Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan
Wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History, which argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance;it stimulated the naval race among the great powers.
Reverend Josiah Strong
Author of “Our Country: Its possible Future and Its present crisis”, summoned Americans to spread their religion and values to the “backward” peoples
Annexation of Hawaii
U.S. wanted Hawaii for business and so Hawaiian sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free, Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893, William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii in 1898
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Dupoy de Lome
Spanish minister, in Washington, he wrote a letter where he called President McKinley weak and bitter. The letter was stolen and delivered to Hearst, who played it up using yellow journalism.
A ship stationed near Cuba which exploded on February 15, 1898. The explosion was blamed on the Spanish, and provided a reason for starting the Spanish-American War. Evidence to the contrary was ignored in the rush to War
Act of Congress in 1898 that stated that when the United States had rid Cuba of Spanish rule, Cuba would be granted its freedom. It prevented Cuba from turning hostile towards the U.S.
volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish-American War
26th President of the United States, hero of the Spanish-American War; Panama Canal was built during his administration; said ‘Speak softly but carry a big stick’ (1858-1919)
Pacific island that was acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War
Given to the US by Spain as a payment for the cost of the Spanish American War
Spanish colony in the Pacific whom the US helped free from the Spanish, but soon after took as their own colony
objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900
Foraker Act of 1900
Congress accorded the Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular gov’t and in 1917, granted then US citizenship. Worked wonders in education, sanitation, transportation, + more
Constitution didn’t have full authority of how to deal with islands (Puerto Ricans & Cubans subject to American rule, but didn’t have all rights)
This amendment to the new Cuban constitution authorized U.S. intervention in Cuba to protect its interests. Cuba pledged not to make treates with other countries that might compromise its independence, and it granted naval bases to the United States, most notable being Guantanamo Bay.
Secretary of State John Hay
Created the Open Door Note
Open Door Note
Message delivered by John Hay in the summer of 1899 to the nations of the world, begging them to respect Chinese rights and influence in the spirit of fair competition.
A Chinese secret society that blamed the country’s ills on foreigners, especially missionaries, and rose in rebellion in 1899-1900
An industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. The campaign manager of McKinley in the 1896, in what is considered the forerunner of the modern political campaign, and subsequently became one of the most powerful members of the U.S. Senate.
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
An agreement with Japan where Japan agreed to limit immigration, and Roosevelt agreed to discuss with the San Francisco School Board that segregation of Japanese children in school would be stopped. The agreement prevented a war that would have been caused by California, who was in Japan’s eyes, oppressing their children.
Pledged the U.S. and Japan to respect each other’s territorial possessions in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door Policy in China.
Secretary of State under Cleveland, he was authorized by the President to deliver a message to London that the British were ignoring the Monroe Doctrine in their attempt to dominate Venezuela.
the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests
Valeriano “Butcher” Weyler
Spanish General in Cuba who herded many civilians into barbed-wire reconcentration camps so they could not help the insurrectos. Called “Butcher Weyler” because hundreds of thousands of people died in his concentration camps
Commodore George Dewey
Commodore during the Spanish-American War who captured the Philippines and Guam. Followed Roosevelt’s order to attack Spanish forces in the Philippines when war was declared; completely destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed at Manila Bay. His victory shed light on the adjusted purpose of war with Spain, from just freeing Cuba to stripping Spain of all of its colonies.
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.
General William R. Shafter
The grossly overweight commander of the American forces invading Cuba in 1898.
Colonel Leonard Wood
commanded the Rough Riders.
wrote about “The White Man’s Burden,” urging America to keep the Philippines and “civilize them.”
William H. Taft
Roosevelt’s handpicked successor. Taft was a Republican lawyer from Ohio and was associated with the “Old Guard” or very conservative politicians. He favored protective tariffss and trust regulation.
Dr. Walter Reed
Doctor who was the head of the Army’s Yellow Fever Commission. He proved that Yellow Fever and Malaria was transmitted by Mosquitoes.
James G. Blaine’s policy, which sought better relations with Latin America
McKinley and the U.S. were trying to assimilate the Philippines to help them become better. American dollars went to the Philippines to improve roads, sanitation, and public health. Although the U.S. might have looked intrusive, they were actually trying to improve the condition of the Philippines.
The Isthmus of Panama had been part of Columbia. U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal. Columbia refused, so U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt. Example of Big Stick diplomacy.
Agreement in 1903 Agreement that gave the United States unending sovereignty over a 10 mile wide canal across the Isthmus of Panama
Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
[aka Yellow Terror] color metaphor for race that originated in late-19th with immigration of Chinese laborers. term refers to skin color of East Asians and the belief that mass immigration of Asians threatened white wages and standards of living
Great White Fleet
16 American battleships, painted white, sent around the world to display American naval power.
Latin America’s view on America
The act of having a conflict resolved by an independent 3rd party; “Teddy was an arbitration to Russia and Japan.”
Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land
Forced movement of large numbers of people into detention camps for military and political reasons
an act of extreme cruelty
a condition; a stipulation
a prisoner who is held by one party to insure that another party will meet specified terms
assimilation into American culture
Sphere of Influence
the geographical area in which one nation is very influential
the act of dividing or partitioning
a member of the aristocracy
having or showing a ready disposition to fight
the state of having been made ready or prepared for use or action (especially military action)
a proposition that follows from one already chosen
A payment for damage or loss
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
William R. Hearst
Vigorous promoter of sensationalistic anti-Spanish propaganda and eager advocate of imperialistic war
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist