1870s – 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
six features of post-civil war manufacturing
Cheap energy, competition, decline in prices, need for more labor, shift from agricultural areas to cities.
Significance of Railroads
Major growth experienced around cities, especially Chicago. Where railroads go, people will follow.
One of the Big Four(men who invested in railroads) with Leland Stanford, he was involved in both railroads and shipping. He founded Newport News Shipping, the largest privately owned shipyard in the United States.
United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)
James J. Hill
Created the great northern railroad. probably the greatest railroad builder of all, he saw his railroad building as a public duty. also did the southern pacific railroad, completed in 1884.
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the Interstate Commerce Commission. Also prohibited rebates and pools, required railroads to publish rates, forbade discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line. Basically made regulations to stop a monopoly. No real enforcement but the courts backed it up.
Interstate Commerce Commission
created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland;regulate railroads (and later trucking) to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate other aspects of common carriers.
gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates and led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers.
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the “Robber barons”
Carnegie sold his company in 1900 for over 400 million to a new steel combination headed by JP Morgan. The new corporations, United States Steel, was the first billion dollar company and also the largest enterprise in the world, employing 168,000 people and controlling over 3/5th of the nations steel business
A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. Horizontal integration is an act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth.
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
Railroads and the supreme court
The supreme courts favored railroad corporations
He was a meat king that used a trust to get wealthy. It showed that wealth was dominating the common wealth.
In the 1800s he enlarged fresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and refrigeration. He monopolized the meat industry.
John D. Rockefeller
An American industrialist and philanthropist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. He kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance, his wealth soared and he became the world’s richest man and first U.S. dollar billionaire, and is often regarded as the richest person in history
John D. Rockefeller’s company that gained a monopoly over the world petroleum market with the practice of trusts and swift elimination of competition.
a consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service
a company whose primary business is owning a controlling share of stock in other companies
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
US vs. E.C. Knight
(1895) Congress wanted to bust a trust because it controled 98% of sugar manufacturing. Supreme court said no because it wasn’t interstate commerce which they do have the right to regulate. Severely weakend the Sherman Anti-Trust Act because it ruled that the federal government only applied interstate commerce
This scientist received more than 1,300 patents for a range of items including the automatic telegraph machine, the phonograph, improvements to the light bulb, a modernized telephone and motion picture equipment.
Railroads, Oil, Steel, Electricity
The “New South”
By the late 1860s, some Southerners were already calling for a more diversified economy — cotton was no longer “king.” Increasingly there was a move from farm to factory, and many people encouraged industrialization in the South and an increased capital investment in the Southern economy from outside sources.
Myth of the Lost Cause
A southern attempt to explain and justify the loss to the North. Religious ideology was heavily employed in order to argue that, although the South suffered a military defeat, it nevertheless achieved a moral victory. For example, imagery of Jesus was used to show how suffering and humiliation lead ultimately to spiritual fulfillment.
Editor of the Atlanta Constitution, preached about economically diversified South with industries and small farms, and absent of the influence of the pre-war planter elite in the political world. Was a major advocate of the “New South”.
Southern Mill Economy
The textile mills that mushroomed the in the southern countryside in the 1880s that often became catalysts for the formation of new towns, country ways, and values in the south.
labor that requires specialized skills and training
labor that requires no specialized skills,education, or training
How does immigration affect labor?
Immigration creates a larger amount of available workers to the labor force, meaning that less jobs will be available. Also, immigrants often will work for lower wages and longer hours, undercutting the American worker.
Changes for women in the workplace
Women are able to obtain different types of jobs in a skilled sort of field. Gain social and economic independence. Families shrink as women work more and are less concerned in the family structure.
Gospel of Success
a belief system that provided justification for the growing gap between rich and poor during the Gilded Age; this belief (made popular by writers like Horatio Alger) centered on the claim that anyone could become wealthy with enough hard work and determination
Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote “rags to riches” books praising the values of hard work
“rags to riches” vs. reality
Horatio Alger’s wrote that anyone who worked hardly and was determined would be able to go from “rags to riches”. However, this wasn’t entirely true. Many workers were stuck in the manufacturing process working for limited wages. There are very few cases of “rags to riches” such as John D. Rockefeller. Many of America’s early millionaires came from a wealthy family.
National Labor Union
Created by William H. Sylvis in 1886; endorsed the 8-hr-day movement, end of convict labor, establishment of a federal dept. of labor, banking reform, higher wages, and restricted immigration. Had over 600,000 members. Attempted to unite all workers.
Knights of Labor
the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s. Its most important leader was Terence V. Powderly. The Knights promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman, rejected Socialism and radicalism, demanded the eight-hour day, and promoted the producers ethic of republicanism.
led the Knights of Labor, a skilled and unskilled union, wanted equal pay for equal work, an 8hr work day and to end child labor
Chinese Exclusion Act
Passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.
stop work in order to press demands
Led the AFL (American Federation of Labor), a skilled craft union, fought for wages and working conditions, they went on strike, boycotted and used collective bargaining
American Federation of Labor
Formed in 1886 and led by Samuel Gompers (1850-1924), this focused on securing for its members higher wages, better working conditions, and a shorter work week.
