Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History
Alfred Thayer Mahan was a Naval Admiral who was a very effective advocate of imperialism. In the book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, Mahan claimed that countries with sea power were the great nations of history. Mahan also believed that America should at least acquire defensive bases in the Caribbean and the Pacific and take possession of Pacific islands like Hawaii. DIPLOMATIC.
Pan-American Conference (1889)
The Pan-American Conference in 1889 was a meeting for the Pan-American Union, an international organization for cooperation on trade and other issues. This Union was first introduced by James G. Blaine of Maine in order to establish closer ties between the United States and its southern neighbors. DIPLOMATIC.
The Cubans began revolting the 1800s, leading to the internment of Cubans in Spanish camps, causing a death of almost an eighth of the population. America intervened, and Cuba gained independce in 1901. DIPLOMATIC.
Jingoism was a foreign policy of strong patriotism. During the 19th century in the United States, journalists called this attitude spread-eagleism. POLITICAL.
Yellow Journalism is a form of Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers. Yellow Journalism was one of the causes of the Spanish-American War (1898). Newspaper publishers like Hearst and Pulitzer sensationalized news events (like the sinking of the Maine) to anger American public towards Spain. CULTURAL (and in this case, diplomatic).
The Spanish-American War was fought between the U.S. and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba’s independence as well as the U.S. annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. DIPLOMATIC.
The Teller Amendment was drafted by Henry M. Teller which declared that the U.S. had no desire for control in Cuba and pledged the U.S. would leave the island alone. DIPLOMATIC.
Much of the Spanish-American War was fought in the Philippines. After the war, the U.S. gained territory here. The people revolted, but were quickly put down. DIPLOMATIC.
George Dewey was a United States Naval Officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War. Dewey led the American attack on the Philippines. DIPLOMATIC.
Maine was an American battleship that was blown up off the coast of Cuba in 1898, killing 260 Americans. The explosion was blamed on the Spanish, and provided a reason for starting the Spanish-American War. McKinley, though, believed it to be an accident. DIPLOMATIC.
The Big-Stick Policy was Theodore Roosevelt’s method for achieving American goals in the Caribbean. This policy featured the threat and use of military force to promote America’s commercial supremacy, to limit European intervention in the region, and to protect the Panama Canal. DIPLOMATIC.
Puerto Rico; Guam
After the Spanish American War, Guam and Puerto Rico were given to the U.S. DIPLOMATIC.
The Anti-Imperialist League objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case. The Philippines were annexed in 1900. DIPLOMATIC.
Insular Cases were court cases dealing with islands and countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Philippines. DIPLOMATIC.
Platt Amendment (1901)
The Platt Amendment was an amendment added to Cuba’s constitution by the Cuban government after pressure from the United States. This amendment provided that Cuba would make no treaties that compromised its independence or granted concessions to other countries without U.S. approval. The amendment was abrogated in 1934. DIPLOMATIC.
John Hay was the Secretary of State in 1899. Hay dispatched the Open Door Notes to keep the countries that had spheres of influence in China from taking over China and closing the doors on trade between China and the U.S. DIPLOMATIC.
The Boxer Rebellion was a rebellion in Beijing, China in 1899 that started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the “foreign devils”. The rebellion was ended by British Troops. DIPLOMATIC.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901)
The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty was a treaty signed between the United States and Great Britain, giving Americans a free hand to build a canal in Central America. The treaty nullified the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850, which prohibited the British or U.S. from acquiring territory in Central America. DIPLOMATIC.
The Panama Canal is a ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers. This canal opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000. POLITICAL.
The Roosevelt Corollary was Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine. It stated that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South and Central America by using military force. DIPLOMATIC.
Great White Fleet
The Great White Fleet was a fleet of American Naval ships sent on a world tour by Roosevelt to show off to the world the U.S. Naval power. This fleet also put pressure on Japan to join the “Gentlemen’s Agreement.” DIPLOMATIC.
The Russo-Japanese War was a conflict between Russia and Japan over Korea, Manchuria, etc. This war began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both Russia and China sent representatives to Portsmouth, New Hampshire where Theodore Roosevelt mediated. Here, they created the Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace prize for his efforts. DIPLOMATIC.
Treaty of Portsmouth (1905)
The Treaty of Portsmouth was a treaty, written in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, that ended the Russo-Japanese war in 1905. Theodore Roosevelt mediated this treaty. DIPLOMATIC.
The Lodge Corollary was a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge and ratified by the U.S. Senate in 1912. This forbade any foreign power or foreign interest of any kind to acquire sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere so as to put that government in “practical power of control”. DIPLOMATIC.
Moral Diplomacy was a policy adopted by President Woodrow Wilson that rejected the approach of “dollar diplomacy”. Rather than focusing mainly on economic ties with other nations, Wilson’s policy was designed to bring right principles to the world, preserve peace, and extend to other peoples the blessings of democracy. POLITICAL.
Dollar Diplomacy was a foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support for the right to “help” countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically, it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean. DIPLOMATIC.
John J. Pershing and Expeditionary Force
John J. Pershing was the commander of an American expeditionary force of over 1 million troops who insisted his soldiers fight as independent units so the U.S. would have independent role in shaping the peace. POLITICAL.