APUSH Chapter 1-2 Terms

Treaty of Tordesillas
Definition:
-An agreement between Portugal and Spain that created an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean
-Everything discovered west of it was Spain’s, east was Portugal’s
Significance:
-Portuguese became dissatisfied with the agreement because the Spanish were given more land
-helped prevent conflict over the land
Corroboration:
Conquistadors
-The Treaty of Tordesillas allowed the conquistadors of Spain to claim land for Spain in the New World with less conflict
conquistadors
Definition:
-A word for a Spanish explorer in the New World
-Wanted to conquer natives, dominate lands, use natural resources, and get gold
Significance:
-They created a large empire for Spain from Mexico to Chile
-Destroyed native populations
Corroboration:
Encomienda System:
-The conquistadors established the encomienda system to facilitate their colonization by using forced labor
New Laws of 1542
Definition:
-A series of laws that were created to regulate the Spanish enslavement of Native Americans
-Very unpopular among New World settlers
Significance:
-The laws were so unpopular that they led to a civil war in Peru
-Restricted the formation and continuation of encomiendas
Corroboration:
Encomienda System:
-The New Laws were created in an attempt to abolish the encomienda system
-As a result, the large landowners had less power
We will write a custom essay sample on
APUSH Chapter 1-2 Terms
or any similar topic only for you
Order now
Encomienda system
Definition:
-A system used by Spaniards in which Indians were given to colonists to use for labor
-In exchange, the Spaniards made attempts to convert them to Christianity
Significance:
-Provided labor to colonists at a certain cost (paid some natives a seasonal wage) so they could still make a profit from their crops
Corroboration:
New Laws of 1542:
The New Laws were put in place by King Charles to try and abolish the encomienda system
Asiento
Definition:
-A system where the Spanish brought slaves from West Africa after the Native Americans began dying from diseases and brutality
-Only Britain could sell slaves in the Spanish colonies (trade agreement)
Significance:
-The African slaves were used from labor so that the Spanish could continue to make a profit
-Gave Britain a monopoly on selling slaves
Corroboration:
Encomienda system:
Like the Encomienda System, the Asiento system used forced labor of an oppressed group for European profit
Indians:
Adena-Hopewell, Hokokam/Anasazi/Pueblos, Woodland mound builders
Definition:
Adena-Hopewell- a culture of the American Middle West
Hokokam/Anasazi/Pueblos: cultures of the American southwest
Woodland mound builders: cultures of the Eastern Woodland region
Significance:
A-H: built large burial mounds and had extensive trade networks
H/A/P: maize farming, sedentary villages, and sophisticated irrigation
Woodlands: shows how advanced/civilized the tribes were
Corroboration:
Conquistadors:
Native American tribes were oppressed and abused by conquistadors as well as other European explorers/settlers
Bartolome de Las Casas
Definition:
-A Spanish missionary who was disgusted and outraged by the poor treatment of Native Americans especially the encomienda system
Significance:
-Advocated for the rights of Native America s to King Charles of Spain
-sometimes known as the father of anti-imperialism and anti-racism
Corroboration:
Juan Gines de Sepulveda:
Bartolome de Las Casas argued against Sepulveda in the Valladolid debate, who advocated for Spanish conquest
Juan Gines de Sepulveda
Definition:
-he defended the Spanish “right” to conquer Native Americans
-he thought that the Native Americans were barbaric and savage
Significance:
-wrote “Democrates Alter”, the most important text of the era supporting Spanish conquest
-justified the poor treatment of the Native Americans
Corroboration:
Bartolome de Las Casas-
Juan Gines de Sepulveda argued against Las Casas in the Valladolid debate, who advocated for Native Americanrights
Iroquois League
Definition:
-consisted of 5 nations: Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk
-ended up defeated by disease
Significance:
-united to fight with Europeans and nearby tribes
-political organization inspired the founders of the United States
Corroboration:
Algonquian:
The Iroquois League was the main adversary of the Algonquians; both were large groups in the Eastern Woodlands
Algonquian
Definition:
one of the two major language groups of the Eastern Woodlands
-lived from E. Canada to Virginia
-made up of different tribes
Significance:
-became active in for trade after making contact with Europeans, notably the French and the Dutch
Corroboration:
Iroquois League:
The Algonquians were the main adversary of the Iroquois League; both were large groups in the Eastern Woodlands
Manitou
Definition:
-The Native American belief that nature is alive with spiritual power
Significance:
-this is the reason for Native Americans’ great respect for nature
-Native Americans wouldn’t waste anything that came from nature
Corroboration:
Algonquian:
The belief in Manitou originated in the Algonquian groups of Native Americans
Reciprocity
Definition:
-The practice of trading things with others for mutual benefit, especially privileges granted by one country to another
Significance:
-countries would reduce tariffs and other trade barriers if other countries agreed to do the same
Corroboration:
Asiento system:
As the Asiento system presented a mutually beneficial trade relationship between Spain and Britain, it demonstrates a general form of reciprocity
Protestant Reformation
Definition:
-a movement that sought to revive the Catholic church
-leaders included Martin Luther, John Calvin, and King Henry VIII
Significance:
-The reformation reduced the influence and power that the Catholic church had in Europe
-created religious groups that would go on to found colonies in American
Corroboration:
Anglican church:
During the Protestant Reformation, Henry VIII broke off from the Catholic Church and founded the Anglican Church
Columbian Exchange
Definition:
-a system of trade between Europe, the Americas, and Africa
-Europe gave the New World food, animals, and diseases
-Africa gave the New World slaves
-The New World gave Europe precious metals and raw materials
Significance:
-it was a trade relationship that connected the Eastern and Western hemispheres for the first time in history