Goals of Labor Unions
Better working conditions: higher wages, better working conditions, and a shorter work week.
Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.
Haymarket Square Bombing
(1886) In Chicago, home to about 80,000 Knights of Labor and a few hundred anarchists that advocated a violent overthrow of the American government, tensions had been building, and on May 4, 1886, Chicago police were advancing on a meeting that had been called to protest brutalities by authorities when a dynamite bomb was thrown, killing or injuring several dozen people.
It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
This was a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. It was ended by the president due to the interference with the mail system, and brought a bad image upon unions.
court orders that prohibit a certain activity
Role of the government during strikes
They often sided with the big business owner or company
idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
Carnegie’s “Gospel of Wealth”
Philosophy that held that the wealthy should engage in philanthropy and use their great fortunes to create the conditions that would help people help themselves.
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
Wrote Looking Backward; said that captialism supported the few and exploited the many. character wakes up in 2000 after napping; says socialism will be on top in the end
book written by edward bellamy; described experience of a young bostonian who slept in 1887 and woke up in 2000 to find the social order changed, large trusts that had grown grew and combined to create one big one that would distribute the wealth among everyone and eliminate class divisions-called it nationalism
an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States
Apartment-style housing that was mainly used to house recent immigrants and their families. They had problems with overcrowding and it often became these families permanent housing.
Cult of Domesticity
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
education provided by a college or university
Morrill Land Grant Act
of 1862, in this act, the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of college; as a result 69 land- grant institutions were established.
Political Bosses and Machines
the person in control of a political machine (an organization linked to a political party that often controlled local government and local elections). Boss Tweed is a perfect example.
most notorious political machine; NY city; Boss Tweed became head in 1863. Gained notoriety from corrupt practices.
A political boss who controlled Tammany Hall, a political machine, and carried corruption to new extremes. He cheated the city out of more than $100 million. Was considered a Political Boss
Political cartoonist who’s work exposed the abuses of the Tweed ring, criticized the South’s attempts to impede Reconstruction, and lampooned labor unions. Created the animal symbols of the Democratic and republican parties.
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
The Social Gospel
Religious social-reform movement in the U.S., prominent from c. 1870 to 1920 among liberal Protestant groups. The movement focused on applying moral principles to the improvement of industrialized society and particularly to reforms such as the abolition of child labour, a shorter workweek, and factory regulation. Many of its aims were realized through the rise of organized labour and through legislation of the New Deal.
Jane Addams and Hull House
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
An advocate for improving the lives of women and children. (Social Welfare). She was appointed chief inspector of factories in Illinois. She helped win passage of the Illinois factory act in 1893 which prohibited child labor and limited women’s working hours.
Recreation in the late 1800s
Mainly boxing and baseball
A type of inexpensive variety show that first appeared in the 1870s, often consisting of comic sketches, song-and-dance routines, and magic acts
Literature in the Late 1800s
Mainly led by Mark Twain, who revolutionized the literature field with great story telling abilities.
Master of satire. A regionalist writer who gave his stories “local color” through dialects and detailed descriptions. His works include The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, “The Amazing Jumping Frog of Calaverus County,” and stories about the American West.
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
Theodore Dreiser’s novel; single woman who moved to city and worked in shoe factory but then turned to prostitution due to poverty
A leading architect of skyscrapers in the late nineteenth century, stressed the need for building designs that followed function. His works combined beauty, modest cost, and efficient use of space.
economist, wrote Theory of the Leisure Class, condemned conspicuous consumerism, where status is displayed and conveyed through consumption.
“from follows function”
the design of the building is for what it would be used for ( scott building)
Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America’s greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
broke the Old World traditions in art, and was vigorously American in his paintings of New England maritime life and other native subjects.
became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor. Also worked to outlaw saloons as step towards strengthening democracy.
Grand Army of the Republic
a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army, US Navy, US Marines and US Revenue Cutter Service who served in the American Civil War.
The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a specie-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war
1881, Republican, Greenback Labor Party, Republican – protective tariff, Democrats – revenue tariff, shot by Julius Guiteau (mental unstable, thought unfair spoils system)
Appointed customs collector for the port of New York – corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield’s running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.
Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883
an act that had government officials, who would appoint federal jobs, take a merit system test to make sure they were the right people to choose the best people
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
(BH) 1890 , In 1890, an act was passed so that the treasury would by 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly and pay those who mined it in notes that were redeemable in either gold or silver. This law doubled the amount of silver that could be purchased under the Bland-Allison Law of 1878.
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
Republican candidate for president in 1884, quintessence of spoils system; highly disgusted the mugwumps (many Republicans turned to Democrat Cleveland)
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party’s nominee, James G. Blaine.
