• 39. Within a century after Columbus’s landfall in the New World, the Native American population was reduced by nearly
• A) 50 percent.
• B) 20 percent.
• C) 70 percent.
• D) 90 percent.
• E) 40 percent.
• 40. European explorers introduced ____________________ into the New World.
• A) syphilis
• B) maize
• C) tobacco
• D) smallpox
• E) pumpkin
• 41. The flood of precious metal from the New World to Europe resulted in
• A) a price revolution that lowered consumer costs.
• B) the growth of capitalism.
• C) a reduced amount of trade with Asia.
• D) more money for France and Spain but less for Italy and Holland.
• E) little impact on the world economy.
42. The institution of encomienda allowed the
• A) native people to enslave members of other tribes.
• B) Europeans to marry Native Americans.
• C) European governments to give Indians to colonists if they promised to Christianize them.
• D) governments of Europe to abolish the practice of Indian slavery and to establish African slavery.
• E) Europeans to establish an economy based on capitalism.
• 43. Men became conquistadores because they wanted to
• A) gain God’s favor by spreading Christianity.
• B) escape dubious pasts.
• C) seek adventure, as the heroes of classical antiquity had done.
• D) satisfy their desire for gold.
• E) all of the above.
• 44. The Aztec chief Moctezuma allowed Cortés to enter the capital of Tenochtitlán because
• A) Cortés’s army was so powerful.
• B) Montezuma believed that Cortés was the god Quetzalcoatl.
• C) there was little in the city of interest to the Spanish.
• D) he was told to by the gods.
• E) all of the above.
• 45. In which of the following is the explorer mismatched with the area he explored?
• A) Coronado—New Mexico and Arizona
• B) Ponce de León—Mississippi River Valley
• C) Cortés—Mexico
• D) Pizarro—Peru
• E) Columbus—Caribbean islands
• 46. Spain began to fortify and settle its North American border lands in order to
• A) protect its Central and South American domains from encroachments by England and France.
• B) gain control of Canada.
• C) gain more slaves.
• D) find a passage to the Pacific Ocean.
• E) look for gold in Florida.
• 47. As a result of Pope’s Rebellion in 1680,
• A) the Pueblo Indians destroyed every Catholic church in the province of New Mexico.
• B) the Pueblo Indians were destroyed.
• C) the Spanish destroyed Pueblo temples and erected Catholic churches on those sites.
• D) the Spanish missionaries suppressed native religions.
• E) the French gained control of Mexico.
• 48. The treatment of the Native Americans by the Spanish conquistadores can be described as
• A) at times brutal and exploitative.
• B) firm but fair.
• C) unmotivated by greed.
• D) scornful of intermarriage.
• E) leaving little of Spanish culture.