-brought foreign goods and diseases to new territory
Corroboration:
Asiento system:
The Asiento system was what brought Africans to the Americas in the time that preceded the Columbian Exchange
Elizabeth I
Definition:
-She was a protestant Queen of England
-Made Protestantism the dominant sect of the Christian church in England
Significance:
-her protestant leanings increased rivalry between England and Catholic Spain
-helped England avoid a religious civil war
Corroboration:
Protestant Reformation:
Queen Elizabeth I supported this movement and therefore ruled England as a protestant nation
Roanoke/Sir Walter Raleigh
Definition:
-Roanoke was the first English settlement in the New World, built off the coast of North Carolina
-Sir Walter Raleigh founded this settlement
Significance:
-the settlement failed; mysteriously disappeared
-no one knows what happened to the people
-only found word “CROATOAN”
Corroboration:
joint-stock company:
After Raleigh’s failure, partiality due to lack of funds and supplies, the need need for joint-stock companies presented itself
Joint-Stock Company
Definition:
-they were created to make money to fund colonization in lieu of government funding
Significance:
-many early North American settlements were joint-stock companies
-allowed settlers to have more funding than they would get from a government
Corroboration:
Virginia Company:
The Virginia Company, which established Jamestown, was a joint-stock company
Virginia Company of London (the London Company)
Definition:
-a charter from King James for a settlement in the New World
-granted settlers same rights as Englishmen
Significance:
-led to the establishment of the first permanent English settlement in the New World
Corroboration:
Virginia Company of Plymouth:
The London Company, along with the Plymouth Company, made up the Virginia Company
Virginia Company of Plymouth (the Plymouth Company)
Definition:
-a charter from King James to establish a settlement on the coast of North America
Significance:
-founded a colony in Maine that was abandoned a year later
-later granted a patent to the Pilgrims at Cape Cod
Corroboration:
Virginia Company of London:
The Plymouth Company, along with the London Company, made up the Virginia Company (a joint-stock company)
Captain John Smith
Definition:
-Englishman who helped establish the first permanent English settlement in North America (Jamestown)
Significance:
-helped lead the Virginia Colony based in Jamestown
-led an exploration along Virginia rivers and the Chesapeake Bay
Corroboration:
Pocahontas:
Pocahontas saved John Smith after he was captured during an altercation with the Powhatans
Captain John Rolfe
Definition:
-English settler who first successfully cultivated tobacco as an export crop in Virginia
Significance:
-his cultivation of tobacco helped save Virginia from its bleak economic situation
Corroboration:
Pocahontas:
Captain John Rolfe married Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the Powhatan
Pocahontas
Definition:
-Native American daughter of the chief of the Powhatan tribe in the Jamestown area
Significance:
-saved John Smith after he was captured during an altercation with the Powhatan
Corroboration:
John Rolfe:
Pocahontas’s marriage to John Rolfe completed peace agreement after the first Anglo-Powhatan War
Headrights/ Head Right System
Definition:
-parcels of land (approximately 50 acres) given to the colonists who brought indentured servants to America
Significance:
-since it gave land to the settlers who brought indentured servants, the servants couldn’t find land after their contract of servitude expired (couldn’t vote)
Corroboration:
Virginia Company:
The Virginia Company employed the headright system to attract more colonists
Anglican church
Definition:
-the protestant national church of England
-the church was created by Henry VIII
Significance:
-once it spread to the New World, it provided unity for the English settlers
-distinguished them from other religious and ethnic groups
Corroboration:
Elizabeth I:
Queen Elizabeth ruled England under the teachings and principles under the Protestant Anglican church
Separatists
Definition:
-English protestants who would not pledge allegiance to the Church of England notable groups of separatists include Pilgrims, Quakers, and Baptists
Significance:
-most notable for their role in establishing the first form of self-government in the New World via the Mayflower Compact
Corroboration:
Plymouth Plantation:
One group of separatists, the Pilgrims, went on to found the Plymouth Plantations in Massachusetts
Puritans (Congregationalists)
Definition:
-believed the Anglican Church had too many Catholic ideas, and wanted to purify it
-believed in predestination
-primary religious group of New England
Significance:
-created a new form of religion that included a strong moral code and work ethic
-eventually spread to new places, like NE America
Corroboration:
Separatists:
-The separatists were a radical branch of the Puritans who wanted a thorough reform of the Anglican Church
Plymouth Plantation
Definition:
-the settlement established by the Pilgrims
-located in Cape Cod, Massachusetts
-created after they escaped religious persecution in England
Significance:
-one of the first successful English colonies in North America
-the site of the First Thanksgiving in 1621
Corroboration:
Separatists:
-The Plymouth Plantation was established by a group of separatists known as Pilgrims
William Bradford, “Of Plymouth Plantation”
Definition:
-the second governor of the Plymouth colony from 1621-1657
-he wrote the most complete account of the Pilgrims’ experience (“Of Plymouth Plantation”)
Significance:
-developed private land ownership
-helped colonists get out of debt
-helped colonists survive droughts, crop failures and Indian attacks
Corroboration:
Mayflower Compact:
William Bradford was one of the original signers of the Mayflower compact when the Pilgrims landed in 1620
Mayflower Compact
Definition:
-an agreement signed by the Pilgrims to form a government and submit to its rulings and regulations
Significance:
-sometimes called the first example of self-government in the Americas
-established a “civil body politic” under the authority of King James
Corroboration:
Plymouth Plantation:
The Mayflower Compact established the government of the Plymouth Plantation when the Pilgrims arrived

Custom writing services

×

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out