23rd President; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history
Patrons of Husbandry
a group organized in 1867, the leader of which was Oliver H. Kelley. It was better known as the Grange. It was a group with colorful appeal and many passwords for secrecy. The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers.
Munn vs. Illinois
A Supreme Court Case that allowed the state governments to regulate the railroads in favor of farmers or Grangers
Originally the Patrons of Husbandry, was a group organized in 1867, the leader of which was Oliver H. Kelley. It was better known as the Grange. It was a group with colorful appeal and many passwords for secrecy. The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers. During the late 1800’s, the Grange, strove to regulate railway rates and storage fees charged by railroads, warehouses, and grain elevators through state legislation. These laws that were passed, but eventually reversed, are referred to as the Granger Laws.
Wabash vs. Illinois
1886 – Stated that individual states can control trade in their states, but cannot regulate railroads coming through them. Congress has exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce. States cannot regulate or place restrictions on businesses which only pass through them, such as interstate transportation.
Method used to deny African-Americans the vote in the South that tested a person’s ability to read and write – they were done very unfairly so even though most African-Americans could read and write by the 1950’s they still failed.
required citizens of a state to pay a special tax in order to vote
Property ownership required
in some states in order to vote, decreased over time, still only white men
in some states in order to vote, decreased over time, still only white men
Civil Rights Act
outlawed racial discrimination in public places such as hotels, theaters, and railroads but required African Americans to take their cases to federal court, a time-consuming and costly endeavor. The act was ruled uncostitutional in 1883
Civil Rights Cases 1883
A case in which the court ruled that Congress could not legislate against the racial discrimination practiced by private citizens, which included railraods, hotels, and other businesses used by the public.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
a case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was “equal”
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book “Up from Slavery.”
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
a wealthy Ohio quarry owner turn populist who led a protest group to Washington D.C. to demand that the federal government provide the unemployed with meaningful work (during the depression of 1893). The group was arrested and disbanded peacefully in D.C. movements like this struck fear into American’s hearts
(GC2) 1894, This tariff passed by Congress in 1894 restricted US sugar imports. The tariff led to an economic downturn in Cuba, and in turn helped to increase the anger of Cuban natives against colonial Spain. Was 40% rate compared to McKinley Tariff, however again he was defeated on tariff program
The twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last veteran of the Civil War to be elected. By the 1880s, this Ohio native was a nationally known Republican leader; his signature issue was high tariffs on imports as a formula for prosperity, as typified by his McKinley Tariff of 1890. As the Republican candidate in the 1896 presidential election, he upheld the gold standard, and promoted pluralism among ethnic groups.
William Jennings Bryan
This Democratic candidate ran for president most famously in 1896 (and again in 1900). His goal of “free silver” (unlimited coinage of silver) won him the support of the Populist Party. Though a gifted orator, he lost the election to Republican William McKinley. He ran again for president and lost in 1900. Later he opposed America’s imperialist actions, and in the 1920s, he made his mark as a leader of the fundamentalist cause and prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Monkey Trial.
Cross of Gold Speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the “gold bugs” who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
Passed in 1897, the highest protective tariff in U.S. history with an average duty of 57%. It replaced the Wilson – Gorman Tariff, and was replaced by the Payne – Aldrich Tariff in 1909. It was pushed through by big Northern industries and businesses.
Assigned specific gold value to the dollar (standardized value of US currency); confirmed US commitment to gold standard
Alfred Thayer Mahan
a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890
The Influences of Sea Power upon History
1890, A history of naval warfare written in 1890 by Alfred Thayer Mahan. It details the role of sea power throughout history and discusses the various factors needed to support and achieve sea power, with emphasis on having the largest and most powerful fleet. Scholars consider it the single most influential book in naval strategy; its policies were quickly adopted by most major navies.
expansionist who blended racist and religious reasons to justify American expansion in the 1880s and 1890s; he saw the Anglo-Saxon race as trained by God to expand throughout the world and spread Christianity along the way.
Annexation of Hawaii
U.S. wanted Hawaii for business and so Hawaiian sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free, Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893, William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii in 1898
extreme patriotism; favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba’s independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Hearst vs. Pulitzer
in 1890s circulation war erupted between Pulitzer’s and Hearst’s . In a contest of yellow journalism, the newspapers y to attract readers. Pulitzer introduced the first comic strip. Both played leading roles in molding public opinion about the conflict between Spain and its Cuban colony. The papers reported Spanish atrocities in exaggerated detail, but neglected to mention Cuban misdeeds. Both repeatedly called for armed intervention, then later, all-out war.
A private letter written by Enrique Depuy de Lome, Spainish Minister to U.S, critized President Mckinley call him “weak” and “a bidder for the admiration of the crowd”
Sinking of USS Maine
an explosion sunk it killing 250 American sailors, prob. caused by a fire, the public blamed the Spanish and called for war.
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba’s sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, “Square Deal,” Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixure of Ivy League athletes and western frontiermen, volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Enlisted by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.